Franciscan friar of the Aragon province. He also wrote an elucidation of the rule of Francis Lucerna. Digitized via Googe Books. Lucerna fratrum minorum et Expositio Bullae eugenianae Leipzig, This work can be read and downloaded via the digital collections of the Munich State Library. Madrid, V, nos. Milan Bibl. French friar. Prolific author and polemicist on matters of moral theology, demonic influences, mendicant life, etc. Accessible via Google Books. Seuerin, L'amour eucharistique victorieux des impossibilitez de la nature et de la morale, contenant plusieurs discours pour l'octave du S.
Par le R. Jacque d'Autun Accessible via Archive. La Vie de S. The edition is accessible via Google Books.
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Amour and the mendicants in the 13th century. Magnificat [ trad. In versi volgari del Magnificat ]: Naples, Naz. Tavola per trovare le lettere Domenicali : Naples, Naz. Born at Coutances Manche. Entered the Capuchin order in the Normandy province in Was active in his province as a lector of theology, definitor, and long-time novice master.
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Prolific author of exegetical, theological and polemical works. Rouen: J. Le Boullenger, , , , The edition is available on Google books. Concordantia Breviarii Romani, ubi omnes materiae praedicabiles in solo breviario contentae rediguntur et indicantur Paris, Elucidatio paraphrastica Apocalypsis beati Joannis Apostoli , 2 Vols.
Sbaralea, Supplementum ed. Taught at Paris in the last decade of the thirteenth century, where he reached the magisterium theologiae , and acted as regent ca. He still figures as master of theology in June , when he refused to support a summon of the French king Philippe le Bel to sign a document directed against pope Boniface VIII, as a result of which Quesnoy together with John Duns Scotus and a range of other Parisian masters who also refused to sign had to leave France within three days.
Doucet has provided arguments to assign to Quesnoy some quodlibetal questions. In a forthcoming article, Sylvain Piron will argue that an ascription to Raymond Rigaud is the most plausible option. The Thirteenth Century , ed. Primera parte de el Arbol chronologico de la Spanish friar and preacher. Several of his works have survived, namely: sermons, a confessional handbook, a summa of moral theology, a treatise on the sacrament of penance, and a short devotional guide.
Praxis confessionalis et explicatio propositionum damnatarum a S. Jacobo de Corella, Petro Francisco de Como, Francisco Maria Gradiscano typis J. Cassini, LThK ,2 nd ed. Jacobus de Grumello early sixteenth cent. Italian friar from Grumello Bergamo. Taught theology at the Bergamo convent before he became vicar of the Observant province of Brescia. During this period, he obtained a name as public preacher. Giacomo died in the convent of Feltre. Wadding, Annales , an. Jacobus de Gubbio - French friar, possibly from Lens in Artois.
Author of several sets of model sermon collections, which were published in Paris between and Editions available via Google Books. Zawart, ; De Troeyer, Bio-Bibl. Ante S. Voorstudies Nieuwe reeks. Filips van Meroni; V. Jacobus de Lenda', Franciscana 27 p. Born in Monteprandone Ascoli Piceno. Entered the Observant branche of the Franciscan order c. Maria degli Angeli after studies of the liberal arts at Ascoli, and studies of canon and civil law at the university of Perugia. Took his profession under the name of Giacomo on August 1, Et incepi predicare in festo sancti Antonii de Padua in sancto Salvatore prope Florentiam Maria La Nuova at Naples.
In the same manuscript BAV Vat. Lat , Giacomo states f. Bernardino, these qualifications of the preacher are elaborated further ed. Pacetti, AFH 36 , 84ff. Franciscus duo notabilia. Secundo, non scandalizosum contra proximum, verbis simulatis infamando aliquem,vel ex invidia vel odio unus predicator contra alium, quia tales depredicationibus Dei effecti sunt predicatores blasfemie. Paulus nolebat quod fierent collectas in predicatione … Quarto, non predicet adulando, ut placeat populo.
Unde Ysaie … Quinto, non predicent res inutiles sibi et populo. Unde Ysidorus …. Sexto, non predicent subtilia, que non possunt capi a populo, sed ut se ostendat valentem hominem. Unde Ieronimus … Septimo, quod predicatio sua non sit contra seipsum cum mala vita. Unde Paulus ad Romanos 2 cap. Quod sunt quatuor: Primum predicare contra vitia; secundum predicare virtutes; tertium penam; quartum gloriam vite eterne. Numquam defecit expugnare divinas offensas; numquam defecit dirigere devios ad vitam eternam; numquam defecit defensare Ecclesiam Dei; numquam defecit manifestare gloriam Dei.
Known for his many preaching journeys, and his attempts to reform the morals of Italian city life. Founder of several lay confraternities and of institutions meant to subvert illegal money lending activities so-called Montes Pietatis. Active as inquisitor alongside of John of Capistran, against remnants of the fraticelli, in , and independently in Hungary and Italy in , crusade preacher against the Turcs, and commisioner of the order in Bosnia , Hungary and Italy. He tried in vain to reconcile the conventuals and the observants on request of Calixtus III.
Eventually, Pope Pius II had to order both parties both inquisitors to keep silent on the subject. Giacomo was an avid book collector. His personal library counted no less than manuscripts. See on this esp. Giacomo died at Naples on 28 November Just like the other foremen of the Italian Observance, Giacomo left a large number of sermons, in which he developed his moral theology, expressed his themes of reform, and fulminated against the sins of his time luxuria, vanitates mulierum, sodomia, ludi, usuria, etc. On the basis of his own sermon manuscripts, written and compiled during his preaching career, Giacomo eventually distilled a more or less finalized series of Sermones Quadragesimales and Sermones Dominicales Latin model sermons, following the main rules of the Artes Praedicandi , and no direct witnesses of his vernacular preachingstyle.
For his preaching style, we might refer to the surviving reportationes of two sermons held at Padua in The Latin Sermones Dominicales have been edited by Lioi. The Sermones Quadragesimales still await their first critical edition. Alongside of his sermons, he engaged in the production of treatises mostly reworked sermons for the preparation of the sacrament of penance.
Isidore library, the Bib. An exhaustive listing of his works is made in Dionysius Lasic, De vita et operibus S. Iacobi de Marchia. Studium et Recensio Quorundam Textum Falconara, Campus Florum October : Monteprandone Lioi, Picenum Seraphicum 7 , Summula Iuridico-moralis : Cf. Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , [Moral theological summa for confession and instruction purposes meant for incumbent priests, with guidelines for consecration of the altar, the rites of baptism, rules for confession, papal dispensations, excommunication].
II, sermons. Iacobi de Marchia in cod. The Vat. Post 70am ff. Feria post LX, ff. Xle, ff. In XLam, ff. XLe, ff. Post I. Maria Magdalena feria 5 post dom. Passione feria 6 post dom. Central Cod. Monasterii S. Michaelis Cod. Ascona , Biblioteca Francescana Cod. Comunale cod. G ff. For editions of these sermons the vernacular version is known as the Regola per ben confessarsi , see below. Sermones Domenicales.
Iacobus de Monte Prandone or. Etate viginti duorum annorum in nomine Domini ingressus sum in ordinem s. Francisci, de mense iulii Et incepi predicare in festo s. Antonij de Padua in S. Salvatore prope Florentiam Et dimisi predicationem in festo s. Bernardini, de mense madii , manu propria: - habens etatem septuaginta quinque annorum. Among the 98 topics listed in this alphabetical index Lasic, , which refer to the 85 sermons in the manuscripts, the following are directly geared to straightforward catechistic issues although many of the other items in the list touch on comparable themes of moral and religious instruction, and on social issues that were the hallmark of Observant preaching and have connections with the guidebooks for living a Christian life that stem from the same period : De baptismo refers to sermon on f.
De fide refers to sermons on ff. After this list, the sermons themselves start on f. Francisco ff. Bernardino ff. Bernardini f. Petro Apostolo ff. Pauli ff. Secundum sententiam apostoli Pauli I. Animalis homo non percipit … Ubi de isto ineffabili et mirabili sacramento faciemus Ve contemplationes, quarum: 1.
Quantum ad eius honorificationum; 2. Quantum ad eiusdem figurationem; [3a. Quantum ad eiusdem amirationem, later addition]; 3b. Quantum ad eiusdem institutionem; 4. Quantum ad eiusdem sustentationem; 5. Quantum ad eiusdem beneficii receptionem. Ad primum dico … ; De Eodem ff. Maria Magdalena ff. Tria namque quelibet oratio seu petitio, ut acceptabilis fiat, ante largitorem continere debet: 1. Acaptare benevolentiam apud largitorem; 2. Quod petitio sit utilis honesta et necessaria; 3. Quod sit brevis et generosa. Et ista tria continet sancta Oratio Dominica … ; De peccato originali ff. The remainder of the manuscripts contains some extracts of the Koran, papal bulls on the blood of Christ, Johan Climacus etc ff.
Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , ff, , Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , [mentions thirteen manuscripts with sermon collections that do not constitute full Sunday and Quaresimal cycles. These seem to be autograph manuscripts containing varies series of sermon skeletons written down by Giacomo in the course of his preaching career between the late s and the s. Giacomo used many sermons from these manuscripts to construct his final Quadragesimale and Dominicale.
Bernardino ], as well as S. Iacobus de Marchia, Sermones Dominicales , ed. Lioi Falconara M. Clemente 54 ff. Francisci : Sydney, Univ. Nicholson 20 ff. Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , , De Confessione In Latin and in the Italian vernacular : See the eleventh sermon in the Quadragesimale, which circulated widely on its own as well and was edited repeatedly. Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , , , , Liber Miraculorum fr. Gabrielis Anconitani : Cf. Censura in fr. Mariae Gratiarum iuxta Montem Brandonum : Cf.
Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , Ex Praelectionibus A. Jacobu de Marchia SS. Josephum Defendendas susceperunt VV. Lasic, De Vita et Operibus , , , See also the editions below. Sermones Dominicales, ed. Renato Lioi, 4 Vols. See also: Robert J. I and MS Monteprandone 38 as point of departure, contains 99 sermons: 1. Dominica prima de adventu: De iudicio I, ; 2. In eadem dominica: De signis adventus antechristi I, ; 3. Dominica secunda adventus: De iudicio I, ; 4.
In eadem dominica: De vanitate mulierum I, ; 5. Dominica 3 adventus: De baptismo I, ; 6. In eadem dominica: De modestia I, ; 7. Dominica 4 adventus: De ruina superborum I, ; 8. In eadem; De iudicio et consummatione seculi I, ; 9. Dominica infra octavam nativitatis: De sancta virginitate I, ; In eadem dominica: De ludo I, ; Dominica infra octavam Epyphanie: De honore parentum I, ; In eadem: De reverentia et honore parentum I, ; Dominica 2 post Epiphanyam: De matrimonio I, ; In eadem: De nuptiis I, ;Dominica 2a post Ephipaniam: De sacramento confessionis: utilissimus I, ; In eadem dominica; De confessione I, ; Dominica 3 post Epyphaniam: De luxuria I, ; In eadem: De furto et restitutione utilissima I, ; Dominica 4 post Epyphaniam: De blasfemia I, ; In eadem dominica: De sanctissima pace et unitate I, ; Dominica in LXX: De perseverantia ; In eadem: De predestinatione I, ; In eadem: De temptatione I, ; Dominica Le; De sacramento confessionis I, ; In eadem: De passione I, ; Dominica XLe: De sortilegiis I, ; In eadem dominica XLe: De influentiis constellationum I, ; Dominica 2 XLe: De sodomia I, ; In eadem dominica: De matrimonio I, ; In eadem dominica: De usuris II, ; In eadem dominica: De adventu Missie II, ; In eadem dominica: De fide II, ; Dominica resurrectionis Domini: De resurrectione II, ; In eadem Dominica: De resurrectione II, ; In eadem dominica: De fide catholica II, ; Dominica 2 post Pasca: sermo ad clerum II, ; In eadem dominica: De iniquitate peccati mortalis II, ; Dominica 3a post pasca: De sancta obedientia II, ; In eadem: De excellentia et utilitate sacre religionis II, ; In eadem dominica: De impedimentis illorum qui non possunt credere veritati II, ; In eadem dominica: De septem petitionibus et oratione dominica II, ; Dominica in octava Ascensionis: De horrendo peccato homicidii II, ; In eadem dominica: De sancto martirio II, ; In eadem dominica: De perfecta dilectione proximi super epystolam II, ; De excellentia elimosine et eius merito: Dominica 2a post Pentecosten II, ; Dominica eadem: De mercantia et contractibus super evangelium II, ; Dominica 3a: De honorificentia et benevolentia angelorum II, ; In eadem dominica: De similitudine et beneficiis anime II, ; Dominica 4a: De mirabilibus significationibus navis II, ; In eadem dominica: De miseria humana II, ; De gloriosa iustitia: Dominica 5 II, ; In eadem dominica: De honorificentia pacis et indulgentie II, ; Dominica 6: De iniquitate peccati mortalis II, ; Dominica eadem: De elimosina et eius excellentiis II, ; Dominica 7: De orribilitate mortis peccatoris II, ; Dominica octava: De immortalitate anime II, ; Dominica eadem: De reddenda ratione bombardarum II, ; Dominica 9: De factuchiariis II, ; In eadem dominica: De signis exterminii II, ; Dominica X: De sancta humilitate et virtutibus eius II, ; In eadem dominica: De gratia et eius virtute III, ; In eadem dominica: De amore divino et eius signis III, ; Dominica De sacramento sancte confessionis III, ; Dominica De inani gloria et eius vitio III, ; Dominica De celebratione et honore diei dominice III, ; Dominica De iniustitia querela conquerentium de bonis fortune III, ; De vera spe et eius dulcedine: in eadem Dominica III, ; Dominica De detractione et eius iniquitate III, ; Dominica De honorificentia et virtute sacre comunionis III, ; De voto et eius obligatione: Dominica 21  III, ; De pace et remissione iniuriarum: in eadem Dominica III, ; De periuro et eius malignitate: Dominica 20  III, ; Dominica 22 post Pentecosten: sermo gloriosus de anima III, ; Dominica De septem vitiis III, ; Dominica De antechristo III, ; In addition, we find in an appendix to volume III a Sermo de malignitate peccati mortalis: Dominica eadem III, ; a sermo de mirabili virtute patientie dominica 17, III, ; and a Sermo de mirabili gloria et beneficio angelorum erga homines:in eadem dominica [resurrectionis] III, Et hoc ex multis de causis.
Primo, ut ab omnibus sciatur; secundo, ut melius memoretur; tertio, ut frequenter dicatur; quarto, ut orans tedio non afficiatur; quinto, ut nemo de eius ignorantia excusetur; sexto, ut Dominus cito exaudire ostendatur; septimo, ut magis corde quam ore legi debeatur. Secundo, assuefacere eos ad minus in septennio et ante et post ad confessionem et ecclesiarum visitationem, ut devotos et reverentes circa spiritualia se habeant. Jacobi de Marchia de Excellentia Ordinis S. Francisci ex codice autographo , ed. Bernardino , ed. Pacetti, AFH 36 , ; ed.
Predica sulla bestemmia , ed. Sermo Secretus ad Clerum , ed. Pacetti, Collectanea Franciscana 11 , [In this sermon, held in the context of his function of examinator of the clergy, Giaccomo complains that he has found sermonists and clerics who were ignorant and did not know the Ten Commandments and the articles of faith.. Studi sulla predicazione medievale , ed.
Olschki Editore, , Dialogus Contra Fraticellos, ed. Also edited by E. Baluze in Idem, Miscellanea , ed. Mansi Lucca, II, Preface edited in L. La Confessione del B. Francesco a. Regola per ben confessarsi. Massi, Regola per ben confessarsi di S. Giacomo della Marca , Unpublished Diss. From ca. Iacobi de Marchia an. For other letters, see: E. Giacomo alla Compagnia di S. See also the interpretatory corrections of M. Venantius Fabrianensis, Vita.
Edited on the basis of ms BAV Vat. Giacomo della Marca per fra Venanzio da Fabriano , ed. Marino Sgattoni Zara, ; La vita di S. Giacomo della Marca secondo gli antichi codici di Fr. Venanzio da Fabriano , ed. Umberto Picciafuoco Monteprandone, See on this vita also: T. Giacomo della Marca scritta da Fr. Venanzio da Fabriano O. For other vitae , see L. Crivellucci, I codici della libreria raccolta da S.
Giacomo della Marca nel Convento di S. Giacomo della Marca pubblicati in occasione del Il Centenario della sua canonizzazione , 2 Vols. Ascoli Piceno-Offida, ; G. Caselli, Alcuni codici di S. Bernardino recitato a Padova nel da S. Girolamo in Perugia fondata da S. La Nova, Naples, , ; Cenci, Napoli! Giacomo della Marca', Picenum Seraphicum 10 , ; D. Lasic, De vita et operibus S. Giacomo della Marca , due opuscoli Naples, ; S.
Giacomo della Marca taumaturgo del regno di Napoli Naples, ; U. Picciafuoco, Giacomo de Marchia Uomo di cultura-apostolo-operatore social-taumaturgo del sec. Picciafuoco, La vita di S. Giacomo della Marca secondo gli antichi codici di fr. Bernardino da Siena in due sermoni di S. Giacomo della Marca Naples, [extract from Studi e ricerche francescane 9 , ]; A. Etzkorn et. Atti del Convegno internazionale distudi.
Monteprandone, settembre , ed. II, f. Giacomo della Marca. Aspetti teologico-pastorali della predicazione francescana del sec. XV Diss. Bracci Milan, [cf. Uomo di cultura — Apostolo — Operatore sociale — taumaturgo del sec. Miscellanea di studi in onore di P. Crociata, martirio e predicazione nel Mediterraneo Orientale secc.
Atti del Convegno Internazionale di studi Monteprandone, novembre , ed. Giacomo della Marca Lo Studium del Convento del Monte e la cultura dell'Osservanza francescana. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di studi Monteripido, 5 novembre , ed. Itinerari archivistici per una ricostruzione biografica', ; Paolo Evangelisti, ''Quis enim conservat civitatem, status et regimina?
San Giacomo della Marca a Napoli Conclusioni', Atti del Convegno Macerata-Sarnano, november , ed. Atti del Convegno internazionale, dicembre , ed. Laudatis eum? Wattenbach p. The anti-Gregorian writers, reflecting the policy of Henry IV. The imperial theory was laid down at Brixen, , that any one assuming to be pope without such assent, was an apostate, si quis sine assensu romani principis papari praesumeret, non papa sed apostata ab omnibus haberetur. See Mirbt, Die Wahl, etc. Abridged from Ep. This picture is true, and we need not wonder that he often longed to retire to the quiet retreat of a convent.
He adds in the same letter that, if it were not for his desire to serve the holy Church, he would not remain in Rome, where he had spent twenty years against his wish. He was thus suspended between sorrow and hope, seized by a thousand storms, living as a dying man. He compared himself to a sailor on the high seas surrounded by darkness. And he wrote to William the Conqueror, that unwillingly he had ascended into the ship which was tossed on a billowy sea, with the violence of the winds and the fury of storms with hidden rocks beneath and other dangers rising high in air in the distance.
In both these respects Gregory left an abiding impression upon the thought and practice of Latin Christendom. Even where we do not share his views we cannot help but admire his moral force and invincible courage. The Gregorian Theocracy. The Hildebrandian or Gregorian Church ideal is a theocracy based upon the Mosaic model and the canon law. It is the absolute sovereignty of the Church in this world, commanding respect and obedience by her moral purity and ascetic piety.
By the Church is meant the Roman Catholic organization headed by the pope as the vicar of Christ; and this hierarchical organization is identified with the Kingdom of God, in which men are saved from sin and death, and outside of which there is no ordinary salvation. No distinction is made between the Church and the Kingdom, nor between the visible and invisible Church.
Besides this Church no other is recognized, not even the Greek, except as a schismatic branch of the Roman. This ideal is the growth of ages. It was prepared for by pseudo-Isidor in the ninth, and by St. Augustine in the fifth century. Augustine, the greatest theological authority of the Middle Ages, first identified the visible Catholic Church with the City or Kingdom of God. In his great apologetic work, De Civitate Dei, he traced the relation of this Kingdom to the changing and passing kingdoms of this world, and furnished, we may say, the programme of the mediaeval theocracy which, in theory, is adhered to by the Roman Church to this day.
Augustine, as having in his De Civitate Dei clearly set forth the true principles on this subject for all time to come. New York, The pseudo-Isidorian Decretals went further: they identified the Catholic Church with the dominion of the papal hierarchy, and by a series of literary fictions carried this system back to the second century; notwithstanding the fact that the Oriental Church never recognized the claims of the bishops of Rome beyond that of a mere primacy of honor among equal patriarchs. The glory of the Church was the all-controlling passion of his life.
He held fast to it in the darkest hours, and he was greatest in adversity. Of earlier popes, Nicolas I. But in him papal absolutism assumed flesh and blood. He was every inch a pope. He anticipated the Vatican system of ; in one point he fell short of it, in another point he went beyond it. He did not claim infallibility in theory, though he assumed it in fact; but he did claim and exercise, as far as he could, an absolute authority over the temporal powers of Christendom, which the popes have long since lost, and can never regain.
Hildebrand was convinced that, however unworthy personally, he was, in his official character, the successor of Peter, and as such the vicar of Christ in the militant Church. He constantly appealed to the famous words of Christ, Matt.
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The pope inherits the lofty position of Peter. He is the Rock of the Church. He is the universal bishop, a title against which the first Gregory protested as an anti-Christian presumption. He is intrusted with the care of all Christendom including the Greek Church, which never acknowledged him. He has absolute and final jurisdiction, and is responsible only to God, and to no earthly tribunal. He alone can depose and reinstate bishops, and his legates take precedence of all bishops.
He is the supreme arbiter in questions of right and wrong in the whole Christian world. He is above all earthly sovereigns. He can wear the imperial insignia. He can depose kings and emperors, and absolve subjects from their oath of allegiance to unworthy sovereigns. Among his favorite Scripture quotations, besides the prophecy about Peter Matt. Gregory again and again expressed his feeling of personal unworthiness in such expressions as cui licet indigni et nolentes praesidemus, Reg.
Dictatus Papae, Migne, , sq. Comp: the note of Gieseler, II. I quote a few: Quod illi liceat imperatores deponere. Quod Romana Ecclesia numquam erravit, nec in perpetuum, Scriptura testante, errabit. Quod catholicus non habeatur, qui non concordat Ecclesiae Romanae. Quod a fidelitate iniquorum subjectos potest absolvere. He would have liked to lead an army of soldiers of St.
Peter for the conquest of the Holy Land, and the subjection of all rebellious monarchs. He projected the first crusade, which his second successor carried out. We must consider more particularly his views on the relation of Church and State. Public opinion in the Middle Ages believed neither in co-ordination nor separation of the two powers, but in the subordination of one to the other on the basis of union.
Church and State were inseparably interwoven from the days of Charlemagne and even of Constantine, and both together constituted the Christian commonwealth, respublica Christiana. There was also a general agreement that the Church was the spiritual, the State, the temporal power. But the parties divided on the question of the precise boundary line. It was a conflict between priestcraft and statecraft, between sacerdotium and imperium, the clergy and the laity.
The imperialists emphasized the divine origin and superior antiquity of the civil government, to which even Christ and the Apostles were subject; the hierarchical party disparaged the State, and put the Church above it even in temporal affairs, when they conflicted with the spiritual. Emperors like Otto I. Gregory compares the Church to the sun, the State to the moon, which borrows her light from the sun. He admits the necessity of the State for the temporal government of men; but in his conflict with the civil power he takes the pessimistic view that the State is the product of robbery, murder, and all sorts of crimes, and a disturbance of the original equality, which must be restored by the priestly power.
He combined the highest view of the Church and the papacy with the lowest view of the State and the empire. This principle he consistently acted upon. He concluded his second excommunication of Henry IV. Having such mighty power in spiritual things, what is there on earth that may transcend your authority in temporal things? And if ye judge the angels, who are high. See Mirbt, Publizistik, Letter of May 8, , to William of England. Gregory also compared the priesthood to gold and royalty to lead, Reg. Augustine likewise combines the two views of the origin of the State, and calls it both a divine ordinance and a "grande latrocinium," an enslavement of men in consequence of sin.
See Reuter,August. Studien, l. The letter to Hermann is also given in Mirbt, Quellen, Petrum dominus Jesus Christus, rex gloriae, principem super regna mundi constituit, Reg. Let the kings and princes of the earth know and feel how great ye are—how exalted your power!
Let them tremble to despise the commands of your Church! May he thus be confounded unto repentance, that his soul may be saved in the day of the Lord! Gregory always assumed the air of supreme authority over kings and nobles as well as bishops and abbots, and expects from them absolute obedience. Sardinia and Corsica he treated as fiefs.
For had not the Holy See made a grant of Spanish territory to a certain Evulus on condition of his conquering it from pagan hands? To Michael, Byzantine emperor, he wrote, expressing the hope that the Church of Constantinople as a true daughter might be reconciled to its mother, the Church of Rome. It was, indeed, a spiritual despotism; but it checked a military despotism which was the only alternative, and would 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Lupus rapax, etc.
Regnum Hungariae sanctae Romanae ecclesiae proprium est a rege Stephano beato Petri olim cum omni jure et potestate sua oblatum et devote traditum, Reg. The one point I agreed to, the other I did not agree to. Fealty I refused to do, nor will I do it, nor do I find that my predecessors did it to your predecessors. See Gee and Hardy, Documents of Eng. The Church, after all, represented the moral and intellectual interests over against rude force and passions.
She could not discharge her full duty unless she was free and independent. The princes of the Middle Ages were mostly ignorant and licentious despots; while the popes, in their official character, advocated the cause of learning, the sanctity of marriage, and the rights of the people. It was a conflict of moral with physical power, of intelligence with ignorance, of religion with vice. The theocratic system made religion the ruling factor in mediaeval Europe, and gave the Catholic Church an opportunity to do her best. Her influence was, upon the whole, beneficial. The enthusiasm for religion inspired the crusades, carried Christianity to heathen savages, built the cathedrals and innumerable churches, founded the universities and scholastic theology, multiplied monastic orders and charitable institutions, checked wild passions, softened manners, stimulated discoveries and inventions, preserved ancient classical and Christian literature, and promoted civilization.
The papacy struck its roots deep in the past, even as far back as the second century. But it was based in part on pious frauds, as the pseudo-Isidorian Decretals and the false Donation of Constantine. The mediaeval theocracy was at best a carnal anticipation of the millennial reign, when all the kingdoms of this world shall obey the peaceful sceptre of Christ.
The papacy degenerated more and more into a worldly institution and an intolerable tyranny over the hearts and minds of men. Human nature is too noble to be ruled by despotism, and too weak to resist its temptations. The State has divine authority as well as the Church, and the laity have rights as well as the clergy. These rights came to the front as civilization advanced and as the hierarchy abused its power.
It was the abuse of priestly authority for the enslavement of men, the worldliness of the Church, and the degradation and profanation of religion in the traffic of indulgences, which provoked the judgment of the Reformation. It is the close connection of these two characters that gives him such pre-eminence in history, and it is his zeal for moral reform that entitles him to real respect; while his pretension to absolute power he shares with the most worthless popes.
His Church ideal formed a striking contrast to the actual condition of the Church, and he could not actualize it without raising the clergy from the deep slough of demoralization to a purer and higher plane. His reforms were directed against simony and Nicolaitism. What he had done as Hildebrand, by way of advice, he now carried out by official authority. In the war on simony he was altogether right from the standpoint of Protestant as well as Roman Catholic ethics. The traffic in ecclesiastical dignities was an unmitigated nuisance and scandal, and doubly criminal if exercised by bishops and popes.
In his war on Nicolaitism, Gregory was sustained by ancient laws of the Roman Church, but not by the genuine spirit of Christianity. Enforced clerical celibacy has no foundation in the Bible, and is apt to defeat the sacerdotal ideal which it was intended to promote. The real power.
The motives of Gregory in his zeal for sacerdotal celibacy were partly monkish and partly hierarchical. Celibacy was an essential part of his ascetic ideal of a priest of God, who must be superior to carnal passions and frailties, wholly devoted to the interests of the Church, distracted by no earthly cares, separated from his fellow-men, and commanding their reverence by angelic purity. Celibacy, moreover, was an indispensable condition of the freedom of the hierarchy. He declared that he could not free the Church from the rule of the laity unless the priests were freed from their wives.
A married clergy is connected with the world by social ties, and concerned for the support of the family; an unmarried clergy is independent, has no home and aim but the Church, and protects the pope like a standing army. Another motive for opposing clerical marriage was to prevent the danger of a hereditary caste which might appropriate ecclesiastical property to private uses and impoverish the Church.
The ranks of the hierarchy, even the chair of St. Peter, were to be kept open to self-made men of the humblest classes, but closed against hereditary claimants. This was a practical recognition of the democratic principle in contrast with the aristocratic feudalism of the Middle Ages. Hildebrand himself, who rose from the lowest rank without patronage to the papal throne, was the best illustration of this clerical democracy. The power of the confessional, which is one of the pillars of the priesthood, came to the aid of celibacy.
Women are reluctant to intrust their secrets to a priest who is a husband and father of a family. The married priests brought forward the example of the priests of the Old Testament. This argument Damiani answered by saying that the Hebrew priest was forbidden to eat before offering sacrifices at the altar. How much more unseemly it would be for a priest of the new order to soil himself carnally before offering the sacraments to God! The new order owed its whole time to the office and had none left for marriage and the family life 1 Cor. Only an unmarried man who refuses to gratify carnal lusts can fulfil the injunction to be a temple of God and avoid quenching the Spirit Eph.
The question of abolishing it has from time to time been agitated, and in the exceptional cases of the Maronites and United Greeks the popes have allowed single marriage in deference to old custom and for prudential reasons. Pope Pius II. The hierarchical interest, however, has always overruled these better reasons. Whatever may have been the advantages of clerical celibacy, its evils were much greater. The sexual immorality of the clergy, more than anything else, undermined the respect of the people for their spiritual guides, and was one of the chief causes of the Reformation, which restored honorable clerical marriage, created a pastoral home with its blessings, and established the supremacy of conscience over hierarchical ambition.
From the standpoint of a zealous reformer like Gregory, the morals of the clergy were certainly in a low condition. No practice did he condemn with such burning words as the open marriage of priests or their secret cohabitation with women who were to all intents and purposes Contemporary writers like Damiani, d. While descriptions of rigid ascetics are to be accepted with caution, the evidence abounds that in all parts of Latin Christendom the law of priestly celibacy was ignored. There were bishops even in Italy who openly permitted the marriage of priests, as was the case with Kunibert of Turin.
The Enforcement of Sacerdotal Celibacy. Literature, special works: Henry C. Lea: A Hist. Boston, Dresdner: Kultur und Sittengeschichte der italienischen Geistlichkeit im 10 und 11 Jahrhundert, Berlin, The chief contemporary sources are Damiani de coelibatu sacerdotum, addressed to Nicolas II. Mirbt gives a survey of this literature, pp. Gregory completed, with increased energy and the weight of official authority, the moral reform of the clergy as a means for securing the freedom and power of the Church.
He held synod after synod, which passed summary laws against simony and Nicolaitism, and denounced all carnal connection of priests with women, however legitimate, as sinful and shameful concubinage. Not contented with synodical legislation, he sent letters and legates into all countries with instructions to enforce the decrees. A synod in Rome, March, , opened the war. It deposed the priests who had bought their dignity or benefices, prohibited all future sacerdotal marriage, required married priests to dismiss their wives or cease to read mass, and commanded the laity not to attend their services.
The same decrees had been passed under Nicolas II. The forbidding of the laity to attend mass said by a married priest, was a most dangerous, despotic measure, which had no precedent in antiquity. In an encyclical of addressed to the whole realm of Italy and Germany, Gregory used these violent words, "If there are presbyters, deacons, or sub-deacons who are guilty of the crime of fornication that is, living with women as their wives , we forbid them, in the name of God Almighty and by the authority of St.
Peter, entrance into the churches, introitum ecclesiae, until they repent and rectify their conduct. Many clergymen in Germany, as Lambert of Hersfeld reports, denounced Gregory as a madman and heretic: he had forgotten the words of Christ, Matt. They would 49 50 Mirbt, Publizistik, , says that there was no such thing as a general observance of celibacy in Western Europe. It will be remembered that in Spain, in the eighth century, King Witiza formally abolished the law of clerical celibacy. So Bonizo of Sutri ad amicum, lib. So Damiani.
See Mirbt, Gregory, Reg. Incontinentes sacerdotes et levitae The bishops were placed in a most embarrassing position. Some, like Otto of Constance, sympathized with the married clergy; and he went so far as to bid his clergy marry. When the bishops lacked in zeal, Gregory stirred up the laity against the simoniacal and concubinary priests. He exhorted a certain Count Albert October, to persist in enforcing the papal orders, and commanded Duke Rudolf of Swabia and Duke Bertolf of Carinthia, January, , to prevent by force, if necessary, the rebellious priests from officiating, no matter what the bishops might say who had taken no steps to punish the guilty.
He thus openly encouraged rebellion of the laity against the clergy, contrary to his fundamental principle of the absolute rule of the hierarchy. He acted on the maxim that the end sanctifies the means. Bishop Theodoric of Verdun, who at first sided in the main with Gregory, but was afterwards forced into the ranks of his opponents, openly reproached him for these most extraordinary measures as dangerous to the peace of the Church, to the safety of the clerical order, and even to the Christian faith.
Bishop Henry of Spires denounced him as having destroyed the episcopal authority, and subjected the Church to the madness of the people. When the bishops, at the Diet of Worms, deposed him, January, , one of the reasons assigned was his surrender of the Church to the laity.
But the princes who were opposed to Henry IV. They were stigmatized with the Milanese name of Patarini. Even Henry IV. Bishop Benzo, the most bitter of imperialists, did not wish to be identified with the Nicolaitan heretics. A contemporary writer, probably a priest of Treves, gives a frightful picture of the immediate results of this reform, with which he sympathized in principle. Slaves betrayed masters and masters betrayed slaves, friends informed against friends, faith and truth were violated, the offices of religion were neglected, society was almost dissolved.
The peccant priests were exposed to the scorn and contempt of the laity, reduced to extreme poverty, or even mutilated by the populace, tortured and driven into exile. Their wives, who had been legally married with ring and religious rites, were insulted as harlots, and their children branded as bastards. Many of these unfortunate women died from hunger or grief, or committed suicide in despair, and were buried in unconsecrated earth. Peasants burned the tithes on the field lest they should fall into the hands of disobedient priests, trampled the host under foot, and baptized their own children.
Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, d. William the Conqueror made no effort to enforce sacerdotal celibacy, except that the charge of concubinage was freely used as a pretext for removing Anglo-Saxon prelates to make room for Norman rivals. Lanfranc of Canterbury was a Hildebrandian,. In a letter to Sicardus, abp. This prohibition was repeated at a council held in London, , when Anselm occupied the see of Canterbury.
A profession of chastity was to be exacted at ordination to the subdiaconate and the higher orders. But no punishment was prescribed for the violation of these canons. Anselm maintained them vigorously before and after his exile. The temporal power was pledged to enforce this legislation. But Eadmer, the biographer of Anselm, sorrowfully intimates that the result was an increase of shocking crimes of priests with their relatives, and that few preserved that purity with which Anselm had labored to adorn his clergy.
In Spain, which was as much isolated from the Continent by the Pyrenees as England by the sea, clerical celibacy was never enforced before this period. The Saracenic invasion and subsequent struggles of the Christians were unfavorable to discipline. A canon of Compostella, afterwards bishop of Mondonego, describes the contemporary ecclesiastics at the close of the eleventh century as reckless and violent men, ready for any crime, prompt to quarrel, and occasionally indulging in mutual slaughter.
The lower priests were generally married; but bishops and monks were forbidden by a council of Compostella, in , all intercourse with women, except with mothers, aunts, and sisters wearing the monastic habit. A council at Girona, , forbade the ordination of sons of priests and the hereditary transmission of ecclesiastical benefices. A council at Burgos, , commanded married priests to put away their wives. But this order seems to have been a dead letter until the thirteenth century, when the code of laws drawn up by Alfonso the Wise, known as "Las Siete Partidas," punished sacerdotal marriage with deprivation of function and benefice, and authorized the prelates to command the assistance of the secular power in enforcing this punishment.
The Norman clergy in drove the archbishop of Rouen from a council with a shower of stones. William the Conqueror came to his aid in at a synod of Lillebonne, which forbade ordained persons to keep women in their houses. But clerical marriages continued, the nuptials were made public, and male children succeeded to benefices by a recognized right of primogeniture. William the Conqueror, who assisted the hopeless reform in Normandy, prevented it in his subject province of Britanny, where the clergy, as described by Pascal II.
At last, the Gregorian enforcement of sacerdotal celibacy triumphed in the whole Roman Church, but at the fearful sacrifice of sacerdotal chastity. The hierarchical aim was attained, but not the angelic purity of the priesthood. The private morals of the priest were sacrificed to 60 Concubinage and licentiousness took the place of holy matrimony. The acts of councils abound in complaints of clerical immorality and the vices of unchastity and drunkenness.
The War over Investiture. The other great reform-scheme of Gregory aimed at the complete emancipation of the Church from the bondage of the secular power. His conception of the freedom of the Church meant the slavery of the State. The State exercised control over the Church by selling ecclesiastical dignities, or the practice of simony, and by the investiture of bishops and abbots; that is, by the bestowal of the staff and ring.
The Church in many countries owned nearly or fully one-half of the landed estate, with the right of customs, tolls, coinage of money, etc. The secular lords regarded themselves as the patrons of the Church, and claimed the right of appointing and investing its officers, and of bestowing upon them, not only their temporalia, but also the insignia of their spiritual power.
This was extremely offensive to churchmen. The bishop, invested by the lord, became his vassal, and had to swear an oath of obedience, which implied the duty of serving at court and furnishing troops for the defense of the country. Sometimes a bishop had hardly left the altar when his liege-lord commanded him to gird on the sword. After the death of the bishop, the king or prince used the income of the see till the election of a successor, and often unduly postponed the election for his pecuniary benefit, to the injury of the Church and the poor.
In the appointments, the king was influenced by political, social, or pecuniary considerations, and often sold the dignity to the highest bidder, without any regard to intellectual or moral qualifications. The right of investiture was thus closely connected with the crying abuse of simony, and its chief source. No wonder that Gregory opposed this investiture by laymen with all his might. Cardinal Humbert had attacked it in a special book under Victor II. He insisted that investiture was a purely spiritual function, and that secular princes have nothing to do with the performance of functions that have something sacramental about them.
They even commit sacrilege by touching the garments of the priest. By the exercise of the right of investiture, princes, who are properly the defenders of the Church, had become its lords and rulers. Great evils had arisen out of this practice, especially in Italy, where ambitious priests lingered about the antechambers of courts and practised the vice of adulation, vitium adulationis.
Wido of Arezzo and Damiani expressed the same views. Of those who received lay investiture it began to be said "that they entered not in by the door,"non per ostium intraverant. The legislation against lay appointments was opened at the Synod of Rheims, , under the influence of Leo IX. It declared that no priest should be promoted to office without the election of clergy and people. Ten years later, , the Synod of Rome pronounced any appointment of cleric or presbyter to benefice invalid, which was made by a layman. The contest continued under the following popes, and was at last settled by the compromise of Worms The emperor yielded only in part; for to surrender the whole property of the Church to the absolute power of the pope, would have reduced civil government to a mere shadow.
On the other hand, the partial triumph of the papacy contributed very much to the secularization of the Church. The conflict over investiture began at a Roman synod in Lent Feb. The pope had the combined advantages of superior age, wisdom, and moral character over this unfortunate prince, who, when a mere boy of six years , had lost his worthy father, Henry III. Henry had a lively mind and noble impulses, but was despotic and licentious. Prosperity made him proud and overbearing, while adversity cast him down. His life presents striking changes of fortune.
He ascended and descended twice the scale of exaltation and humiliation. He first insulted the pope, then craved his pardon; he rebelled again against him, triumphed for a while, was twice excommunicated and deposed; at last, forsaken and persecuted by his own son, he died a miserable death, and was buried in unconsecrated earth.
The better class of his own subjects sided against him in his controversy with the pope. The Saxons rose in open revolt against his tyranny on the very day that Hildebrand was consecrated June 29, This synod of forbade the king and all laymen having anything to do with the appointment of bishops or assuming the right of investiture. He paid his soldiers from the proceeds of Church property, and adorned his mistresses with the diamonds of sacred vessels.
The pope exhorted him by letter and deputation to repent, and threatened him with excommunication. The king received his legates. This statement is based upon the authority of Arnulf of Milan. The decree itself is lost.
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Arnulf says, papa Si quis Imperatorum, Regum, Ducum, Marchionum, Comitum, vel quilibet saecularium potestatum aut personarum investituram episcopatus vel alicujus ecclesiasticae dignitatis dare praesumserit, ejusdem sententiae vinculo se adstrictum sciat. Probably with his knowledge, Cencius, a cousin of the imperial prefect in Rome, shamefully maltreated the pope, seized him at the altar the night before Christmas, , and shut him up in a tower; but the people released him and put Cencius to flight.
Henry called the bishops and abbots of the empire to a council at Worms, under the lead of Archbishop Siegfried of Mainz, Jan. This council deposed Gregory without giving him even a hearing, on the ground of slanderous charges of treason, witchcraft, covenant with the devil, and impurity, which were brought against him by Hugo Blancus Hugh Leblanc , a deposed cardinal. Only two bishops dared to protest against the illegal proceeding.
Henry secured the signatures of the disaffected bishops of Upper Italy at a council in Piacenza. Condemned by the voice of all our bishops, quit the apostolic chair, and let another take it, who will preach the sound doctrine of St. Peter, and not do violence under the cloak of religion. I, Henry, by the grace of God, king, with all my bishops, say unto thee, Come down, come down! Roland, a priest of Parma, brought the letter to Rome at the end of February, as Gregory was just holding a synod of a hundred and ten bishops, and concluded his message with the words. The prelates drew swords and were ready to kill him on the spot; but Gregory remained calm, and protected him against violence.
On the next day February 22 the pope excommunicated and deposed Henry in the name of St. Peter, and absolved his subjects from their oath of obedience. He published the ban in a letter to all Christians. The sentence of deposition is as follows: — "Blessed Peter, prince of the Apostles, incline thine ear unto me, and hear me, thy servant, whom from childhood thou didst nurse and protect against the wicked to this day.
Thou and my lady, the mother of God, and thy brother, St. Paul, are my witnesses that the holy Roman Church has drawn me to the helm against my will, and that I have not risen up like a robber to thy seat. Rather would I have been a pilgrim my whole life long than have snatched to myself thy chair on account of temporal glory and in a worldly spirit By thy intercession God has intrusted me with the power to bind and to loose on earth and in heaven.
There are several variations of the letter of Henry, but the tone of imperious defiance and violence is the same. For it is fitting that he who will touch the dignity of the Church should lose his own. And inasmuch as he has despised obedience by associating with the excommunicate, by many deeds of iniquity, and by spurning the warnings which I have given him for his good, I bind him in the bands of anathema; that all nations of the earth may know that thou art Peter, and that upon thy rock the Son of the living God hath built His Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
At the same time the pope excommunicated all the German and Italian bishops who had deposed him at Worms and Piacenza. This was a most critical moment, and the signal for a deadly struggle between the two greatest potentates in Christendom. Never before had such a tremendous sentence been pronounced upon a crowned head. The deposition of Childeric by Pope Zacharias was only the sanction of the actual rule of Pepin.
Gregory threatened also King Philip of France with deposition, but did not execute it. Now the heir of the crown of Charlemagne was declared an outlaw by the successor of the Galilean fisherman, and Europe accepted the decision. There were not wanting, indeed, voices of discontent and misgivings about the validity of a sentence which justified the breaking of a solemn oath. All conceded the papal right of excommunication, but not the right of deposition. If Henry had commanded the respect and love of his subjects, he might have defied Gregory.
But the religious sentiment of the age sustained the pope, and was far less shocked by the papal excommunication and deposition of the king than by the royal deposition of the pope. It was never forgotten that the pope had crowned Charlemagne, and it seemed natural that his power to bestow implied his power to withhold or to take away. He invited the faithful to pray, and did not neglect the dictates of worldly prudence. He strengthened his military force in Rome, and reopened negotiations with Robert Guiscard and Roger. In Northern Italy he had a powerful ally in Countess Matilda, who, by the recent death of her husband and her mother, had come into full possession of vast dominions, and furnished a bulwark against the discontented clergy and nobility of Lombardy and an invading army from Germany.
Bernried, Vita Greg. The papal sentence against Henry made a profound impression upon Western Europe. Bonizo says, universus noster romanus orbis contemruit, postquam de banno regis ad aures personuit vulgi. Writing to Hermann of Metz, Reg. The Council of Tribur, Oct. It answered both questions in the affirmative. When Henry received the tidings of the sentence of excommunication and deposition, he burst into a furious rage, abused Gregory as a hypocrite, heretic, murderer, perjurer, adulterer, and threatened to fling back the anathema upon his head. The council at Worms was attended by few bishops, and proved a failure.
A council in Mainz, June 29, turned out no better, and Henry found it necessary to negotiate. Saxony was lost; prelates and nobles deserted him. A diet at Tribur, an imperial castle near Mainz, held Oct. He should then appear at a diet to be held at Augsburg on Feb. Meanwhile he was to abide at Spires in strict privacy, in the sole company of his wife, the bishop of Verdun, and a few servants chosen by the nobles. The legates of Gregory were treated with marked respect, and gave absolution to the excommunicated bishops, including Siegfried of Mainz, who submitted to the pope.
Henry spent two dreary months in seclusion at Spires, shut out from the services of the Church and the affairs of the State. At last he made up his mind to seek absolution, as the only means of saving his crown. There was no time to be lost; only a few weeks remained till the Diet of Augsburg, which would decide his fate. The winter of — was one of the coldest and longest within the memory of men—the Rhine being frozen to a solid mass from November till April—and one of the most memorable in history—being marked by an event of typical significance.
The humiliation of the head of the German Empire at the feet of the bishop of Rome at Canossa means the subjection of the State to the Church and the triumph of the Hildebrandian policy. A few days before Christmas, Henry IV. He was accompanied by his wife with her infant son Conrad born August, and one faithful servant. She was young, beautiful, virtuous, and amiable; but he preferred to live with mistresses; and three years after the marriage he sought a divorce, with the aid of the unprincipled archbishop Siegfried of Mainz.
The pope very properly refused his consent. The king gave up his wicked intention, and. Reg IV. She was born to love and to suffer, and accompanied him as a comforting angel through the bitter calamities of his life. The royal couple passed through Burgundy and Susa under the protection of Count William and the mother of Bertha, and crossed Mont Cenis.
The queen and her child were carried up and lowered down the icy slopes in rough sledges of oxhide; some horses were killed, but no human lives lost. When Henry reached the plains of Lombardy, he was received with joy by the anti-Hildebrandian party; but he hurried on to meet the successor of Peter, who alone could give him absolution.
He left his wife and child at Reggio, and, accompanied by his mother-in-law and a few friends, he climbed up the steep hill to Canossa, where Gregory was then stopping on his journey to the Diet at Augsburg, waiting for a safe-conduct across the Alps. Canossa, now in ruins, was an impregnable fortress of the Countess Matilda, south of Reggio, on the northern slope of the Apennines, surrounded by three, walls, and including a castle, a chapel, and a convent.
Peter should be decided. Henry arrived at the foot of the castle-steep, Jan. He had an interview with Matilda and Hugo, abbot of Cluny, his godfather, and declared his willingness to submit to the pope if he was released from the interdict. But Gregory would only absolve him on condition that he would surrender to him his crown and forever resign the royal dignity. The king made the last step to secure the mercy of the pope: he assumed the severest penances which the Church requires from a sinner, as a sure way to absolution. For three days, from the 25th to the 28th of January, he stood in the court between the inner walls, as a penitent suppliant, with bare head and feet, in a coarse woolen shirt, shivering in the cold, and knocked in vain for entrance at the gateway, which still perpetuates in its name.
He first exacted from Henry, as a condition of absolution, the promise to submit to his decision at the approaching meeting of the German nobles under the presidency of the pope as arbiter, and to grant him and his deputies protection on their journey to the north. In the meantime he was to abstain from exercising the functions of royalty. The castle was destroyed by the inhabitants of Reggio in New Condition: New Soft cover. Save for Later. About this title Synopsis: A Manual of the Most Holy Rosary cnsisting of a brief description of the origins and history of the Rosary, prayers, devotions and variations of the same with writings from saints and popes compiled from approved sources.
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