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May 10, Robert rated it it was amazing. Very well done. I appreciated the organization and candor. Muslim rated it it was amazing Nov 21, Posterior Uveitis and Panuveitis. Overview and Background of Uveitis and Its Treatment Intermediate Uveitis HIV and Intraocular Inflammation Cat-scratch disease Bartonella occurs in immunocompetent individuals of all ages worldwide.
It is the leading cause of regional lymphadenopathy in children and young adults. Patients will present with tender, swollen lymph nodes at or near the site of the bite or scratch. It is the most common cause of neuroretinitis. Other forms of ocular inflammation include intermediate uveitis, anterior uveitis, conjunctivitis, retinal vasculitis, and orbital abscess. Lyme disease Borrelia is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete Borrelia bergdorferi infection and its sequelae and is transmitted via tick bites. In the USA, cases are highly concentrated in the northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper midwest regions.
The disseminated stage occurs several weeks after the initial exposure, and the patients may develop skin, nervous system, joint, heart, and eye problems. The skin, nervous system, and joints are affected at the persistent stage of this disease. Late neurologic involvement manifests as subacute or chronic encephalopathy, with subtle memory and cognitive dysfunction, progressive encephalomyelitis with white matter lesions, and peripheral neuropathy.
Uveitis may be present at the disseminated and persistent stages of the disease; anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, neuroretinitis, retinal vasculitis, choroiditis, and panuveitis have all been reported. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection of the spirochete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. If untreated, it will progress through four stages.
Uveitis does not typically present at this stage. Secondary syphilis occurs 4—10 weeks after infection. A disseminated maculopapular rash on the palms of hands and soles of feet and lymphadenopathy are the most common clinical manifestations; however, fever, malaise, headache, nausea, anorexia, hepatitis, and meningitis can occur.
The patient is not contagious, and the disease is not detectable. One-third of patients will progress to tertiary syphilis, which is the most common stage in syphilis to present with uveitis. Uveitis is often present in patients with tertiary syphilis. Anterior uveitis in patients with syphilis may present as unilateral or bilateral, granulomatous, or nongranulomatous with or without iris nodules, dilated iris vessels, and iris atrophy.
Diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis: optometric management
Uveitis may manifest during any stage of syphilis. Patients with syphilis may present with posterior uveitis as diffuse or focal chorioretinitis, neuroretinitis, necrotizing retinitis, retinal vasculitis, intermediate uveitis, or panuveitis. TB is an airborne infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It commonly affects the lungs. The classic presentation of an active TB infection includes chronic cough, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.
Granulomas may be noted on the iris, angle, or choroid. Uveitis may present in active TB and in patients with or with-out systemic TB symptoms. The most common uveitis seen in TB is disseminated chorioretinitis, but it can also present as acute anterior uveitis, chronic granulomatous anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, vitritis, or endophthalmitis. Broad-based posterior synechiae and retinal vasculitis are common with the uveitis presentation. Viral infections are the most common infectious underlying etiology of anterior uveitis. Increased IOP, iris atrophy, and unilateral presentations are common with viral etiologies.
Herpes simplex 1 and 2 are ubiquitous in humans and acquired via direct contact with active infection. In most patients, this virus remains latent in neural ganglia, most notably the trigeminal ganglia. Virus reactivation can be induced by stress, UV exposure, and illness or found in immunocompromised individuals. Virus reactivation usually results in fever and malaise with eruption of skin vesicles along the neural dermatome.
Anterior uveitis that occurs with HSV is usually unilateral, granulomatous, or nongranulomatous, with elevated IOP due to concomitant trabeculitis. It may also present with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis. VZV remains dormant in neural ganglia and, when reactivated, causes herpes zoster HZ. HZ typically manifests as unilateral pain in a dermatomal distribution accompanied by a maculopapular vesicular rash. When reactivated along the trigeminal nerve, it is termed herpes zoster ophthalmicus. It has also been linked to a higher risk of autoimmune diseases.
Uveitis is generally found during primary infection during IM. In rare instances, immunocompetent individuals may present with unilateral, hypertensive, chronic, or recurrent uveitis due to CMV. Anterior uveitis can present as unilateral, hypertensive, granulomatous, or nongranulomatous and that can be chronic or recurrent.
The uveitis presents as increased anterior chamber reaction with vitreous haze, causing a reduction in visual acuity. Iatrogenic uveitis was first described with the use of rifabutin, which typically manifests as a panuveitis, occasionally with hypopyon, cystoid macular edema, and retinal vasculitis. With topical steroids and discontinuation of the drug, this uveitis typically resolves within days. Intravitreal or intravenous cidofovir can also induce anterior uveitis, occasionally with hypotony and occasionally with an associated vitritis.
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Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and is the leading cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. Classically, toxoplasmosis presents as a yellow-white or gray exudative chorioretinal lesion with ill-defined borders in the retina with a marked vitritis. Anterior uveitis may also be present, usually with a granulomatous response, including mutton-fat KPs, posterior synechiae, iris nodules, and fibrin deposition. Toxocariasis is an infectious disease caused by the larvae of the parasites Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati that are present in the small intestine of dogs and cats, respectively.
The larvae reach the eye via the bloodstream and deposit, most commonly, in the retina. This results in a posterior granulomatous response. The posterior granuloma is a hazy, white elevated lesion with vitritis. Chronic endophthalmitis with associated retinal detachment, low-grade anterior uveitis, posterior synechiae, and hypopyon may also be evident.
Papillitis, macular edema, and vitreous exudates are also associated findings. If present in a child, the chief complaint may not be reduced visual acuity, but leukocoria. Lymphoma is an underlying etiology of anterior uveitis in the masquerade category, which is common in elderly patients with chronic anterior uveitis cases. The list is exhaustive of medications that can cause uveitis.
Some of the more common medications are discussed. Drug-induced uveitis is almost always reversible within weeks when the medication is discontinued and topical treatment is initiated. Rifabutin has been shown to cause panuveitis. Cidofovir can also induce anterior uveitis, occasionally with hypotony and with an associated vitritis. The drugs in this class can cause nongranulomatous anterior uveitis, usually occurring in the first 24—48 hours. Our patients who are at risk of developing immune-mediated uveitis can be on medications that can induce uveitis. The uveitis is generally nongranulomatous anterior uveitis.
Ordering the appropriate laboratory testing is imperative not only to treat uveitis itself but also to ensure that the patient is receiving the appropriate systemic care for an underlying disorder that they may, or may not, know they have as well as addressing public health concerns. Table 2 shows the complete laboratory reference. Laboratory testing should be considered when the uveitis is recurrent, chronic, bilateral, granulomatous, nonresponsive to treatment, intermediate, posterior, or with children younger than 15 years old. For intermediate uveitis, a magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary if the patient has neurologic signs or symptoms to rule out MS.
For posterior or panuveitis, a HLA-B27 is not necessary. Table 3 outlines the appropriate testing to be ordered once a thorough review of systems and a thorough ophthalmologic examination is complete. Obtaining a rheumatoid factor in anyone or an antinuclear antibody in adult is usually unnecessary. The exception might be an antinuclear antibody in a child with anterior uveitis and concern for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Note that rheumatoid arthritis and SLE are typically associated with scleritis, not uveitis.
Note: Data from references. When determining the management approach for a patient with anterior uveitis, the practitioner should attempt to determine the etiology of the inflammation to establish both short-term and long-term control of the inflammation. The first step at uncovering an etiology is to discuss with the patient a thorough review of systems. The second step is to determine whether the anterior uveitis is acute, recurrent, or chronic, which is often established during case history.
The fourth step is to determine whether the anterior uveitis is granulomatous or nongranulomatous, which is determined through examination. Initial treatment of anterior uveitis involves topical corticosteroids. Note: Data from Foster and Vitale 4 and Jabs et al. Patients are typically scheduled for a follow-up after 1 week of treatment with corticosteroids.
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It is also important that the patient properly shake the steroid suspension as failure to do so may result in a subtherapuetic response. Once the inflammation is reduced and is showing signs of continual improvement, the follow-up examination schedule can be lengthened to every 2 weeks. The proper tapering schedule of topical corticosteroids is one drop every 2 hours for 2 weeks, one drop four times per day for 2 weeks, one drop three times per day for 2 weeks, one drop two times per day for 2 weeks, one drop one time per day for 2 weeks, and then topical therapy should be discontinued.
Cycloplegia also reduces the risk of posterior synechia development. In certain cases, additional therapies may be needed in conjunction with topical corticosteroid and cycloplegic therapies. In all cases of anterior uveitis, it is imperative to determine whether the inflammation also includes posterior involvement, and for this reason, all patients who present with an anterior uveitis should have a dilated fundus examination. Patients who are HLA-B27 positive may have a hypopyon present along with their inflammation and often need many weeks of hourly corticosteroids before a taper is started.
Suspicion of herpetic etiology — especially elevated IOP in the affected eye war-rants prophylactic treatment with oral antivirals. Acyclovir mg mg for zoster five times per day, valacyclovir mg 1, mg for zoster three times per day, or famciclovir mg three times per day are all acceptable dosages to effectively treat patients with active herpes infections and ocular inflammation. The goal of long-term therapy is to keep the eye free of inflammation, which is the most challenging aspect in managing uveitis. In many cases of anterior uveitis, long-term therapy is not necessary, and the inflammatory process will not recur.
However, in some instances, the iritis may recur during the initial corticosteroid taper or within 3 months of stopping it. When a patient presents clinically with an acute or chronic presentation of anterior uveitis, the primary eye care practitioner is responsible for completing a thorough examination to determine an appropriate etiology for the diagnosis. Making an appropriate diagnosis of anterior uveitis is based on a complete review of systems, an understanding of systemic diseases, and laboratory testing.
Laboratory testing should be tailored to a specific diagnosis or diagnoses rather than ordering a general battery of testing. Once a list of diagnoses has been made, a targeted approach to treatment can be pursued, or the decision may be made to refer to our ophthalmology colleagues. Treatment should be customized to each patient as suboptimal treatment may lead to complications and loss of vision. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Clin Optom Auckl v. Clin Optom Auckl. Published online Mar Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Keywords: anterior uveitis, iritis, inflammation. Introduction Uveitis, or inflammation of the uvea which consists of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid , may be caused by a number of different etiologies. Diagnosis The diagnosis of uveitis is multifaceted, and important diagnostic clues lie in both the clinical course and the clinical presentation.
Table 1 Review of systems to be included with any patient that presents with uveitis.
Ocular Inflammatory Disease and Uveitis Manual : Diagnosis and Treatment
System Review of systems: questions to ask Condition s to rule out Joints Pain or stiffness of hands, wrists, fingers, toes, lower back, spine, other weight-bearing joints? Pulmonary Cough? Sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Wegener granulomatosis, systemic fungal infections. Open in a separate window. Immune-mediated noninfectious causes HLA-B27 seronegative spondyloarthropathies are a group of inflammatory disorders with negative rheumatoid factor and are associated with HLA-B27, a class I major histocompatibility complex. Viral Viral infections are the most common infectious underlying etiology of anterior uveitis.
Parasitic Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and is the leading cause of posterior uveitis worldwide.
Masquerade and drug-induced uveitis Lymphoma is an underlying etiology of anterior uveitis in the masquerade category, which is common in elderly patients with chronic anterior uveitis cases. Laboratory testing Ordering the appropriate laboratory testing is imperative not only to treat uveitis itself but also to ensure that the patient is receiving the appropriate systemic care for an underlying disorder that they may, or may not, know they have as well as addressing public health concerns.
Table 2 Review of systems and appropriate laboratory testing.
[Full text] Diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis: optometric management | OPTO
Table 3 Blood work. Treatment When determining the management approach for a patient with anterior uveitis, the practitioner should attempt to determine the etiology of the inflammation to establish both short-term and long-term control of the inflammation. Table 4 Most commonly prescribed topical ophthalmic corticosteroids.
Conclusion When a patient presents clinically with an acute or chronic presentation of anterior uveitis, the primary eye care practitioner is responsible for completing a thorough examination to determine an appropriate etiology for the diagnosis. Footnotes Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
References 1. The eyeball. Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; Basic principles.