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A group of Nazi naval officers and crewmen are stranded on Canadian soil we have no sympathy for the castaways, inasmuch as we have just seen them refusing food and water to a group of torpedoed British seamen. Led by lieutenant Eric Portman, the Nazis try to stir up sympathy amongst the Canadians, beginning with apolitical Quebeckian trapper Laurence Olivier.

Failing to convert Olivier—even by force—the Germans move on to a Hutterite farming community, where again they are unsuccessful in winning adherents though, conversely, German seaman Niall Mac Ginnis defects to the other side. They then cross the path of professorial author Leslie Howard, who is living amongst the Indians to soak up "local color". Even Howard proves too formidable for the Nazis, and by film's end the surviving invaders are hiding out in a train, where they are discovered and captured by AWOL Canadian soldier Raymond Massey.

Actually it's more business than pleasure: they are secret agents for the British, attempting to smuggle back information about a new superweapon being developed by the Nazis. Evil, mean, cruel and also wicked German officer Basil Rathbone imprisons and tortures Crawford though she still looks like a million bucks , but McMurray comes to the rescue, paving the way for a suspenseful race-to-the-border climax. The tenor of Above Suspicion can be summed up in a scene in which, after being confronted by a monolingual stormtrooper, Fred MacMurray says in English "Nuts to you, dope!

George Sanders stars as Gordon, an American newspaperman at large in Damascus. When a colleague is murdered, Sanders wants to find out why. He is helped along by glamourous secret agent Yvonne Virginia Bruce , who is on the trail of a group of Nazi saboteurs. It turns out that the murder is tied in with a plan to destroy the Suez Canal in the name of Der Fuehrer. Though economically produced, Action in Arabia benefits from several rather spectacular-looking scenes of desert combat-most of these lifted from a never-finished filmed biography of Lawrence of Arabia.

While running war goods to America's Russian allies, a merchant marine ship captained by Raymond Massey is torpedoed. The courage of Massey and his first mate Humphrey Bogart serves as an inspiration to the survivors, who manage to navigate their tiny lifeboat to America, where they are lauded as heroes. After only the briefest of compassionate leaves Massey is reunited with wife Ruth Gordon, while Bogart strikes up a relationship with Julie Bishop , the crew is assigned a new Liberty Ship.

Despite fears of being torpedoed again, Massey, Bogart, and the other men successfully bring their cargo to Russia, shooting down several German planes in the process. As the Americans are cheered on by the smiling, well-fed Russian seamen and peasants, Action in the North Atlantic fades out, with the voice of Franklin D. Roosevelt actually radio announcer Art Gilmore heard on the soundtrack encouraging a "United Nations" allegiance against the axis.

The supporting cast of Action in the North Atlantic includes a young newcomer by the name of Bernard Zanville, whose billing was changed to "Dane Clark" upon the film's release. Gable is Harry Patterson, the bosun mate on a merchant marine vessel, a tough sailor and fighter with the proverbial girl in every port.

But while in a San Francisco library, looking up a book on the human soul for his sidekick Mudgin Thomas Mitchell , who thinks his soul has departed his body, Harry meets librarian Emily Sears Greer Garson , whom he woos, marries, and leaves to sail off on another freighter.

When he returns, Emily has retreated to an old farm to await the birth of their child. Harry continues to resent staying in one place, but he ultimately changes his tune when his baby's life hangs in the balance. Garson and Joan Blondell, playing her outspoken best friend, are both terrific, and Gable gives a less heroic performance that's a thoughtful change for him, although critics at the time were less than charitable. When scheming Duke de Lorca Robert Douglas plots to topple the monarchy, it is Don Juan's eager young fencing pupils who come to the rescue.

Though a troubled production filming was habitually halted due to Flynn's precarious physical condition and by constant changes and replacements in production personnel ,The Adventures of Don Juan moves swiftly and enjoyably from start to finish, abetted by a rousing, semi-satirical Max Steiner musical score, which has since been heard in such s films as Zorro, the Gay Blade and Goonies.

Incidentally, Errol Flynn is doubled in the famous leap from the head of a long staircase by stunt expert Jock Mahoney. He begins with his recruitment and basic training before the war. There he discovers that his sergeant is one of his foes, and that both of them are fighting for the affection of the lovely sister of a fellow recruit who becomes terrified of flying and suffers a plane crash during training. Eventually all is overcome and the new squadron prepares to fly for the South Pacific. The two rivals end up landing on an island overrun by Japanese troops. They frantically try to repair their downed plane.

Later the brave sergeant sacrifices his life to save his rival who takes off and somehow makes it back to safety. Documentary film footage is included in the early parts of the film as the trainees get prepared for the task ahead. Robert Beatty plays the priest, Father Phillip, and Simone Signoret appears as an insurgent who falls in love with another of the trained resistors. The crew of the Mary Ann, including two new men, assistant radio man Private Chester Ray Montgomery and gunner Sergeant Joe Winocki John Garfield , assembles for the flight, and in the first 20 minutes, the movie reveals certain things about the crew: the shadowy past of one, the mother of another, and the wife of a third; two of them are good friends with the sister of McMartin Arthur Kennedy , the bombardier, who lives in Honolulu; the son of the senior member of the crew, Sgt.

White Harry Carey Sr. Then more characters make entrances: the aircraft commander Quincannon John Ridgely ; Weinberg George Tobias , a Jewish mechanic from New York; and a man from a farm in the upper Midwest — they all represent a broad cross-section of America as it saw itself, and the "regular guys" in the Army Air Force as it existed in The flight proceeds without incident.

Winocki, an embittered, washed-out flight school candidate who accidentally killed another pilot, is about to leave the service when the weather report from Hickam Field is interrupted, and the radio man begins picking up transmissions in Japanese. The Mary Ann and the rest of the squadron fly right into the middle of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor unarmed and out of gas, and nearly crack up landing on an emergency field; no sooner do they make repairs than the crew comes under attack, and the plane takes off and makes for Hickam Field, which they find a flaming shambles.

They fly on to the Philippines, stopping at Wake Island just long enough to meet a few members of the doomed Marine garrison, taking their company mascot, a dog, with them. At Clark Field, the Mary Ann and her crew finally go into action against the enemy, flying in alone against a Japanese invasion force; Quincannon is mortally wounded in the brief action, which leaves the plane damaged seemingly beyond repair. The remaining crew won't give up the plane, however, even when ordered to abandon and destroy her; they get the bomber off just ahead of the advancing Japanese, and survive to help bring retribution to the invading fleet and the Japanese empire.

And generally that is true about them — they were mostly no "about" much more than having fun for 90 minutes or so amid pretty sets with lots of action and some pretty women in exotic outfits. Hartmann, was able to totally get away from the day-to-day reality around him. The opening Mongol invasion of Bagdad and the murder of the old Caliph Moroni Olsen while trying to set up a government-in-exile without thinking of the German and Japanese conquests and occupations of various nations that would have been going on at the time; additionally, the fact that the old Caliph is murdered with the help of a traitor in his own noble ranks — a "quisling" in the term coined during World War II — wouldn't have been missed by audiences at the time.

Further, the screenplay very specifically paints the forty thieves as heroes who have gone from being criminals to an active resistance force against the occupying Mongols — indeed, at the denouement, their invasion of the palace is greeted as a day of liberation by the people of Bagdad. The movie walks a strange tightrope, casting about veiled topical references of that sort, even as is otherwise sufficiently tongue-in-cheek to cast Andy Devine as a desert bandit. Obviously, Ali Baba And The Forty Thieves was sold as — and mostly intended as — light entertainment, but just below that glitzy Technicolor surface were some fascinating allusions to the real world.

None of this stops Ali Baba And The Forty Thieves from being immense fun — it is, even if the "fun" isn't totally escapist in nature — and it's great to look at as well, even 60 years on; Universal has apparently kept preservation-quality source materials on this and Hall and Montez's other Technicolor costume romps. And this particular entry in that group of movies also contains one very instructive clue to the morays and censorship of the time in one scene, in which the hero meets the heroine bathing at an oasis — the makers seem to have been forced to insert a particular shot that is there for no other reason then to make it clear that she is not totally naked when he sees her.

The Runyonesque plot gets moving when Gloves tries to find out what's holding up his favorite restaurant's daily shipment of cheesecake. Paying a call on the bakery, Gloves stumbles into a Nazi spy ring, masterminded by Conrad Veidt. Mixed up in all this is nightclub singer Kaaren Verne, whose loyalties are in question in her early scenes but who turns out to be as true-blue as the patriotic Gloves. Combining a quick wit with quicker fists, Gloves and his "mob" thwart the Nazis before they're able to skip the country. The film's best scene would have us believe that Bogart could confound a gang of erudite Nazis with a steady stream of Manhattan slang.

The Apaches demand that the brothers turn over a crooked Indian agent who has been breaking treaties and selling whiskey with impunity, but Nolan and Lundigan won't do it, insisting that the miscreant be dealt with by the White Man's law. All the time he's dispensing anti-British propaganda over the airwaves, however, Wilson is actually a secret agent in the employ of the His Majesty's government. It is Wilson's intention to use his intimate relationship with the Germans to expose a worldwide Nazi spy ring.

Romance enter the picture in the form of Ilse Preissing Marguerite Chapman , the sister of a Nazi agent whose decision to join Wilson's side results in her death. Veteran movie villainess Gale Sondergaard also appears in the film, cast against type as a courageous British intelligence agent. Set during WW2, the film casts Aumont as Free French captain Metard, who bears a remarkable resemblance to Bertrand Conlay, a prisoner of the Allies whom is suspected of being a fifth columnist.

Posing as Conlay, Metard gains the confidence of the Nazi occupiers of Brittany.

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He plays his part to the hilt, even unto romancing Conlay's patriotic girlfriend Anne Pinot Susan Peters. This being a standard-issue "underground" melodrama, the film ends with a life-and-death contretemps with the Nazis, excitingly staged by director Jack Conway. Assignment in Brittany is based on the best-selling novel by Helen Macinnes. After General MacArthur decides to leave the Philippians, Madden agrees to stay behind and organize an underground resistance movement. Anthony Quinn plays Andres Bonifacio, a captain who falls in love with a local woman Fely Franquelli who helps the army keep their rag-tag forces as organized as possible.

Bonifacio must also deal with the pressure of being the grandson of a beloved Filipino leader. He ends up facing off with none other than the James Boys, the Daltons and other notorious fellows. Badman's Territory proved so successful that the formula was repeated several times by RKO and other studios. The first war film to take place entirely on the battlefield — with no scenes of the soldiers on leave, depictions of the home front, or flashbacks to pre-war civilian life — Bataan prepared its wartime audience for American casualties.

Its Alamo-esque storyline emphasized the value of such sacrifice and its diverse group of soldiers —compiled of all ranks, races, classes, ages, and creeds — portrayed this effort as the duty of all men. It is a depiction of altruism and national unity that both inspired public support of the War and served as the template for World War II films throughout the forties and into the present.

The result was an award-winning box-office hit, as well as the beginning of the end of Mayer's power. This dramatization of the battles of Bastogne and the Bulge in the waning days of World War 2 concentrates on a single infantry unit. Van Johnson and John Hodiak are the ostensible stars, but the film is stolen by James Whitmore as the cigar-chomping, battle-stained sergeant.

Also appearing is Ian MacDonald as General McAuliffe, whose legendary response to the Nazi's suggestion that the Americans surrender consisted of a single four-letter expletive: "Nuts". See also John A. Watterson and 26 Feb. Shaffer to TR, in Frederick S. The trip was aimed at undoing some of the damage done to his Southern reputation by the Booker T.

Washington dinner. Another purpose was to reconnoiter the extraordinarily complicated South Carolina patronage situation. For a lucid discussion, see Willard B. Walker court-martial, Manila, 8 Apr. McKee to Edward W. Carmack, 28 Apr. General Adna R. After the massacre at Balangiga 26—27 Sept.

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When, e. Welsh to Carl Schurz, 30 Apr. The rumors regarding the beef trust proved accurate. Hewitt Port Washington, N. See Review of Reviews , Apr. Coletta, ed. New York World , 26 Oct. Lyman, 15 Feb. Another imaginative Filipino technique included the slitting open of American bodies and stuffing them with United States Army mess provisions. Gould, Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt , Thompson, Party Leaders , 58—71; George F. This incident occurred on 18 May See Healy, United States in Cuba , — TR to J. Apparently, Henry Cabot Lodge had bet him he could not do it. For a discussion of the question of presidential succession at this time, see George F.

On 6 Mar. Clerkships and other administrative positions were made subject to the civil-service law. Theodore G. Llewellyn, qu. No previous President had delivered a Memorial Day address at Arlington. The volcanic map was provided courtesy of Philippe Bunau-Varilla. Hill and the transcontinental railroads. He was actually conducting a filibuster, in order to have no canal at all. New York Journal , 17 June For a detailed discussion of the reciprocity issue, see United States Tariff Commission, The Effects of the Cuban Reciprocity Treaty of , miscellaneous series, no.

Tariff Commission, Effects. Richardson, ed. Embarrassingly for TR, the Message was preceded by a press revelation that Leonard Wood had used government funds for reciprocity propaganda. TR had spoken out on the subject of reclamation as early as Nov. Actually, Newlands and other lawmakers representing both Eastern and Western interests had been working on sketches for the Reclamation Act since But TR managed, with considerable skill, to merge the best features of all these proposals into a bill that overcame powerful Republican opposition in Congress.

See TR, Letters , vol. Newlands Bloomington, Ind. See Samuel P. See also Review of Reviews , Apr. At least one bribe of ten thousand dollars in cash was offered to Senator Fred T. Morgan to Henry Watterson, 10 Dec. See also Healy, United States in Cuba , Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt , Strangely, however, TR was still boasting about her pregnancy at the end of that month.

Possibly EKR kept the news from him. A year later, she miscarried again. Wister had just published his epochal Western novel, The Virginian. It was dedicated to TR. Eliot, President of Harvard University, — Boston, , vol. More than two weeks later, John Hay was still marveling. Hay, Letters , vol. Chronological Note: The war had lasted forty-one months. Their terrorism was to sputter on through most of his Presidency. Dooley , — James Roosevelt to author, 4, 5, 19, 20 Apr.

Philip Roosevelt, privately held. Other agents were stationed twenty-four hours a day in a hotel in the village and at the station. Any given visitor was scrutinized at least three times en route to Sagamore Hill. See Walter S. Bowen and Harry E. Curtis in Chicago Record-Herald , 12 July Sagamore Hill is now invisible from Oyster Bay, but a contemporary photograph in Cheney, Personal Memoirs , 6, shows Sagamore Hill clearly visible across the water. When Archibald B. Archibald B. Roosevelt, Jr.

See also Kerr, Bully Father , Philip Roosevelt interview, 24 Oct. See also Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. They are not taught to turn the other cheek if they are struck; they are told to hit back and hit hard. I want my boys to grow up manly and gently. Chicago Record-Herald , 12 July It took TR just eighteen days, from 5 to 22 July, to read this mammoth work. William H. Taft to Elihu Root, 26 Mar. For a discussion of the Vatican holdings, see Harbaugh, Life and Times; — The dismissal was announced on the sixteenth.

It made TR highly unpopular with the Army, and was seen even by anti-imperialists as a stern and cathartic punishment. For negative public reactions to it, see Literary Digest , 9 Aug. Taft to TR, 27 Oct. Bickel and Benno C. Schmidt, Jr. In , the song was sung as a waltz. Roosevelt interview, 7 June TR had been peripherally involved in the coal strike since early June. For background to the anthracite strike, see Donald Miller and Richard E.

See also Victor R. This concession amounted to a personal triumph for Mitchell, who argued passionately against a national strike. The deputy, Thomas Bedall, was the nephew of Sheriff S. Rowland Bedall. Their identical surnames have confused some historians—e. Harriman, 16 Aug. Harriman to TR, 18 Aug. Lovering in Boston Journal , 23 Aug. Lord, 12 Aug. Lovering in Boston Journal , 4 Sept. Local GOP organizers had snubbed the mayor by putting him far back in the welcoming parade.

Annoyed by their discourtesy, TR mentioned the mayor by name in his speech, and afterward granted him the only private audience of his visit. This gentlemanly behavior, widely reported, was not lost on ordinary Americans. Harriman could Providence Sunday Journal , 24 Aug. TR felt somewhat responsible for a current drought in GOP campaign contributions, brought about by the Northern Securities prosecution. Blum in The Progressive Presidents: Roosevelt, Wilson, Roosevelt, Johnson New York, , 29, for saying nothing against the trusts that had not already been said by, e.

But as Galambos, Public Image , , points out, popular anger against the trusts had cooled by TR sought to rekindle it by restating old truths in his new, harsh, twentieth-century voice. For reactions to his antitrust oratory on tour, see Literary Digest , 6 Sept. Lovering, who covered the trip for the Boston Journal , was driving along Bayshore Drive in Miami and noticed an old Pullman car in a siding, silhouetted against the moonlight of Biscayne Bay. Bright in gold leaf I read by the sputtering glow of an arc lamp, Mayflower.

I put my hand affectionately on the polished railing of the observation platform. Time fell into retreat. It was September again in the Berkshires. Eckstrom to C. Ames, 30 Aug. See also The Washington Post , 28 Aug. Adee, 30 Aug. Reillumination of the room disclosed a wall of Secret Service agents around the President.

Boston Herald and Philadelphia Press, 1 Sept. Girls Boston Journal , 4 Sept. Meyer, 1 Oct. The New York Times , 4 Sept. But at least two contemporary reporters quoted it verbatim New York World and Lovering , and TR himself admitted it in an impromptu interview with Lovering later that afternoon. Adee, 4 Sept. He insisted on appearing also at other scheduled stops in Connecticut before returning home on the Sylph. Chronological Note: TR remained only one night in Oyster Bay, before proceeding south on the second of his campaign swings, a five-day trip through West Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

His speeches largely echoed those of his New England trip. Dooley , 49— Schurman, 11 Aug. Thelen, Robert M. Payne to TR, 15 Aug. Carleton Putnam sagely remarks that TR was not equipped to understand tariff policy because there was no clear right or wrong to it Theodore Roosevelt , — The word reciprocity does not even appear in the index to the Republican Campaign Textbook.

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On the same day, TR, concerned at mounting violence in the anthracite country and criticisms of his own aloofness, released a report on the situation by Carroll D. Sargent is wrongly identified as Carroll D. Wright in the last-named source. Except where otherwise indicated, the following account of the events of 23 Sept. George H. Medical bulletins in The Washington Post , 24 and 29 Sept. Lung qu. Adee to John Hay, 24 Sept.

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Warren, 13 May WVD. Note: Dr. Rixey was the father of Lilian Rixey, author of Bamie. Rixey testimony in Roosevelt vs. Gordon to John Mitchell, 27 Sept. Heman W. Crane is generally given credit for persuading TR to hold a strike conference, but the initial idea appears to have come from John Mitchell, who wrote Mark Hanna on 8 Sept. Knox as representing his views and those of Mr. Crane, Mr. Moody, and Mr.

TR deleted the phrase no precedent in other strikes will be created when he made his own public statement later. Fisher to Knox, 1 Oct. Hoyt to Harry Hoyt, 6 Oct. Press accounts tended to exaggerate the violence, just as secretive Slavs downplayed it. John Mitchell admitted to six deaths, then seven. In the end, only three murders could be officially documented. John Mitchell to T. Sauerford, 1 Oct.

Plenty of reserve anthracite was secretly shipped out of eastern Pennsylvania to elite customers. Cassatt to TR, 2 Oct. Knox had received several Sherman Act petitions to that effect, including one from Willcox himself. But he rejected them on the same grounds that he disallowed antitrust prosecution of the operators. Stephenson, Aug. Thomas Ibid. The latter features on-the-spot drawings. Curran, The Survey , 18 Jan. Spence, John Markle, Representative American New York, , —12, recalled being surprised and angered by the abrupt termination of the morning session.

History as Theatrical Metaphor

He erred, however, in saying that he protested this treatment at once. The transcript indicates he did so later. The following dialogue is reconstructed from accounts in ibid. Edward Hoyt to Harry Hoyt, 6 Oct. Baer then went further, saying that the operators would accept adjudication by any court the President cared to specify. Cornell, Anthracite Coal Strike , Appel, Addresses and Writings of George F. Baer privately printed, , Thomas specifically Report of the Conference , 8—9. The cartoon, by Keppler, had appeared in Puck, 1 Oct. White House telegraph operator Colonel Benjamin F.

He told the reporter that it had been the most trying ordeal of his life. See also George Cortelyou interviewed by N. Oliver to John Bassett Moore, 21 Oct. Ross to TR, 5 Oct. Ross to TR, 6 Oct. Walter Wellman in Review of Reviews , Nov. Wright to TR, 6 Oct. George Dewey diary, 12 Nov. Gordon to John Mitchell, 7 Oct. Public leaders were beginning to talk seriously of nationalizing the anthracite industry Carroll D.

Wright to TR, 15 Nov. TR was now reading E. Wright, 8 Oct. Jackson, appointed envoy to Greece on 13 Oct. White, 27 Mar. McElroy, Grover Cleveland , vol. Morgan, 9 Oct. Mark Hanna had asked Morgan to help settle the strike in June. Barkis was willing, but Baer and Mitchell clung so desperately to their respective positions that the effort failed. Mark Hanna to J. Morgan to Mark Hanna, ca. Jessup, 26 Oct. See Satterlee, J. TR has sometimes been accused of exaggerating fears of a coming catastrophe in Oct.

But see the common terror of, e. Cortelyou to George Cortelyou, 7 Oct. This conversation took place at A. White House appointment book TRP. Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt , vol. TR, pace the opinion of his Attorney General, considered himself empowered to send in troops by the Railroad Arbitration Act of TR to Carroll D. Wright draft , 8 Oct. Morgan was accompanied by Robert Bacon.

The ubiquitous reporter was functioning as an unofficial conduit among TR, Mitchell, and the House of Morgan. White House appointment book, 4 Oct. Corsair in the Autograph of Secretary Root, 11 Oct. Government before the Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce. He made clear that a certain coal combination was practically asking to be so disciplined. The speech caused a sensation, as TR expected. Of course, TR had no advance knowledge that the operators would begin to crack that same day, but his insistence that Knox heap further propaganda on them just then illustrates his uncanny sense of political timing.

TR to W. Keach, 7 Oct. John Mitchell had already withdrawn recognition as a strike demand. Bacon, a former all-star athlete, had recently suffered a complete nervous and physical collapse. Strouse, Morgan , The operators got a 10 percent increase in the price of anthracite, plus permission to go on assessing output the way they always had. The union got its 10 percent wage hike, and a reduction of one to two hours per day in its work quota. Anthracite Coal Commission, Report to the President , 80— For a summary of findings, see Cornell, Anthracite Coal Strike , — The UMW had to wait more than a decade for the formal recognition it so desperately traded away, but was compensated by general public recognition.

He, too, would die rich—having discovered that he was by nature more a capitalist than a populist. Goldsmith writes. Schlesinger, Jr. Israel, eds. Welch, Response to Imperialism , See also Rixey, Bamie , chap. TR blamed the Philippines scandal for the erosion of his popular support. Welsh to Carl Schurz, 2 Nov. Martis, ed. Congress, — New York, , LaFollette was re-elected Governor with a large majority. TR could not have welcomed this result, having earlier congratulated Congressman Joseph W. Gould, Reform and Regulation , 35— Except where otherwise indicated, the following two sections are based on eyewitness reporting by an unnamed correspondent of the Associated Press and Lindsay Denison of the New York Sun.

TR granted both men exclusive permission to accompany him. McIlhenny, 21 Oct. Wilson in Booker T. Grantham, Jr. The repercussions of the Crum appointment which Dr. Washington had urged upon TR are discussed below, in chap. Washington—endorsed Gold Democrat. The Washington Post , 11 Nov. See also Seth M. Washington in Booker T. TR always denied that his motives were political TR, Letters , vol. It suited him, e.

Washington Evening Star , 18 Nov. A hunter who has seen the skin judges it to have been that of a pound female. Charles Moose interview with author, 10 Nov. Berryman seems to have produced a second version with the bear as a cub , later in —whether for publication or not is unclear. It is sometimes wrongly attributed to the Washington Evening Star. Andrews, My Studio Window , See also the above-cited works of Wilson and Bialosky. Morris and Rose Michtom founded the Ideal Toy Company, largely on the strength of their stuffed-bear sales, in The story is doubtful.

An original Michtom thirty-inch-tall bear is now worth at least forty-five thousand dollars. With this note, the author formally withdraws from the field of Teddy Bear studies. Washington Evening Star , 31 Jan. Contrary to popular impression, only one of the game heads was a trophy of his. Mexico stopped paying this award after the United States took over California. The Hague court found in favor of resumed payments by Mexico.

The New York Times , 27 Dec. The secret du roi involved covert, personal emissaries of the king, operating often at odds with his official diplomacy. See Nelson M. Historiological Note: The best summary of archival lacunae attendant to the Venezuelan crisis is in Marks, Velvet on Iron , 42—47 and notes. Adee in JH. Elsewhere, this correspondence routinely refers to burnings and deletions. The Washington Post , 19 Nov. But as will be seen, he expected the built-in warning to be heeded to the letter.

Aufgabe der Monroe Doktrine. Kennedy, ed. Hagan, ed. Their scare communicated itself to TR. Lepsius et al. Grenville and George B. Marks, Velvet on Iron , 40, shows how from Dec. Sigsbee to TR, 22 Mar. Strachey, St. On 29 Oct. Dewey diary, 25 Nov. The following chronology is instructive. Moody to be Secretary of the Navy. May: Naval intelligence reports German cruiser skulking in Venezuelan waters. August: Imperialist expansion pressures increase on Wilhelmstrasse. Dewey diary [GD]. All these activities, implying an extraordinary feeling of gathering crisis, predate the Anglo-German agreement to coerce Venezuela on 12 Nov.

The Oval Office was not built until after he left the White House. On 5 Dec. Coghlan, 8 Dec. All these observations were doubtless relayed to TR, between singlesticks blows. Roosevelt must in some respects be very like me. In youth, both men used to doodle ships and fleet dispositions, and in power, both tended to use the first-person possessive in referring to their respective navies.

He makes no reference to arbitration. White House appointment book, 8 Dec. See Paul S. Sidney Harcave Armonk, N. There was a flurry of nervous selling on Wall Street. New York Herald , 17 Dec. There is no question that the Ambassador was out of town from 14 Dec. See below. Gooch and Harold Temperley, eds. On 18 Dec. Both men were, in a later phrase, out of the loop.

Throughout the year, both von Holleben and Quadt had urged Berlin to prepare for possible war with the United States. Herwig, Politics of Frustration , 69, Hill, Roosevelt and the Caribbean , Von Holleben did not return to Washington until 26 Dec. On 5 Jan. When he sailed home from Hoboken, N. TR also wrote a generous letter to Grover Cleveland on 26 Dec.

His secrecy about it as President, the apparent collusion of three governments in obliterating the record, and some inconsistencies in his later accounts have caused historians, beginning with Howard C. Hill in , to accuse TR of faulty memory at best and boastful lies at worst. They never succeeded, however, in challenging his basic honesty. Even Henry Pringle, the most iconoclastic of Roosevelt biographers, felt compelled to believe him, after an interview with William Loeb in which the former secretary testified that he was present at the two meetings with von Holleben.

Loeb also described them to Hermann Hagedorn. Seward W. Livermore in and Howard K. Since then, the historical pendulum has continued to swing his way. Edward Parsons wrote a telling essay in , and Frederick W. Marks III in almost succeeded in proving an international conspiracy to deny that anything happened—when plainly, something very considerable did.

While allowing for continuing scholarly disagreement about dates, William N. Jusserand Boston, , ; see, e. Storer, In Memoriam , 38— This issue achieved record sales. For his previous relations with them, see Baker, American Chronicle , and Steffens, Autobiography, passim. For his later response to the new journalism, see below, chap.

The next Congress was not due until Dec. Gould, Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt , 26—27, points out that by statute, the second and fourth congressional sessions of any presidential four-year term had to end on 4 March. Therefore, only the first and third sessions when Congress could sit as long as it liked were convenient to the production of major legislation. Even the third tended to be a cautious session, in view of the upcoming presidential election. Thus, a decision to postpone tariff or reciprocity action in meant that Congress was not likely to address them again before Sixty-three new trusts had been capitalized at more than seven figures in Knox to TR, 30 Mar.

TR was privately advised by Knox that the Littlefield bill would be unacceptable to big business and destructive of executive authority. Philander Knox to TR, 5 Jan. On the evening of 5 Jan. Jenkins, chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, and practically dictated a bill comprising all his antitrust views. TR also took care to publish a summary of his own program in the newspapers. Whatever legislation was finally adopted would therefore seem to have been inspired by him. Jenkins to Philander Knox, 6 Jan. Sickels to TR, 19 Jan. Beer was the father of Thomas Beer, whose impressionistic biography of Mark Hanna is cited frequently in these notes.

Beer to George W. Perkins, 15 Jan. On 10 Jan. Curtis to George Cortelyou, 10 Jan. Chronological Note: The Roosevelts entertained three thousand guests in the first week of the new year alone. Between the reopening of the White House in November and the beginning of Lent in , their record-breaking guest numbers were as follows:. TR was by now spending his entire salary on entertaining.

He paid the wages of twenty-three servants, the fees of musical performers, and the costs of the White House equipage. Every state dinner, down to the champagne and cigars, cost him eight hundred dollars about sixteen thousand dollars in modern currency. When Colonel Theodore A. Washington Evening Star , 11 Jan. Crum George Cortelyou memorandum, 31 Jan. George Cortelyou memorandum, 31 Jan.

Most of them, indeed, were reappointments. The Washington Post , 26 Apr. Anselm J. McLaurin of Mississippi is not to be confused with his outgoing senatorial colleague, John L. McLaurin of South Carolina. The Indianola post office eventually reopened with a white postmaster, but was downgraded to fourth-class status. Cox, meanwhile, bought a local savings bank and prospered mightily. Lewis, a Harvard graduate and All-American football player. Henry Essen to TR, ca. McKinley so mellowed up the Southern people that they were ready to go into the Republican party by the thousands.

Roosevelt is bitterly hated today by almost all Southern white men. He has aroused the bitterest of race feeling, and it is a question of time when murders will result therefrom. Washington to TR, 24 Jan. This was an ominous development. Alabama, as Roosevelt well knew, was the first state on the national roll call. If it cast its vote for Hanna, Arkansas would be tempted to follow.

But he could not, in conscience, back down. TR wrote privately to Booker T. Washington on 9 Feb. Garfield diary, 17 Jan. Sharon Harris. Italy, as a lesser creditor, was also a party to the talks. When TR voiced such patronizing sentiments publicly, as he sometimes did in reference to the Monroe Doctrine, he deeply offended Latin Americans.

Literary Digest , 14 Feb. Roosevelt refused to withdraw it. The New York Times , 23 Jan. Chronological Note: On 18 Jan. Twenty-five people were killed. There was no apparent provocation, although the Reich claimed Venezuela fired first. John Hay memorandum, 21 Jan. From Caracas came news that the allied blockade, while starving Venezuelans of bread and salt, was permitting the importation of arms by antigovernment guerrillas; it appeared that the Kaiser was deliberately fomenting unrest as an excuse to land German marines.

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Dennis, Adventures in American Diplomacy , Public concern was also rising again in Britain. White House diary TRP. He had useful private contacts on the Wilhelmstrasse. His proper accreditation did not arrive until the spring. Beale, Theodore Roosevelt , — Historical Note: On 5 Feb. In table form, the all-out opposition would be as follows:. Its efficacy derived from the speed and power with which he threatened to use it. But J. Fred Rippy shows that acquiescence began around 4 Feb. Caribbean Danger Zone , Historical Note: This brief resurgence of the Venezuela crisis provoked a purge of former von Holleben aides at the German Embassy.

Albert von Quadt was recalled in mid-Feb. Coubertin, 6 Oct. Then suddenly he switched to Japan. Henderson was promised help from George Perkins in setting up a New York law practice when he retired at the end of the session. Perkins was promised an advisory role in setting up the new Bureau of Corporations. William C.

Perkins, 11 Jan. Conservatives in Congress had the same feelings about TR. Review of Reviews , Mar. Other news stories implicated three more lawmakers. Signed by John D. Readers of Sunday-morning spreads had plenty of time to mark, learn, and inwardly digest, before firing off letters to their congressmen. Sunday-afternoon announcements were pretty sure to end up as front-page stories, because Monday morning was usually newsless.

At the time, it was assumed that TR acted on 7 Feb. Early on 10 Feb. Charles Littlefield had begged TR for help with his own bill, as promised. A mere nine Democrats joined him. Thorelli, Federal Antitrust Policy , Internal bureaucratic conflicts kept the General Staff Corps from becoming fully effective in A quarter of a century later, Newton D. The appointments were seen as deliberately provocative. Root had sent United States troops north in to secure the very frontier he would now be adjudicating. Since , Great Britain had understood by treaty that the line ran inland from the forty-first parallel to the Portland Channel, at a distance averaging thirty miles from the coast.

This seaward strip encompassed all major inlets; when Russia sold Alaska to the United States in , Canada had raised no topographical objections. Only when gold was discovered in the Klondike in had she begun to regret the ceded inlets. Canada was now suggesting—demanding—that the Alaskan boundary should be measured not from the coast, but from the extremities of islands lying far out to sea.

Roosevelt was willing to grant Canada a limited amount of inlet water, according to charts drawn up by John Hay. Shortly after negotiations began on 15 Sept. Six months later, Joseph Chamberlain was still fuming. By all that happened in regard to the Alaska Arbitration, the secret history of which is not altogether pleasant reading. Choate, ca. For more extensive discussion, see John A. Munro, ed. Senatorial patience with the seventy-eight-year-old Morgan was wearing thin.

By midsummer, the Department of Commerce and Labor had a Washington staff of more than 1, and a budget of ten million dollars. George Cortelyou speech memorandum, ca. Maxwell, 16 Feb. This ride is misdated as 13 Feb. Dewey diary, 31 Mar. According to Mrs. Aldrich , —11; Simkins, Pitchfork Ben Tillman , — Crum assumed his appointment on 30 Mar. See also Washington Evening Star , same date.

Congressional Record , 57 Cong. Washington Evening Star , 4 and 5 Mar. Aldrich , — TR kept Crum in office as a recess appointee until the Senate finally confirmed him in Jan. For an analysis of the political forces Cannon harnessed in his leap to power, see Stephenson, Nelson W. Dooley in Peace and War Boston, , 5. Because the scrapbook proceeds chronologically, with an abundance of overlapping information, it will be cited as a single source. This classic, often very funny document, written at the request of John Hay, has been published separately in Elting E.

Morison, ed. See p. Paul, Minn. Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. Louis, Mo. Yosemite National Park through 18 May. There were no women aboard the Pacific Coast Special. Hill , ; Lamoreaux, Great Merger Movement , — Pierpont Morgan , Northern Securities stock dropped twelve points in three days after the St.

Paul decision, reaching a low twenty-five points below its initial high. The Washington Post , 19 Apr. He made a detailed list of his natural observations to send to C. The Washington Post , 25 Apr. Louis, see, e. In exchange for the badger, TR gave the little girls a silver-and-gold medal he had been presented in Chicago. Just before leaving Washington on 1 Apr. But his post-Yellowstone utterances at Grand Canyon on 5 May marked the first time he pronounced the gospel in plain language to the people. As will be seen, TR became increasingly obsessed with the theme of conservation as he traveled through the Southwest and California.

The Grand Canyon was not yet a national park in I like my green trees at Hyde Park better. Every speech he made through 12 May exulted in irrigation, fertility, and beauty. See Reisner, Cadillac Desert , 65ff. In , TR also enacted the first game laws of Alaska Territory, preventing the commercialization of deer hunting, and got an appropriation to preserve and maintain the first federal buffalo herd in Yosemite National Park. TR, Autobiography , Taft, 2 Mar.

There were to be three hundred more pogroms over the next three years. Stuart E. In April alone, TR had received nearly five hundred communications, endorsed with many thousands of signatures, calling upon the Tsar to stop the persecution of Jews in Russia. But considerable nervousness about it was expressed in Europe, particularly in Germany Public Opinion , 21 May John L. Morrow, 14 Feb. Hanna wanted TR to recognize that opposition to the endorsement did not signify opposition to the nomination.

However, as John M. Beer, Hanna , — The question remains, Did Hanna have any lingering presidential ambition in the spring of ?