The presentation focuses on: 1 challenges faced in many schools, 2 research foundations, and 3 examples of reward use at all grade levels. It describes general features of wraparound and examples of implementation. The presentation describes secondary level support in high school PBS system. SWIS training with new features. This is a checklist and summary of procedures needed in order to address a schools readiness prior to SWPBS training. A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management 2nd ed.
Moreno, G. Preventing School Failure, 58 1 , The student population across U. Educators have historically had difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine indicators of emotional and behavioral disorders. It is unfortunate that this difficulty has contributed to a disproportional representation of students from diverse backgrounds in the disability category of emotional and behavioral disorders.
However, the functional behavioral assessment continues to serve as an effective process to better understand challenging behaviors, particularly when it is culturally attuned to the needs of diverse student populations. The authors discuss the significance in meeting the needs of diverse populations, provide an overview of the functional behavioral assessment process, and present considerations in creating a culturally attuned functional behavioral assessment.
While the majority of students in schools tend to respond to effective general academic instruction and proactive schoolwide discipline systems, some continue to exhibit intense and chronic problem behaviors, even in the best schools. For these students, schools are highly variable in their ability and capacity to provide accurate and durable specialized academic and behavioral supports. In these schools, frequent requests are made for assistance to address the specialized needs of these students. The intent of this article is twofold: a to provide an overview of the features that characterize a function-based approach to student support, and b to introduce the main articles within this special issue, which offer a variety of perspectives and practices related to function-based support at the classroom, school, and district level.
Educators and psychologists are concerned about problem behavior. Fortunately, effective interventions and practices have been documented for addressing this problem behavior. However, sustained and expanded uses of these interventions and practices have not been consistent or widespread. One promising approach to the systemic and sustained implementation of these practices is school-wide positive behavior support SWPBS. The SWPBS effort emphasizes an integration of measurable outcomes, data-based decision making, evidence-based practices, and overt support systems for implementers.
This behaviorally based, comprehensive systems approach is suggested as a means of achieving durable implementation of effective school-based interventions. Although the SWPBS approach is conceptually sound and comprised of supportable behavioral practices, further systems-level demonstrations and validations of efficacy, effectiveness, and expansion are recommended. A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy.
The articles in this special Practitioner's Edition of Psychology in the Schools share the application of sound educational and behavioral practices in real school and classroom contexts. Given this emphasis in these articles on the applied use of behavioral practices, the purpose of this brief commentary is to highlight and comment on some of the big ideas that link these practitioner-focused articles. Specifically, three main questions are addressed: a Where did the trianglecome from?
Part of a special section on linking systems for prevention and intervention in emerging models for promoting children's mental health. A commentary on an article by Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil that appeared in this issue on pp. In their article, Atkins et al. The writer commends Atkins et al. He seeks to expand Atkins et al. The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing transition practices.
Suggestions are provided to begin to attend to some of the issues affecting successful transition for children with challenging behavior and include an overarching framework to better support transition practices and specific suggestions for appropriate supports. This article provides an analysis of issues related to personal dignity and social validity in schools. Specifically, dignity is defined in terms of individual success and independence, while social validity is defined in terms of the system as a whole.
These definitions are explored in the context of schoolwide systems of positive behavior support PBS. Descriptions of schoolwide systems of PBS are used to analyze and detail procedures that maintain respect for personal dignity and social validity. In addition, processes for engaging persons in this discussion are critically analyzed. Future development and growth of PBS as a technology-based approach to developing self-determined, independent, and successful persons is discussed.
Direction is suggested in the way we consider issues, define our values, and engage others in systemic change efforts. Systems of positive behavior support PBS that positively affect student performance involve consensus among stakeholders, the development of environments that facilitate student success, effective teaching of rules and procedures, and consistent consequences for behavior. Evaluation of such systems requires schools to collect data to assess performance and to use that information to make data-based decisions. However, surveys indicate that data collection and data-based decision making are among the most difficult components of PBS for school personnel to tackle.
This article examines in-person coaching strategies and data use. A discussion of how coaches may more efficiently assess schools' readiness for coaching styles and content includes suggestions for how coaches might use a range of available assessment tools. Scott, T. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7 4.
In this study, selected staff members from four elementary schools were trained in how to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. They then formed school-based intervention teams and served as facilitators for a total of 31 cases. The same cases also were distributed to three national FBA experts who selected interventions based on the identified function for each case.
The number and type of selected intervention strategies were recorded and analyzed across cases. Comparisons between team and expert intervention strategy selection revealed that school-based personnel in this study were more likely to select punitive and exclusionary strategies, regardless of function. Thus, in real-world school settings, the link between FBA and intervention is far more complex than has been recognized or discussed in the literature. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the finding that school-based teams tend to gravitate toward more negative and exclusionary strategies, even when mediated by a trained FBA facilitator.
Behavioral Disorders, 29 2 , Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, schools have a legal obligation to conduct functional behavior assessments FBAs when developing intervention plans for students with disabilities whose behaviors lead their individualized education program teams to consider a change in educational placement, including suspension and expulsion. However, FBA also holds significant promise as a procedure to be used proactively with students with behavioral challenges who are educated in part, or wholly, in general education classrooms.
Unfortunately, current conceptualizations of FBA as a methodologically rigorous procedure pose significant and possibly insurmountable barriers to proactive implementation in general education settings. The authors analyze these barriers through a targeted review of the literature, an examination of how the characteristics of general education settings promote the use of less demanding FBA methodologies, and a consideration of situations in which certain FBA procedures generally are contraindicated.
Finally, they advocate an active research agenda that is responsive to the particular challenges of public school settings and FBA students with and at risk for mild disabilities. Preventing School Failure, 50 1 , Functional behavior assessment FBA is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly challenging behaviors.
As tertiary prevention, FBA is complex, time-consuming, and rigorous--aimed at students for whom all previous intervention attempts have been unsuccessful. Whereas the concepts of prediction, function, and prevention remain constant at all levels of positive behavior support, the considerations for and form of FBA may vary greatly.
The authors present the application of FBA practices at each of the three levels of a system of positive behavior support. To be effective, intervention with these students must occur as early as possible in a pattern of failure--using practices that represent an individual student's best chance for success. It offers some useful insights beyond those traditionally encountered in personnel preparation programs in transition from school to adult living. It suggests that there may well be another side to the protectionist-feel good ethic in our society.
The authors reported anecdotal data from coworkers in these typical community work settings suggesting that their jobs became enriched and more satisfying and fulfilling for had the experience of working alongside coworkers. Thousands of Schools throughout the country are now implementing school-wide positive behavior support SWPBS as a way to improve school culture, safety, and climate.
Research is needed to assess the effects of implementing SWPBS on a teacher stress and b and teacher efficacy. The present pilot study provides a preliminary study of these variables by analyzing self-report measures conducted by 20 teachers within schools of differing levels of SWPBS implementation. Results indicated a statistically significant relationship between SWPBS implementation and teacher perception of educational efficacy. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, but rather a trend in the anticipated direction between SWPBS implementation and reduced perception of teacher stress.
Limitations of the study are discussed and directions for future research are recommended. Evaluation of out-of-district special education placement costs in the 15 largest Massachusetts public school districts found the criterion school district which had developed a system-wide approach to behavioral intervention had the lowest per capita cost, lowest percentage of total school budget consumed by out-of-district placements, and the highest proportion of special needs students in inclusive educational classrooms.
Reports on a longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Study design and methods; Number of detentions recorded for the three behavior categories; Decreasing trend in the number of detentions each year for vandalism and substance use; Percentage of student attendance and earning a lottery drawing per term.
A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy: Vol. This study involved a longitudinal analysis of academic skills and problem behavior through elementary school. The purposes of the study were a to explore the interactions between reading skills and problem behavior, and b to determine the value of regular screening assessments in predicting which students would not respond to school-wide behavior support in fifth grade.
The participants were elementary school students who entered kindergarten in and completed fifth grade in a school district with school-wide reading and behavior support systems. Analyses consisted of logistic regressions to predict the number of discipline contacts in fifth grade. Results indicated that both reading and behavior variables including kindergarten reading variables significantly predicted the number of discipline referrals received in fifth grade.
Results are discussed in terms of determining pathways to problem behavior and implications for a combined approach to academic and behavior problems. This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support.
This combined approach may be more successful due to the number of shared critical features in both systems. McIntosh, K. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10 1 , With the recent increase in the use of functional behavior assessment FBA in school settings, there has been an emphasis in practice on the development and use of effective, efficient methods of conducting FBAs, particularly indirect assessment tools such as interviews.
There are both benefits and drawbacks to these tools, and their technical adequacy is often unknown. This article presents a framework for assessing the measurement properties of FBA interview tools and uses this framework to assess evidence for reliability and validity of one interview tool, the Functional Assessment Checklist. Results derived from 10 research studies using the FACTS indicate strong evidence of test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement, moderate to strong evidence of convergent validity with direct observation and functional analysis procedures, strong evidence of treatment utility, and strong evidence of social validity.
Results are discussed in terms of future validation research for FBA methods and tools. Overviews the focus, scope, and practice of behavioral consultation to public schools. A four-stage process of behavioral intervention is described, followed by a discussion on the expanding role of behavior support intervention. The involvement of consultants in the design of individual-student, classroom-wide, and whole-school programs is considered. We present a "practitioner's guide" to social skills assessment and intervention with students attending public schools.
Important characteristics of assessment instruments are discussed, including psychometric properties and strategies applicable to school settings. We then review several social skills assessment protocols and rating scales that can be used efficiently by school psychologists, teachers, and other related professionals. We conclude with a summary of salient issues and recommendations to facilitate the routine assessment and teaching of social skills by school practitioners.
As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support PBS processes expands nationally, at least 5, schools are participating , increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators.
Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact.
Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level. A book chapter in the book "Effective interventions for classrooms, schools, and communities: Making a difference in the lives of students with learning and behavioral problems.
Recent research recommends addressing individual student needs within a schoolwide discipline system. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of individual student systems, identify guidelines for implementing a function-based model, and describe a case study of a district's attempts to build a comprehensive district-based individual student support systems cadre.
Through research-based content coupled with practical examples, this book prepares teachers to effectively manage the behaviors of students with emotional and behavior disorders. In this evaluation we used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral ODR measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools.
The Messick approach provided a rubric for testing the fit of our theory of use of ODR measures with empirical data on reported and actual use. It also facilitated our demonstration of Messick's principle that validation is both a developmental and an ongoing collaborative process among developers of educational and psychological measures, researchers interested in theories underlying such measures, and educators who use these measures in professional practice.
We used a single-group, nonexperimental evaluation design to survey users of ODR measures from the standardized School Wide Information System in 22 elementary and 10 middle schools; respondents included school staff involved exclusively with data entry and staff actively involved in data-based decision making.
Results were highly consistent across 2 independent data sources—electronic database records of actual access of summaries of ODR measures and self-report survey responses regarding frequencies and types of uses of ODR measures for decision making. Results indicated that ODR measures are regularly used for a variety of types of data-based decision making and are regarded as both efficient and effective for those purposes.
Ingram, K. Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7 4 , Functional behavioral assessment FBA has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans.
Success for All
In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information function-based were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information non-function- based in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single- subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non-function-based behavior intervention plans.
Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed. A book chapter in the book "Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans. A book chapter in the book "National goals and research for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
A book chapter in the book "Instruction of students with severe disabilities. Individualized trans-situational interventions TSIs were implemented with three middle-school students at risk for school failure. Problem behaviors in school were reduced and linked to problem behavior reduction in the home when concurrent behavior support was established in the home and at school. School-wide positive behavior support SWPBS has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills.
It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. Practical considerations in each of these areas will be identified and discussed so that practitioners can anticipate their needs as they create effective SWPBS, particularly in low performing urban schools. As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support SWPBS as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues.
Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources and supports needed to implement and sustain such district-wide systems change efforts and build an infrastructure to support SWPBS initiatives. Successful implementation of school-wide positive behavior support requires a continuous evaluation of program data. It also requires an ongoing review of how those data relate to organizational strengths, needs, professional development concerns, and the larger community.
Accomplishing these tasks can be a formidable undertaking, particularly when school staff members have limited training in data-based decision making. This article will describe how a continuous systems-level assessment process is being implemented in one urban middle school to address behavioral and academic objectives. This article reports on 2 studies investigating a response-to-intervention RTI approach to behavior support in 2 second-grade classrooms.
The results suggest that a slightly more intensive but efficient targeted intervention "check in and check out" was effective in supporting the social behavior success of 4 students whose problem behaviors were unresponsive to general classroom management practices.
For 4 other students whose problem behaviors continued to be unresponsive to the "check-in and check-out" intervention, more individualized and function-based interventions were indicated and proved to be effective. The results from this research suggest that RTI logic can be applied to the social behavior support of students who present interfering problem behaviors in the classroom.
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Implications and recommendations for research and practice are discussed. A book chapter from the book "Effective practices for children with autism: Educational and behavior support interventions that work. We examined the extent to which state departments of education are including a goals for student social behavior in their mission statements; b criteria for individual student, classroom, and schoolwide behavior support in certification standards for general education teachers, special education teachers, and principals; and c state initiatives focused on improving student social behavior.
Web-based information from state departments of education from all 50 states and from the District of Columbia were reviewed in the fall of Character education was the most common state initiative cited for improving social behavior in schools. Burke, M. The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors: Preliminary results from a single-case experiment. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, This single-subject experiment explored the use of functional behavioral assessment to develop an intervention plan for a third-grade student with a learning disability, who exhibited high rates of problem behaviors during reading instruction.
A functional analysis of the subject's behaviors revealed a relation between his problem behaviors and the nature of the academic tasks presented during reading instruction. The results provide preliminary evidence to support the use of functional behavioral assessment to influence instructional planning designed to improve the behaviors of students who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors related to academic tasks. The results are of particular relevance as researchers continue to explore effective interventions that support students with learning disabilities.
Borgmeier, C. An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8 2 , Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based hypotheses developed from staff interviews.
The current study evaluated conditions in which a similar rating of informant confidence was effective in predicting the accuracy of functional assessment hypothesis statements. Nine students with problem behavior were identified, and functional behavioral assessment interviews with confidence scores were completed with 58 staff members. Between five and eight adults were interviewed about each student. Functional analyses were conducted to assess agreement with functional assessment hypotheses and the predictive value of confidence ratings.
Results suggested limitations to the general use of confidence ratings in distinguishing accurate from inaccurate functional hypotheses across school staff with a broad range of contact with the target student. The nuances of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports PBS in an urban high school setting were investigated. The results indicated that schoolwide PBS was implemented in an urban high school setting with some success. Staff and teachers increased their level of perceived priority for implementing PBS in their school.
A decrease in monthly discipline referrals to the office and the proportion of students who required secondary and tertiary supports was noted. These findings seem to indicate that PBS may be an important process for improving outcomes for teachers and students in urban high school settings. The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support SWPBS.
A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating educational programs. The authors also describe the specific data and measurement and analytic procedures that cost analysis evaluation requires. Blair, K. Early Childhood Special Education, 27 3 , In the current investigation, the processes of functional assessment and function-based intervention were used to resolve the severe challenging behaviors of a boy with autism and mental retardation in an inclusive kindergarten in South Korea.
A multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with classroom personnel and was implemented entirely by the teacher and an aide in the context of a multiple-baseline-across-activities experimental design. Results were empirical validation of hypotheses derived from the functional assessment, as well as lower levels of challenging behaviors and increased rates of appropriate behaviors associated with the intervention.
Positive interactions with a designated classroom peer and with the teacher also increased. The findings are discussed as contributions to the growing literature on functional assessment and function-based supports and the importance of promoting successful inclusive experiences for young children with disabilities. Researchers and educators have recognized that typical school-wide approaches to discipline and the prevention and management of problem behavior are often insufficient to address the needs of many students in inner-city schools with high base rates of problem behavior.
This article outlines critical issues and lessons learned in the planning and implementation of effective and self-sustaining Positive Behavior Support PBS efforts in inner-city schools. Among these issues are methods for the facilitation of school-university partnerships, the incorporation of PBS into existing comprehensive school improvement efforts, the maintenance of school-wide PBS efforts, and the formalization of exit strategies and arrangements for subsequent technical assistance. The importance of service integration, family support, youth development, and community development are emphasized in ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of school-wide PBS efforts in inner-city settings.
Although school-wide PBS has been implemented in hundreds of schools thus far, many professionals in education and psychology remain, for the most part, unfamiliar with this proactive alternative for increasing positive student behavior. This article reviews the foundations and core components of school-wide PBS, provides a case example of the implementation and preliminary evaluation of school-wide PBS in an urban middle school, and summarizes critical issues and future research directions in this area of considerable importance to professionals in educational psychology and related fields.
This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs. This article presents information related to positive behavior support as a family-centred endeavor. Many authors have noted that optimal positive behavior support is conducted with sensitivity to the family's need, goals and circumstances. Such family-centered positive behavior support PBS has the potential to produce substantial and durable improvements in a child's behavior and, importantly, to yield lifestyle benefits for other family members.
Although a number of authors have advanced these positions, there remains a need for more research and practical reports regarding the process and outcomes of family-centered PBS. Discusses urban school improvement and positive behavior support as the focus of the special edition of the 'Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions' in fall Themes discussed during a Behavior Summit in Washington, D.
A five-part article describes and analyzes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA and a behavioral intervention technique called "positive behavioral interventions, supports, and strategies" PBS. A book chapter in the book "Interventions for academic and behavior problems: Preventive and remedial approaches. A book chapter in the book "Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Over the last two decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the potential of functional assessment and antecedent-based interventions, as well as to the importance of ecological validity in the evaluation of intervention practices.
However, despite this increased interest, it is not clear to what degree trends in intervention research over the past two decades have mirrored this discussion. The current investigation was derived from a database of intervention research from the last 22 years across developmental as well as behavioral disabilities.
The study was designed to ascertain to what degree the research literature is reflecting the increased interest in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, and to what extent it is achieving ecological validity by including the participation of typical intervention agents and settings. The results confirm anticipated increases in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, but fail to show evidence of overall increases in ecological validity.
Potential implications of these findings, and future research directions, are explored in the discussion. The past decade has given rise to a resurgence of interest in the investigation of antecedent events that "set the stage" for the occurrence of problem behaviors and, correspondingly, the role of these antecedents in developing preventative interventions.
A growing literature supports the impact of teacher interactions and classroom structure on the overall classroom environment, specifically student behavior.
Due to the complexity of natural settings, current protocols for assessing these setting factors for effective development of preventative strategies present limitations in external validity. The current investigation piloted a structural assessment tool Setting Factors Assessment Tool-SFAT designed to measure varying types of, as well as concurrent, classroom setting factors in a classroom context. The results of a traditional school-based functional assessment descriptive assessment , an analog-based structural analysis, and the SFAT were compared.
SFAT assessment results were provided to the teacher in the form of environmental and instructional recommendations. Results indicated that classroom-based environmental and instructional modifications were successful in reducing the student's problem behavior.
Further, two-month follow-up data indicated maintenance of the original reductions. Implications for a school-based structural assessment protocol as well as directions for future research are discussed. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14 1 , Although functional behavior assessment FBA has been widely recognized as a promising practice for providing proactive interventions with students exhibiting challenging behaviors in typical schools, questions persist as to how FBA should best be trained and used in such public settings.
Debate has balanced the issue of what is practical for public school personnel and whether FBA can ever reach that level of practicality while maintaining a level of integrity necessary to be a valid technology for behavior intervention. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the perceptions and practices of 13 school-based FBA teams that included one or more members who received a 1-day workshop on FBA. Teams were asked to respond to a brief questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the process, what information they found useful, and how that information was used.
Results indicate several problem issues and barriers that must be addressed before team-based FBA is widely advocated and practiced in public school settings. Sample team responses and discussion of future directions are included. Presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support.
Descriptions of how PBS efforts were initiated in the school; Time and money spent preparing for and implementing PBS; Use of changes in behavior referrals and suspension to evaluate the effect of PBS on the larger system. Sansosti, F. A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, an appropriate real-time computing language would need to be chosen. Additionally, to satisfy the need for reliability the choice could be made to have multiple redundant and independently produced copies of the program, and to run these copies on independent hardware while cross-checking results.
Documenting software architecture facilitates communication between stakeholders , captures early decisions about the high-level design, and allows reuse of design components between projects. Opinions vary as to the scope of software architectures: . There is no sharp distinction between software architecture versus design and requirements engineering see Related fields below. They are all part of a "chain of intentionality" from high-level intentions to low-level details.
Multitude of stakeholders: software systems have to cater to a variety of stakeholders such as business managers, owners, users, and operators. These stakeholders all have their own concerns with respect to the system. Balancing these concerns and demonstrating how they are addressed is part of designing the system.
Separation of concerns : the established way for architects to reduce complexity is to separate the concerns that drive the design. Architecture documentation shows that all stakeholder concerns are addressed by modeling and describing the architecture from separate points of view associated with the various stakeholder concerns. Quality-driven: classic software design approaches e.
Jackson Structured Programming were driven by required functionality and the flow of data through the system, but the current insight  : 26—28 is that the architecture of a software system is more closely related to its quality attributes such as fault-tolerance , backward compatibility , extensibility , reliability , maintainability , availability , security, usability, and other such — ilities. Stakeholder concerns often translate into requirements on these quality attributes, which are variously called non-functional requirements , extra-functional requirements, behavioral requirements, or quality attribute requirements.
Recurring styles: like building architecture, the software architecture discipline has developed standard ways to address recurring concerns. These "standard ways" are called by various names at various levels of abstraction. Common terms for recurring solutions are architectural style,  : — tactic,  : 70—72 reference architecture   and architectural pattern. Conceptual integrity: a term introduced by Fred Brooks in The Mythical Man-Month to denote the idea that the architecture of a software system represents an overall vision of what it should do and how it should do it.
This vision should be separated from its implementation. The architect assumes the role of "keeper of the vision", making sure that additions to the system are in line with the architecture, hence preserving conceptual integrity. Cognitive constraints: an observation first made in a paper by computer programmer Melvin Conway that organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.
As with conceptual integrity, it was Fred Brooks who introduced it to a wider audience when he cited the paper and the idea in his elegant classic The Mythical Man-Month , calling it "Conway's Law. Software architecture is an "intellectually graspable" abstraction of a complex system. The comparison between software design and civil architecture was first drawn in the late s,  but the term software architecture became prevalent only in the beginning of the s.
Although the term "software architecture" is relatively new to the industry, the fundamental principles of the field have been applied sporadically by software engineering pioneers since the mids. Early attempts to capture and explain software architecture of a system were imprecise and disorganized, often characterized by a set of box-and-line diagrams.
Software architecture as a concept has its origins in the research of Edsger Dijkstra in and David Parnas in the early s. These scientists emphasized that the structure of a software system matters and getting the structure right is critical. During the s there was a concerted effort to define and codify fundamental aspects of the discipline, with research work concentrating on architectural styles patterns , architecture description languages , architecture documentation , and formal methods.
Research institutions have played a prominent role in furthering software architecture as a discipline. Mary Shaw and David Garlan of Carnegie Mellon wrote a book titled Software Architecture: Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline in , which promoted software architecture concepts such as components , connectors, and styles.
The University of California, Irvine 's Institute for Software Research's efforts in software architecture research is directed primarily in architectural styles, architecture description languages, and dynamic architectures. This reflects the relationship between software architecture, enterprise architecture and solution architecture.
There are many activities that a software architect performs. A software architect typically works with project managers, discusses architecturally significant requirements with stakeholders, designs a software architecture, evaluates a design, communicates with designers and stakeholders, documents the architectural design and more.
Architectural analysis is the process of understanding the environment in which a proposed system or systems will operate and determining the requirements for the system. The input or requirements to the analysis activity can come from any number of stakeholders and include items such as:. The outputs of the analysis activity are those requirements that have a measurable impact on a software system's architecture, called architecturally significant requirements.
Architectural synthesis or design is the process of creating an architecture. Given the architecturally significant requirements determined by the analysis, the current state of the design and the results of any evaluation activities, the design is created and improved. Architecture evaluation is the process of determining how well the current design or a portion of it satisfies the requirements derived during analysis. An evaluation can occur whenever an architect is considering a design decision, it can occur after some portion of the design has been completed, it can occur after the final design has been completed or it can occur after the system has been constructed.
Architecture evolution is the process of maintaining and adapting an existing software architecture to meet changes in requirements and environment. As software architecture provides a fundamental structure of a software system, its evolution and maintenance would necessarily impact its fundamental structure. As such, architecture evolution is concerned with adding new functionality as well as maintaining existing functionality and system behavior.
Architecture requires critical supporting activities.
These supporting activities take place throughout the core software architecture process. They include knowledge management and communication, design reasoning and decision making, and documentation. Software architecture supporting activities are carried out during core software architecture activities. These supporting activities assist a software architect to carry out analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and evolution.
For instance, an architect has to gather knowledge, make decisions and document during the analysis phase. Software architecture description involves the principles and practices of modeling and representing architectures, using mechanisms such as: architecture description languages, architecture viewpoints, and architecture frameworks. Mining and analyzing online networks makes use of accurate data, is cost-effective, and may be less obtrusive than pen-and-paper surveys. Online data can be used at any point during the different stages of program implementation, whether it is from emails for coordination, or fully integrating social media websites into an intervention.
Much of the technology that supports online interactions is inherently designed to connect different persons and groups, and thus is ideal for network exploration. As more methods of communication become digital, researchers need to capitalize on the plethora of network data that can be made available. In addition, experience indicates that collecting network data via surveys, either electronically or with paper, is easy and efficient. Everyone knows who they go to for advice or whom they spend time with. Finally, incorporating network data into program design and intervention may enable us to conceive of new interventions.
For example, school-based programs are often created with the intention of delivering the same content to all students. Yet, we know that students cluster into identifiable cliques and groups. Consequently, it makes sense to design separate interventions for different groups or cliques of students, particularly when those groups are distinct.
This brief introduction to the application of social network analysis for program implementation is not comprehensive and highlights that much work remains to be done. Many of the suggestions provided here are based on limited evidence at this point in time, but the available evidence is promising. Social network analyses can be applied to intervention development and implementation to foster and enhance the implementation process. There is no rigorous comprehensive database of network experiences for this applied work at the present time.
There is, however, a wealth of knowledge about how to collect and analyze social network data, and a plethora of measures, both individual- and network-level, that can be used to improve the design, delivery, and assessment of public health interventions. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.
Social Network Procedures for Program Implementation Social networks are ubiquitous and arise from interactions between individuals or organizations in many different settings. Why SNA Matters for Implementation Getting evidence-based programs into practice has increasingly been recognized as a concern in many domains of public health and medicine [ 4 , 5 ].
Download: PPT. Fig 1. Sample organizational network with nodes colored by department. Frameworks for the Stages of Implementation In order to apply social network theory and methods to implementation, we note first that implementation can be considered a developmental process, a transition through known stages [ 1 , 34 ]. Fig 2. Network with nodes colored by their groups based on a community detection algorithm.
Program design Once satisfied that a successful needs assessment has been conducted, the implementation team can turn to the task of designing the intervention either by adapting an existing evidence-based one so that it meets the needs of the community, or designing a new program. Sustainment and Monitoring After the program has been implemented, the hope of most interventionists is that the program will continue to be implemented and the impact of the program on outcomes sustained over the long term.
Table 1. Network Analyses Procedures for each Stage of Implementation. Potential Benefits Using network data to inform all stages of program development and implementation offers considerable potential benefits in a number of areas. Conclusions This brief introduction to the application of social network analysis for program implementation is not comprehensive and highlights that much work remains to be done.
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