Please help by spinning off or relocating any relevant information, and removing excessive detail that may be against Wikipedia's inclusion policy. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Puerto Rico portal Biography portal Literature portal. Retrieved November 27, Retrieved November 19, Melanthika: an anthology of pan-Caribbean writing. Robert Khan ed. Davidson June This, by no means implies that the study is not also analytical.
Indeed, this critical synthesis is an outstanding example of a combination of the historical and analytical approaches. How did Graham make the connection between Ortega and James when no others in the small group of internationally known scholars  had done so, although over the years a few outside that group had suspected some connection between Ortega and pragmatism? Not surprisingly, it was fortuitous.
In Graham, a specialist in European intellectual history, especially of Spain, and a long-time student of Ortega, also happened to be studying James. The similarities he noticed, at first thought to be mere coincidence, led to a decade of research into Ortega's Obras completas , archives, for part of which he needed special permission, and private library which contains books by James, , n.
This reviewer considers Graham's discussion of the influence of James on Ortega to be his major contribution, although he also has much to contribute on the influences of Husserl, Dilthey, and Heidegger. At the very least, Graham's study should serve as an inducement to those of us who admire Ortega's originality based on multiple influences to retrace Graham's steps to reconfirm his conclusions, thereby discovering how Ortega's genius employed still another source to reach his distinctive view of human life and the type of reason it must use to understand itself.
In the meantime, we look forward to the publication of the other volumes on history and on the human sciences on which Graham has been working, especially since there is a renewed interest in recent years in pragmatism. Roberta Johnson's latest book is a mature work of criticism, product of years of reading, teaching and thinking on the most important modern period of Spanish literature.
Buckley Jr. This volume explores the unfolding of a dazzling thirty-year literary spree managed by three generations of writers whose personalities and narrative works influenced each others' and oftentimes were direct responses to the philosophical fiction or the fictional philosophy conceived in turn by each.
Therein the Crossfire of the title, an all-encompassing notion ranging from petty potshots directed at personal shortcomings to devastating bombshells aimed at intellectual discredit of published works. The reader of the text, if familiar with the novels discussed and acquainted with the philosophical works that inspire them, will find in Johnson's Crossfire all of the literary, intellectual, historical, social and biographical information that could be hoped for in a critical undertaking of this scope.
They hated and they loved each other; they feared and respected each other. Envy also played a large role, but what Roberta Johnson demonstrates convincingly is that all of them needed the catalyst and impetus that each meant to the rest of them. The philosophical dimension that informs what remains of the story overshadows everything else for these three members of the Generation of ' Ayala substitutes aesthetic for philosophic concerns as he devises a more self-reflective novel still identifiable as part of the genre.
El humo dormido and Platero y yo , though steeped in the Krausist concept of universal harmony, are concerned almost exclusively with linguistic power and beauty, an aesthetic consciousness that revels in itself. Sensu strictu they are not, for the most part, either novelistic or philosophical. They are narrative constructs, typically ludic and fragmented. Their concerns are parodic and intertextual; theirs is a literature that has no referent in life. Yet the studies could not be more different in approach.
The first part includes two introductory essays. Of the studies that comprise the volume, nine appear in print here for the first time. Iris M. Addis and Roberta L. The authors of these studies display a familiarity with the primary subject matter and an authoritative use of the most fundamental concepts of feminist literary theory as evidenced by numerous and repeated references to such critics as Scanlon, Irigarry, Auerbach, Armstrong, Tennenhouse, Gubar, Cixous, Boose, MacKinnon, Michie, Felski, DeLauretis, and many more.
The editors and authors, as well as the publisher of these studies, deserve recognition. John P. Interest in women's writing has brought to light many heretofore forgotten texts and made them available to students and literary critics. In the last twenty years many names have been added to the Peninsular Spanish letters, and that of Leonor de Meneses is one of them.
The editors of this edition set out to accomplish many goals. First, they wish to introduce Leonor de Meneses and her historical context as a member of the highest nobility in Portugal. Third, they wish to trace the history of Spanish short stories as well as describe Spanish Golden Age women writers in general and in particular their development of the character of the mujer esquiva.
Fourth, they provide a bibliography that seems to refer to works cited in one of the portions of the book. Finally, they carefully describe and edit the text as the source of the present edition. Any one of the above goals would have been sufficient to add a contribution to Spanish Golden Age letters and their reflection in Portugal. These reservations notwithstanding, the present volume does provide a very readable introduction to each of the proposed topics as well as a usable edition of the only known work of the Countess of Serem and Atouguia, Leonor de Meneses.
The work is dedicated to D. It is not clear to the editors of the tale whether or not Leonor de Meneses ever received approval for the publication of the book, since no publication information is present in the text. The publication of this edition adds another name to the growing list of women writers who  had been neglected through the years.
The fact that Laura de Meneses is a Portuguese woman who wrote and published in Spanish adds her name to both literary traditions. This edition is of interest to students of Spanish Golden Age literature, women's studies, and cultural studies. The unpretentious title given this study should not blind prospective readers to the revolutionary nature of the work.
Their presentation is admirably clear and well written, which contributes greatly to the convincing nature of their arguments. The investigation consists of three principal sections. Section II studies in detail textual material which supports the authors' view of the Celestina's composition, and examines certain topics upon which their theory sheds light; salient among these are the work's reliance on elements of witchcraft, the exposition's treatment of time, the virtually dual nature of Melibea's personality, and the difficulty of ascribing Rojas' creation to one literary genre.
The last main division of this monograph is devoted to an examination of significant differences between the sixteen-act opus and the subsequent document which includes the Tratado de Ceuturio ; the underlying supposition here is that knowledge of the innovations Rojas introduced in the latter text will contribute to our understanding of the role he played in production of the Comedia Prior to entering into their own analysis of the work and its gestation, they summarize four traditional viewpoints to which most critics have adhered, and mention certain other Celestina studies published in the last decade While the investigation reviewed here shares with a handful of previous approaches the postulation that three individuals took part in the process of composition, its authors conceive of the Celestina's development in a radically different way.
Especially significant to this view is argumentation based on evidence presented in two segments of the Celestina : the introductory letter described as addressed by the author to a friend, and the acrostic octaves containing Rojas' name and place of birth. Furthermore, the fin bajo said in the letter to omit mention of the author's name in reality consists of stanzas four through seven of Rojas' acrostics.
This revisionary process affected not only the first act of the work but subsequent sections as well-eloquent proof we read that the extant versions of the Celestina constitute reworkings of a preceding text It is suggested that while Rojas deleted elements of the borrowed comedy which were at odds with the nature of his own Comedia de Calisto y Melibea, he reintroduced some of these when he enlarged the work to twenty-one acts Fernando de Rojasy la Celestina is a splendid achievement.
Nonetheless, even particulars such as these demonstrate a laudable determination to lay bare all truths pertinent to the enigmatic work. Michael T. Russell Sebold reissues thirty-five essays which originally appeared in Madrid's ARC between and , grouping them thematically, to further illuminate the literary movements universally known as Enlightenment, Neoclassicism, Romanticism and Realism. The text is divided into four sections, according to genre: poetry, narrative, drama, and essays. Rather than a chronological presentation according to their original appearance in ABC , the thirty-five essays follow chronological sequence based on the movements and lives of the authors being analyzed.
The essay on Huerta's Raquel reflects not only on the text in question, but also on Huerta's position -both politically and philosophically in Spain. This text certainly offers the investigator a unique collection of essays that might otherwise be somewhat difficult to access. More specifically, in chapter 2.
Chapter 2. Possibly arising from the nature of the examination, this section places a substantial emphasis on plot summary, both literary and musical. In spite of this, as well as the fact that chapter 3. In short, this analysis is to be highly commended for bringing together the arts of painting, music and literature while examining the elements common to all as portrayed through one author. The chapters and appendices of the present volume are based on essays previously published between and and which are more or less edited and added to their collection here 4.
The most recent bibliographical references are to the author's Galdosian writings of the s, but the preponderance of secondary materials is from the s and s. As a result Zlotchew's study mirrors in a real way the little attention given to the seven long and longer Galdosian fictions -exclusive of the first two series of the Episodios nacionales - published during the s.
Zlotchew's volume will probably not change these emphases. Zlotchew acknowledges the critical problematics of placing Marianela 63 , but proceeds to make a greater claim for the novel than perhaps any other critic. This massive and elaborately detailed work traces the development of creole patriotism in Latin America, particularly in Mexico and Peru, from its emergence in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries through the independence wars.
Brading's thesis is that regardless of how much Spanish America depended on Europe for its culture generally, American patriots created an intellectual tradition that, because of its direct contact with American reality, was different from that of any European culture. For example, chroniclers conveyed the American nature of their identity at every turn when they vividly described the bloody wars of conquest and independence, expressed awe and fascination with Indian civilizations, inveighed bitterly against the cruelty and greed of the conquerors, shared the burning passion of the early missionaries, and recounted both the visionary dreams and cruel deceptions of patriots and heroes.
Brading shows that creole patriotism in Mexico developed along clearer lines than in Peru, and he accordingly devotes much more space to its treatment. In Mexico, creole patriotism combined devotion to the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe, pride in the Indian heritage, and resentment of Spanish immigrants. As Brading demonstrates, one cannot overestimate the importance of the Virgin of Guadalupe as a rallying point for Mexican identity. The Marian cult is special because the story of the Virgin's appearance to the humble Indian Juan Diego conveyed the powerful message that God had chosen the Mexican people, even the lowly Indian, for special protection.
The Virgin symbolized a mystical bond that united Mexicans across deep chasms of race and class. Such written records provided a historical focus for an evolving Mexican identity and offered authoritative sources for legitimizing creole criticisms  of Spanish rule. He condemned institutions such as Indian slavery and the encomienda, and such established practices as conversion by force and mass baptisms.
Las Casas' writings stirred heated controversy, inspired legislative reforms, and influenced succeeding generations including the Peruvian mestizo el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Many creoles throughout Latin America harbored harsh stereotypes of Spaniards as ignorant, avaricious thieves of the creole birthright. For one thing, Peru had no counterpart to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Instead, there existed local religious practices, saints, and festivals, and comparatively less Christianization and acculturation of the indigenous population. This meant that it was impossible to rally creoles, much less the population at large, around a single, emotional symbol of national purpose.
Brading points out that though Peru enjoyed a glorious and noble native past, it had no native accounts or codices. Until the publication of el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega's Comentarios reales de los Incas in , very little had been written about the Incas. Garcilaso, the son of a Spaniard and an Inca princess, honored the cultures of both of his parents, but he felt compelled to redeem the Inca image both from gross misrepresentation and oblivion. Garcilaso's unique access to family stories, tribal myths, and personal memories of historical events lent a fascinating, eye-witness quality to his influential panegyric work.
His Comentarios became the basis for later accounts of the Incas and interpretations of the conquest of Peru. Creole patriotism in Peru and Mexico, as in Latin America generally, found its fullest expression in the independence movements of the early nineteenth century.
Brading convincingly traces the radicalization of their sentiment, deftly weaves complex Spanish political events into the account, explains Bolivar's key role in the South American independence struggle, and brings to bear the myriad intellectual influences of the time, including those of Rousseau, Locke, and Paine. This would have been a good place to stop, but the author goes on to follow the decline of the creole patriotic impulse through the ensuing periods of caudillismo and political fragmentation of the post-independence era, when it lost definition and significance.
Further, Brading's extremely detailed approach to this period is typical of the book as a whole, and it could well be discouraging to readers. These, however, are minor criticisms in light of the overall excellence of Brading's work, his superb treatment of Las Casas, and the valuable contribution that his book makes to several fields of study, including colonial history, ecclesiastical history, and the history of ideas.
Denis L. Cultural Encounters pays tribute to Lewis U. Hanke's ground-breaking historiographical research on colonial Latin America. The fifteen essays included in this book cover a far broader range of topics than is suggested by the subtitle. Almost half of the documents being studied are historical, sociological, and institutional, or non-literary in the narrow sense of the word. Cultural Encounters typifies the highly productive trend in colonial studies to adopt what can be characterized in general terms as a Bakhtinian approach, that is, an approach which expands our historical, stylistic, and ideological appreciation of a vast corpus of colonial texts.
The historical texts and cultural signifiers under study include maps, food, confessional manuals, and forensic documents. Abel A. Included are two essays on satire: Lucia Helena S. Costigan's essay on Brazilian and Peruvian satirical poetry and Julie Greer Johnson's on the relationship of colonial satire to social reality. Paul Dixon has recently published his third book dealing entirely or in part with the Brazilian master writer, Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis.
This intelligent and humorous critical work is the first to concentrate exclusively on Machado's short fiction. By using the author's own vocabulary and phraseology, Dixon calls attention to Machado de Assis's ironic and satiric references to encyclopedic thought, destruction of traditional hierarchies and glorification of non-linearity and subjectivism.
For Dixon, the Machadian laws  generally are anti-laws that do not circumscribe and explain the world; instead they create space for mystery even as they allow us to discern several unifying concepts between the stories. Written in Portuguese, the book is divided into ten small, tight chapters with an introduction, conclusion and bibliography although an index to all the stories cited would have been useful.
As might be imagined, each chapter corresponds to the explanation of one law and its contextual analysis by means of a short story and links to either other stories or novels. Chapter 5 looks at multiple versions of reality that offer mutually exclusive, yet equally convincing, arguments. A lei do pequeno saldo reworks Edgar Allen Poe's unifying theories about short stories that culminate in linear and structured logic.
The last law, A lei do livro falho, is the most telling of all, relying not only on the text, but also on textual interpretation for meaning or what Dixon sees as the intersubjectivity of the text; a concept that illustrates why so many contemporary critics and authors rely heavily on Machado de Assis. En su tesis despierta en el lector la toma de conciencia ante un tema tan espinoso como la esclavitud en Cuba. Acierta al vincularlo con el asesinato del joven afroamericano Emmett Tell.
Luis A. Hillis Miller. As he indicates in his title, Penuel's main focus is intertextuality. In his brief and succinct preface, Penuel reviews Kristeva, Culler, and Bakhtin, the latter of which is extremely prominent in this study. For the better part of this century, the humanities  and the sciences generally have been thought to operate in two separate universes. The essence of this presumed dichotomy was captured aptly both in the title and the substance of C.
Snow's The Two Cultures Capobianco, who relates the themes of the poems to holistic theories of the universe held by such physicists as David Bohm, as well as to Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity, i. In addition to providing a cogent critical essay himself, editor Luis A.
Twentieth-Century Latin American Poetry
The edition has an interesting self-contained reference tool that is uncommon in humanities publications. Each paragraph of the text is numbered in consecutive order, and the detailed index at the end of the volume, which follows guidelines established by the American National Standard Guideline for Indexes and Related Retrieval Devices , referring the reader directly to the numbered paragraph in which the reference appears. As a collection that presents timely and clearly focused essays on an important figure in contemporary Spanish American letters in an exceedingly reader-friendly format, this volume will without doubt come to be regarded as an essential text for students and critics of contemporary Spanish American poetry.
New World epic poetry, like the many chronicles and histories of early Spanish American literature, documents the momentous historical events of the times and demonstrates, in a number of cases, the exceptional talent and creativity of those writing in the colonies. The poem is a brilliant example of Renaissance expression  in the New World, and it is considered by some critics to be the best epic poem written in the Spanish language. Of particular importance in Ercilla's work is the inventiveness of his portrayal of the Indian.
There are, however, other epics that deserve attention as a reassessment of this subgenre in the New World takes place. Orjuela is the first scholar to prepare an edition of the poem, together with an introduction, notes, and index. Gasteazoro himself had originally planned to prepare an edition, but the physical condition of the manuscript and the difficulty of its baroque language and imagery frustrated his efforts.
Orjuela, on the other hand, has not been deterred by these obstacles and hails Cepeda's poem as the national epic of Panama and a significant contribution to the literature of Panama and Colombia whose quality exceeds, in some respects, that of Ercilla's La Araucana. He finished the work in , the same year in which he died during his return trip to Spain. The poem, which has been reproduced from the manuscript with some modification in language and the modernization of punctuation, consists of eighteen cantos written in octavas reales.
Th e events narrated in Alteraciones del Dariel occurred in Panama between and when the region's Indians, in order to resist the renewed incursions of Spaniards into their lands, allied themselves with the pirates and corsairs that routinely raided the coast. Although Cepeda refers to these actual circumstances as well as other historical periods, the poem is largely a creative one filled with myth and fantasy that pays tribute to the deliberate defiance and love of liberty of the Indians.
In many respects Cepeda's poem is characteristic of the poetic cycle exemplified in the New World by Ercilla's La Araucana with its harangues, portraits, and descriptions of battles and disputes between leaders. Cepeda, like Ercilla, is also a participant in the events narrated in the poem, and likewise, they praise the heroism on both sides of their respective conflicts.
A single hero may, however, be identified in Cepeda's work, and he is quite notably the mestizo, Luis de Carrizola. The influence of Ariosto is especially evident in Cepeda's presentation of the combined theme of love and war, and his fascination for the baroque follows Gongorist tendencies.
Although the question of whether Cepeda's poetic artistry exceeds that of Ercilla must remain unanswered until further studies can be made, there is no doubt that Orjuela's edition is the first step in restoring Alteraciones del Dariel to a position in the literary history of Spanish America.
The editor himself has promised a thorough analysis of this epic within the context of other poems belonging to this subgenre and as related to the expression of the baroque in the Indies, which will be of definite interest to specialists in these areas. With comparisons aside, however, the poem must be considered unique with regard to its content, as it captures the atmosphere of coastal regions during the age of piracy and depicts a range of societal types other than the dominant Spaniard.
The fantastic is also a prevailing feature of Cepeda's poem. This he uses to explore the rich legacy of the region's indigenous culture, thus presenting a distinctive vision of the Other. Borrowing from the postulations of Robert J. Many critics have drawn attention to the symbiotic relationship between Vargas Llosa's fiction and his theatre, highlighting in particular how the famous novelist utilizes his theatre as kind of laboratory to deconstruct his literary theories.
Perhaps the most illuminating aspect of this book is the way in which the author shows that, as is the case with his fiction, Vargas Llosa's theatre contains a psychological subtext. If one takes the trouble to cut through the specialized language of the metatheatrical analysis axis of immanence, dialogic and dialectic articulation, dramatic deixis, analeptic macrosecuences, syntagmatic consciousness , an attentive reading of Rivera-Rodas's text reveals that Vargas Llosa's plays are inhabited by complex, multilayered characters with dark zones of being not immediately accessible to the spectator or reader, since Vargas Llosa's plays, like George Bernard Shaw's, are also arm-chair theatre.
Indeed, Vargas Llosa creates the illusion that the theatre is the couch, the characters the patients and the spectators the analysts. In the first play, as the frustrated Kathy Kennety and the disenchanted Santiago Zavala weave their fantasy world of hopeless dreams and fond illusions through a succession of exotic avatars, ranging from Victor Hugo ejaculating nine times on his wedding night to a pair of super-macho hippotamuses locked in mortal combat for the favours of a coquettish female, the spectators engage in silent dialogue with them, helping them piece together the secret fragments of their pathetic lives.
In La Chunga, on the other hand, Vargas Llosa plays a sly trick upon the unwary spectators. Even as they experience anger and revulsion as the inconquistables use the Lolita figure of the play, Meche, as the target for their dark, suppressed erotic fantasies, the spectators are inveigled into playing the role of voyeurs as a series of unsavoury perversions unfold on the stage.
Through his analysis of Vargas Llosa's plays, Rivera-Rodas shows that Aristotelian pity and terror on the one hand, and Freudian psychology on the other, merge at the interstices of metatheatre. As the spectators engage in silent discourse with Vargas Llosa's parade of chamaleonic: characters, reading between the lines of their dialogue to construe their dreams and nightmares, the stage becomes a mirror upon which members of the audience, too, can project their own private demons.
Although at times the technical terminology favoured by Rivera-Rodas obscures this humanistic dimension of metatheatre, he has succeeded in deconstructing the elaborate dramatic techniques employed by Vargas Llosa and penetrating and exposing the invisible, psychological layers that shroud his  characters. Roy C.
Each of these brief volumes presents plays by contemporary Argentinean writers. They give an insight into the strikingly divergent thematic and stylistic preferences that characterize one of Latin America's most active national theatres. Teatro contains one-act plays that, although of recent vintage, belong to the neorealistic and absurd traditions that have preserved, even flourished, in this theatre since the s. These works are indelibly Argentinean in language yet truly universal in character and dilemma. Each portrays at least one character's struggle with the effects of alienation that result from their ordinary struggles against a society in decay.
In a way true to the their absurdist ambiguity and like the reality which inspired them, neither play ends with a finite resolution because, as both dramatists mention in their commentaries, mankind continually confronts fear of solitude and alienation. While there is little discussion concerning the importance of Monti to the contemporary Argentinean theatre, the first of the works contained in this volume has become the most polemical of this dramatist's production.
As Pellettieri notes in his twenty-eight page commentary, the work's absolute subjectivity was overwhelming for viewers and critics in Buenos Aires and it closed as a failure. Despite the play's dismal impression, however, Pellettieri insists the work is one of the most significant of contemporary drama in his country and his entire critique is a defense of virtues others have failed to find in the work. For this reader, the play and the critique are difficult to defend: the first because of its stated ambiguities and the latter because of the opaqueness of its language and semiotic criticism.
The second work in this volume is Una historia tendenciosa , a second version of Historia tendenciosa de la clase media argentina The changes Monti made in the most recent of these two plays are such that they are, essentially, different works. The version clearly substantiates Monti's superb skills, particularly regarding dialogue, characterization, and dramatic structure. Indeed, Una historia tendenciosa offers an intriguing, although challenging, poetic interpretation of the historia of Argentina since the middle of the past century. While each of these slim volumes brings important contributions to the contemporary Argentine theatre, together they provide a significant view of the sorts of creative and critical dilemmas and achievements that this theater provides to its dedicated public.
In turn, with these two works Girol reinforces its reputation for providing low cost and high quality publications of contemporary plays and criticism of Hispanic theatre in general. Robert J. The purpose of this book is made clear by its title. Clement A. According to Clement A. He never portrays them as animalistic and inferior, despite the claims of some critics. He never submits them to ridicule, and he never exploits the black culture for his personal artistic gain, never reduces his people to nothing more than a poetic muse.
This fusion allows him to fill the historical gaps and cope with the tragic consequences of slavery. His post-revolutionary  poetry is seen by White as more angry, virulent, satiric, dramatic, condemning, powerful, serious and passionate. He invites Blacks everywhere to embrace communism, his political myth, portraying Castro as the savior of the Cuban people. This series publishes works on both the Spanish language and topics of more general linguistic interests. A short English summary is provided at the beginning of each article. This review will group together thematically-related articles rather than follow the order of the presentation in the volumes.
Volume 8 includes eight articles, one brief note, and eleven book reviews. Emma Martinell Grife examines pragmatic aspects of certain interrogative sentences which are not merely used to ask questions but rather used to produce various speech act effects: e.
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The paper describes situations in which these 'pseudoquestions' are used and characterizes speakers' intentions they convey, but it ends rather inconclusively noting that the neither formal nor pragmatic characterization could disentangle their nature. Further, they are functionally and semantically opposed to other reduplicative structures such as coordination and juxtaposition which may involve categories other than nouns.
It is argued that these expressions are not just unanalyzable idioms. Its semantic analysis should be of interest to both linguists and teachers alike. Semantic structure of connotation is carefully studied within a model of semantic theory that combines linguistic semantics which explains denotative meanings and symptomatic semantics which explains connotative meanings. Juan Crespo Hidalgo's meticulous study suggests that detailed information of more personal nature on Covarrubias helps us understand his lexicographic skills and criteria used in his works.
Covadonga Pendones de Pedro contributes a textual study dealing with the representation of discourse architecture. Volume 9 contains twelve articles, two notes, and seven reviews. He describes different stages of lexicalization of acronyms e. It offers analyses at various linguistic levels with many examples.
It concludes that bueno is in a more advanced stage of the grammaticalization process than bien These two contributions are welcome additions to the list of variation studies of Spanish. In a lexical-dialectal study, Ana Isabel Navarro Carrasco emphasizes the importance of making a good use of many available linguistic atlases in Spain in preparing more comprehensive dictionaries with dialectal differences including also, e.
The contribution by Veronica Orazi is an eleven-page list of legal terms contained in the thirteenth-century Old Leonese document, Fuero Juzgo. Its main purpose is to call for more attention to philological studies of legal terms in medieval Hispano-Romance, an often ignored subfield in Hispanic philology. The articles included in volumes 8 and 9 of ELUA cover a variety of topics in many branches of linguistics from philological studies to pragmatic analyses and from morphology to cognitive semantics, except for formal syntax.
Louise Gluck. Donald Hall. Reginald Dwayne Betts. Jane Hirshfield. Li-Young Lee. Kay Ryan. David Ferry. Adrian Matejka. Matt Rasmussen. John Burnside. Mitchell L.
Patricia Smith. Norbert Krapf. Mary Oliver. Kevin Young. John Grandits. Y GRA The blue tower. Tomaz Salamun. James Lasdun. Mark Jarman. Jillian Weise. Kate Tempest. Camille Paglia. Craig Morgan Teicher. Mary Jo Bang. Sean Thomas Dougherty. Adam Foulds. James Richardson. James McMichael. Nick Flynn. Charles Wright. Ernest Lawrence Thayer. Linea Reimer Geiser. Maya Angelou. Yusef Komunyakaa. Tyler Knott Gregson. Di Piero. Claudia Rankine. The cold war: poems. Kathleen Ossip. Countee Cullen. Jack Gilbert. Robert Hayden.
Lynda Hull. Denise Levertov. Robert Lowell. Ron Padgett. Richard Wilbur.
Allen Ginsberg. Zbigniew Herbert.
Maurice Manning. Scott Cairns. Hart Crane. Joy Harjo. Charles Bukowski. Elizabeth Alexander. Sebastian Barker. Tom Hennen. Ryan Mecum. Saul Williams. Y Mark Doty. Tomas Transtromer. Matthew Rohrer. Bruce Smith. Gregory Pardlo. James Franco. Pat Mora. Y MOR Do not awaken them with hammers. Lidija Dimkovska. Calvin Trillin. James Tate.
- Two Week Vacation?
- Maria Arrillaga.
- What I got from Ireland?;
- Night Rider (Southern Classics Series).
Carl Phillips. Benjamin Alire Saenz. Donald Revell. Y FAI Easy: poems. Marie Ponsot. Vincent Millay. Y MIL Elegy for a broken machine: poems. Patrick Phillips. Bob Hicok. Dean Young. Ann Hostetler. Cathy Park Hong. Kathleen Graber.
His Legacy - Alberto de Lacerda - Portuguese Poet, Alberto de Lacerda
Adam Zagajewski. Marianne Boruch. Christian Wiman. Sophie Cabot Black. Gordon Parks. Sherman Alexie. Philip Schultz.
Poetas uruguayos en Festival de poesía de Nueva Orleans
Alice Oswald. Kathleen Flenniken. Nickole Brown. Grace Paley. Ursula K. Le Guin. Gene Stratton-Porter. Linda Bierds. Michael Dickman. Ted Kooser. Mildred Raynolds Trivers. Jessica Fisher. Jorie Graham. Edward Hirsch. Catherine Barnett. Pattiann Rogers. April Halprin Wayland. Y WAY Given: new poems. Wendell Berry. Thomas Lux. Rachel Hadas. Emily Dickinson. Jon Stallworthy.
Robert Pinsky. Amal al-Jubouri. Beth Griffenhagen. Alice Walker. Laura Cronk. Ellen Bryant Voigt. Mattie J. Major Jackson. Eugene H. Paul Muldoon. David Kirby. Marilyn Nelson. Y NEL Hum. Jamaal May. Seamus Heaney. Brenda Shaughnessy. Sonya Sones.