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Albert R. And the cause, you quickly learned, was an absolutely nonnegotiable, visceral requirement in her to get food and money to the starving, medicines to the sick, shelter for the homeless, papers for the stateless and, just generally, in the most secular, muscular, businesslike, down-to-earth way you can imagine, perform miracles. And though by age, occupation, nationality and birth my Tessa was far removed from Yvette, Tessa's commitment to the poor of Africa, particularly its women, her contempt for protocol and her unswerving, often maddening determination to have her way stemmed quite consciously so far as I was concerned, from Yvette's example.
Fernando Meirelles replaced Mike Newell as the film's director. Newell was originally set to direct, but he dropped out after being offered Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire , which co-incidentally also featured actor Ralph Fiennes. In the letter, the producer pleaded his case for being given the chance to turn the novel into a film. When Rudell replied and suggested a meeting, Channing Williams volunteered to fly from London to New York that same evening. The producer explained: "I wanted to prove to him how serious I was about making it into a movie, because I thought the book was so extraordinary.
It delves into the rapaciousness of big business, the abuse of the African peoples, governmental corruption, and at the root of it all, an utterly compelling love story. It was such a heartfelt, angry book, and, sadly, I believe it will remain relevant for many, many years to come. Screenwriter Jeffrey Caine said of Big Pharma: "I don't expect The Constant Gardener to change the conduct of international pharmaceutical companies. It might - best case - draw the attention of audiences to certain widespread practices of Big Pharma and in some small way help create a climate for more responsible behavior.
The most important thing for me is that the film should illustrate the nature of commitment. His second was for Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy Bonnie Dunbar , a molecular biologist and former professor at Houston's Baylor College of Medicine, and who at the time of the movie was made, lived in a suburb of Nairobi in Kenya where the film was partially shot, vouched for accuracies in the film's plot.
She commented: "I was quite fascinated by the parallels with things I have experienced in my professional life. The lobbying by the international organizations, as well as the amount of money poured into cover-ups ring true to me. Hopefully the murder aspect of the story is not true-to-life, but when there's big money involved. Although director Fernando Meirelles regarded Kenya as "almost the third principal character in the movie", the filmmakers originally considered shooting most of the Kenyan scenes in South Africa, where there is a thriving film industry and a more established infrastructure.
Producer Simon Channing Williams noted: "The idea was for us to come to Kenya to see where the book was set and then go down to South Africa. But I'm delighted to say that, within twenty-four hours of our arrival, Fernando and I both knew that we didn't want to move from Kenya at all.
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Of course, there were serious problems in terms of insurance, in terms of the perception that Kenya was a very dangerous place to be - which we found not to be the case. We fought long and hard; it was very clear from the outset that Kenya was where we should be. We were trying to show the truth, to be as faithful as we could be, using real locations and natural light. If a mortuary was lit with fluorescents, we went with fluorescent lighting.
It was very important to us not to choose locations because they were more filmic or more beautiful. Then, as we started getting deeper into the project, it was as if we were dealing with two different realities, two different worlds. There was Justin's old world, where he came from, with the British High Commission. As he finds out more about Tessa, she becomes his door into a new world, the real Africa that he had been unable or unwilling to see.
We determined that Justin's world England would in cool greens, while Tessa's world Africa would be in warm reds. The letters CD denote that the car belongs to a diplomat. The Liberal Club scene includes screenwriter Jeffrey Caine in "a nifty little cameo as a club porter". Caine said: "I'd been banging on to [director] Fernando [Meirelles] about the actors improvising on my lines, and Fernando had been spreading his hands and saying, 'Actors have to have some space to do this; what can I do?
He said, 'Now you know what I have to put up with'. According to the film's press kit, "activists accuse some Big Pharma companies of ignoring innovation to develop barely distinguishable "me-too" drugs based on proven "blockbusters", focusing their efforts on what ails the rich Western market - e. The latter countries are being ravaged by AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, the last-named affecting approximately five hundred million people a year and, by some estimates, killing a child approximately every twenty seconds.
While these nascent nations bear an outsize burden of disease, they account for only a tiny fraction of Big Pharma's profits. The movie's production notes state: "When all other arguments fail, some spokespeople for the pharmaceutical industry remind that theirs is not a philanthropic enterprise, and that their greatest responsibility is to their shareholders. Star and lead actor Ralph Fiennes said of the movie's filming: "One of the great things about the experience was that we shot in real places in Nairobi.
There isn't a strong film infrastructure in Kenya, so we weren't shooting with professional, practiced extras. The feeling towards the film on the part of the people was very positive; they engaged with something that was happening in their neighborhood. I never felt any resentment or negativity. The sensitivities of the locals were not only acknowledged, they were embraced by the camera so that they felt part of the project. On a subtle level, you're already responding physically and emotionally to the environment.
It belonged to the mother of film's wardrobe supervisor, Elizabeth Glaysher , who grew up there. Sonia's gardener, Celia Hardy, was the "gardening coach" for Ralph Fiennes. With the exception of some flowering plants added for color and texture by the production design crew, Justin Quayle's on-screen garden was the result of Celia's year-round handiwork. At the end of the shooting day in the Kiambu market, director Fernando Meirelles noticed that a crowd of school children had gathered behind a barricade blocking off the set.
He approached them and called out, "Okay, who wants to be in a movie? Knowing that there was some disappointment among the other children, Meirelles returned to the horde of kids and shouted, "Okay, everybody! The barricade was lifted, and a stampede of school kids engulfed the crew.
The amount of dust raised precluded this latter shot from appearing in the finished film; it was one of the few spontaneous moments that couldn't stay in. In addition to shooting whenever the spirit moved them and wherever they could, Charlone would occasionally hand a lightweight camera to actor Ralph Fiennes to shoot, for example, Justin's POV of a plant in a nursery or of his household staff offering their condolences after Tessa's murder. Producer Simon Channing Williams dubbed the method "the 'if it moves, shoot it! You know, the focus-pullers had one of the hardest tasks on this film and, incredibly, nine times out of ten, they would get it perfectly.
The Kiambu Police Chief's office was used for the police station sequence where Justin Quayle Ralph Fiennes is taken in for questioning. Detective Inspector Deasey, who arrives at the scene, was portrayed by Ben Parker , a real-life press officer at the U. The production were able to film in Kenya, Africa due to producer Simon Channing Williams ' diplomacy skills liaising with Kenyan government officials. Nor did the novel's criticism of the British diplomatic corps prevent the current, real-life High Commissioner, Edward Clay , from offering his support to the filmmakers.
Director Fernando Meirelles felt that his perspective was different from the outset. When I read the book, I put myself in the other position. I saw myself in Africa, with the big companies coming in. In some respects, Jeffrey Caine 's script tells the story through Kenyan eyes and, as a person from the Third World, I identified more with the Kenyans than with the British. But what he inherited was a story told through British eyes, embedded in a British post-imperial subculture with which he wasn't wholly familiar.
Unsurprising, then, that he would want these elements de-emphasized and the African elements given more prominence, without tipping the story out of balance. This I think we achieved. Producer Simon Channing Williams welcomed the new light that director Fernando Meirelles cast on the film's subject matter. Channing Williams noted: "I feared we might get stuck in a 'middle-class British male' box. When Fernando signed on, suddenly all those middle-class prejudices were thrown out the window.
Fernando's perception is all to do with character as opposed to class. Production Designer Mark Tildesley commented on the African shoot in Kenya: "When I first read the book, I thought it was something that described and would appeal to my father's generation. But then we went to these clubs in Nairobi and it's like a time warp, even at the British High Commission.
They try to get funky and tell you they ride a bike to work, but then they ring a bell for breakfast and people come in to serve it with white gloves. What we really needed to do was to make people have a sense of Africa, and care about Africa in order to understand the story. So it couldn't all be cricket and gin-and-tonics.
Mario Zvan , executive producer for the film's Kenyan production partners Blue Sky Films, revealed: "East Africa is very different from South Africa, and [director] Fernando [Meirelles] and [producer] Simon [Channing Williams] understood that immediately. The people look different, the vegetation is different, the light is different, the buildings are different.
Shooting this story in South Africa would have been like filming a Boston tale in Miami. I'd worked in Morocco but I'd never been to Kenya or anywhere else in Africa. The sights, sounds, and smells are like nowhere else. It's more than just a backdrop because 'The Constant Gardener' is an African story, dealing with how the West uses the continent as a laboratory. Emily Mabonga , Kenyan extras casting coordinator, clarified about the film shoot in Kenya: "It's not that we don't have an infrastructure for filming in Kenya; it's more that it had been forgotten. Other extras and background artists were recruited from the professions being portrayed; for example, the members of the press intruding in the funeral sequence were all journalists and photographers working in Kenya.
Actor Donald Sumpter , who plays the secretive Tim Donohue, said: "With [director] Fernando [Meirelles], nothing is rigidly choreographed. You get people buzzing around, and actually going in and out of focus. You get real impressions of things, which is fantastic. Actor Danny Huston , who speaks from past experience as a film director himself, said of the movie's director's filming methods: "It was a delightful way to work. Film stock is so sensitive these days that you don't have to use so many lights, and you don't have to hit your mark every time.
This wasn't a Hollywood film where you needed your backlight, a key light, and a little click in your eyes to make sure you looked absolutely glamorous. The story our film tells needed reality. They then talked to the people and explained our purpose for being there, and how it could benefit the community. We employed about two thousand people in various areas and built some lasting structures. It was quite an experience for the locals. This was the biggest film ever to shoot in Kibera, and I think they learned a lot from the process. There is a lot of talent there. Bernard Otieno Oduor , who plays Jomo, was brought up in Kibera.
They have drama schools and theatre groups. Who knows? Maybe one of the local kids will grow up to become a big actor like Ralph Fiennes. After more than a month of filming in Kenya, the unit left the Norfolk Hotel and the cool, diesel-choked mountain air of downtown Nairobi. A few colorfully painted wooden shacks appear to constitute the whole of Ol Tapese, yet the seemingly barren landscape is in fact teeming with magnificent life. Red-clad Masai herdsmen seemingly materialize from the vast expanse.
Kenyan extras casting coordinator, Emily Mabonga , said: "In Kenya, we always joke that you can be driving along a road and there's nobody; then you have an accident and a million people show up. It may look remote, but there are always people out there. The unit moved nearby to an archaeological site on the spectacular cliffs of the Rift Valley in Kenya to shoot a car chase in which Justin Quayle Ralph Fiennes , in a borrowed Fiat, is pursued by the initially unseen driver of a Land Rover.
Producer Simon Channing Williams revealed: "Literally two miles down the road from where we were shooting, I'd gone to check the location we were planning to use for our helicopter shots, only to find that the Smithsonian Institute had taken our spot; they had found remains of our forebears that were , years old, the oldest human remains found on earth. As in Kenya's Kibera, in Loiyangalani in Kenya, a welcoming community and the constant companionship of dozens of friendly, fearless children made for an unforgettable work experience for those who were there.
Between takes, star Ralph Fiennes and two of the other actors were frequently obliged to ask for their set-side chairs to be vacated by local children, only to have the kids settle into their laps and perch on the arms of their chairs. At dawn in Loiyangalani in Kenya, local extras and laborers gathered on the set to sing and dance in celebration of the day's work.
Locals were also advised that they could visit the doctor and nurses in the unit's first aid tent. Word of the medical attention traveled quickly, as an elderly Turkana walked from his home forty kilometers away to consult the doctor about his joint pains; the diagnosis was the all-too-familiar combination of old age, malnutrition, and dehydration.
It's such a beautiful place. But I can never, and will never, forget the problems the continent has, which were so much bigger than I was expecting. We talked about this on location; when a British man says that a country is poor, that's one thing, but when a Brazilian man like myself says it, well, that's something else. And what of their future? It's hard to have hope for the future, and yet we must. The production's initiative to return something to the communities that welcomed the film shoot continues unabated. Producer Simon Channing Williams set up a charitable trust, saying, "This is not about supporting a charity that has a large overhead and new 4x4 vehicles.
Rather, our intention is to directly support the areas that have helped us so much, as well as a few specific others. Additionally, we are researching programs that care for children on a non-denominational basis; water programs for the areas in which we have filmed; and the performing arts. Why that, you may ask. So now, the movies must do their part. Channel 4 program 'Dying for Drugs' as documentary evidence on the practices of some pharmaceutical companies in the developing world. What isn't in the book was provided by some very well-informed medical contacts and fed to me in small spoonfuls as directed.
It's all very well to say, as no doubt some will, 'Big Pharma is too obvious a target'. But evils need to be publicized and to go on being publicized as long as they exist, which is forever. In regards to the filming location of Kibera in Kenya, schoolmaster David Mogambi Nyakambi pointed out: "People want to live in Kibera because it is close to where the work is, and it is relatively safe; people rarely steal here because there is nothing to steal. Although some people do manage to save enough money to move back to their native villages farther up country, many more are born and die in Kibera.
In addition to the absence of even the most basic amenities, the residents are severely afflicted by the AIDS epidemic; it is estimated that one in six Kenyans is HIV-positive, and the percentage is surely higher in Kibera. As in all of sub-Saharan Africa, the number of orphans in Kibera rises daily; the social services needed to look after them are all but nonexistent.
Without fail, flocks of tiny children gleefully greet every foreigner who visits Kibera, shaking hands and addressing them particularly, a mzungu [white outsider] with, "How are you? How are you? Screenwriter Jeffrey Caine reported: "[That phrase is] their only English. What impressed me was how friendly and happy the kids were. They follow you everywhere, not begging for hand-outs but putting out their hands to be held. Saving the most significant phase of principal photography for last, this afforded director Fernando Meirelles the visual and storytelling opportunities he had counted on, when the production moved to Kenya in early June , for nearly two months of shooting in Nairobi in Kenya, and other parts of this African country.
The unit, after shooting at the Lord Errol Restaurant in Nairobi in Kenya, next filmed at the private Royal Nairobi Club, and at the other end of the spectrum, a city dump near River Road in Nairobi's "combat zone". The dump was a home to a community of down-and-outs, most of them solvent abusers. Glue-sniffing is a big problem among street-dwellers in Nairobi, both adults and small children alike; extending beyond even the sadly recognizable addictive elements, glue fumes are said to stave off hunger.
Additional locations in and around Nairobi, Kenya included the Nairobi City Mortuary, where the scene of Tessa's body being identified was filmed; Langata Cemetery; the Kenyatta Hospital records office; Boskie's aircraft hangar at Wilson Airport; a golf course at the Karen racecourse; and Sandy Woodrow Danny Huston 's house in the film is in reality the suburban Nairobi home of the European Commissioner. Kioko was played by then year-old student Donald Apiyo , who was picked up from his boarding school and driven to the set on each shooting day.
Although mothers and babies lining up to receive "free testing and treatment" at the Three Bees Clinic were hired as extras and background artists, the hundreds of customers and vendors in the scene are the real people of Kiambu, going about their daily business. It was as if we were a small documentary crew filming on location, and it allowed for things to be very organic and spontaneous; it felt like reportage, or guerrilla filmmaking.
The movie filmed in Kenya and its slum region Kibera. Kibera residents live on even less than that. The movie partially filmed in Kibera in Kenya. The word "kibera" means "forest" in the language of the Nubian mercenaries who originally settled the area after being demobilized from the armies of British East Africa. Gradually, more and more itinerant laborers made Kibera their home, many of them with the intention of saving enough money from working in the capital to move back to their native villages.
The film's opening scene was filmed in Nairobi at Kibera, the largest slum in sub-Saharan Africa. Kibera at the time of filming was a sprawling shantytown of approximately six hundred acres with an estimated population of between , and 1. Today, there are very few trees in Kibera, and every Kenyan tribe is represented among its residents. The "streets" are a labyrinth of raised pathways and shallow trenches winding among streams of raw sewage.
The main drag is a working railway line that bisects the shantytown. Residents set up shop along the tracks, laying out anything of conceivable value to anyone. Bernard Otieno Oduor , a radio presenter and singer who was cast as Jomo in The Constant Gardener following an open audition, reported that "the former regime was pretty uncomfortable with the novel because it implicates the government in one way or another.
The film tells the truth about what happens in developing countries, what no one wants to talk about because of the big profits. It's amazing that the current government supported the film. Raila Odinga was on the set, having lunch with the producers and chatting, knowing exactly what the film is about. Director Fernando Meirelles mused about filming in Kibera one day: "All was calm. The production was determined from the outset to give something back to Kibera in Kenya.
In addition to providing jobs for as many locals as could be accommodated each day on the set, the construction crew created a play area and soccer playing area, reinforced the roof of a dilapidated church, and built a bridge across a wide sewer to enable emergency vehicles to access residents living at the bottom of a ravine.
Our tank will provide water for free to everybody", informed producer Simon Channing Williams. He added: "We also built a ramp up to the railway line, in a similar position to one we used for the camera as a substitute for a crane shot, which will particularly help the elderly and the handicapped. On filming in Kibera in Kenya, actress Rachel Weisz said: "Kibera was so much bigger than anything I could possibly imagine," "The kids are just incredible.
They have none of the 'stranger danger' Western kids are encouraged to feel. The spirit of the place is somehow so much stronger than the poverty. After three days, I started to catch that and relax into it, because of my character; I think that was where Tessa felt truly comfortable. The final day of the Loiyangalani shoot in Kenya also marked producer Simon Channing Williams ' investiture as a tribal elder. That evening, the village square was transformed into an open-air cinema by Filmaid, a charity providing entertainment and diversion to refugees around the world. During a ceremony filled with dancing and speeches from local dignitaries, Channing Williams was presented with the feathered headdress and the pair of carved walking sticks that symbolize his new status.
The producer had become so familiar with the territory since his first advance visit six months earlier that he was already regularly making the eight-kilometer trip to take urgently need food and water supplies to the remote El Molo tribe. The building seen for a few seconds at the end behind a snow bank supposedly representing the KDH building is actually the Royal Mint building located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
For the Sudanese border raid sequences, a few days passed before the winds abated and the South African special effects crew was able to safely set fire to the specially-built prop huts without risk to the real surrounding palm-frond huts that are home to many Turkana families. A professional livestock theft-prevention unit was brought in to portray the raiding party.
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Veteran stunt coordinator Roly Jansen pronounced these riders and their horses to be among the best he had ever worked with; this was also high praise given the heat, the extremely dangerous terrain, and the hundreds of untrained men, women, and children employed as extras for the chaotic sequence.
One of the riders, given a camera, was able to shoot footage while on horseback, and at a breakneck speed. In the midst of the orchestrated mayhem, a Buffalo plane repeatedly flew over at dizzyingly low levels yet perfectly on cue; its pilots were accustomed to performing these feats of daring for real, having made perilous food drops across the border in Sudan. The production headed to Berlin to shoot scenes involving the watchdog group Hippo Pharma, which becomes a crucial part of Justin Quayle Ralph Fiennes 's quest to uncover the truth behind his wife.
Locations in Berlin included the Lehrter Stadtbanhof, for Justin Quayle's arrival by train in Germany; offices in the Academie der Kunste, standing in for British High Commission offices; the Residenz Hotel, where Justin experiences first-hand the brutal methods that the Dypraxa drug manufacturers will resort to in order to avoid exposure; and the venerable Studio Babelsberg for sound stage filming. After two weeks filming in Germany, the production moved to London for several days of work.
Mary Magdalene Church in Paddington became the scene of a memorial service. The shores of Loiyangalani are home to a hardy few, among them several different tribes. These include the Turkana tribe; the Samburu tribe, who are cousins of the Masai tribe, the Rendille tribe; and the El Molo tribe, who are the smallest African tribe. Here was a once-in-a-decade opportunity for them to get a little bit of commerce into their economy.
Hollister noted how the local tribes-people still referred to births as having taken place during the period when that film was shooting, and speculates that children born in will be told that they were conceived during "the time of the second movie.