The exact date of Shakespeare's birth is unknown, but it is accepted that he was born in April of in Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, England, and baptized in the same month. He was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman, and Mary Arden, the daughter of the family's landlord and a well-respected farmer. He was one of eight children and lived to be the eldest surviving son of the family. A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool.
Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School, a free chartered grammar school that was located in Stratford. There he studied the basic Latin text and grammar, much of which was standardized across the country by Royal decree. He was also known to partake in the theatre while at the school as was the custom at the time. As a commoner, Shakespeare's education was thought to finish at the grammar school level as there is no record of him attending university, which was a luxury reserved for upper-class families.
In , an year-old Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who, on the occasion of her wedding, was 26 years old and already with child. Hathaway gave birth to the couple's first child six months later, a daughter named Susanna, with twins, named Hamnet and Judith, following two years later in Hamnet died at the age of 11 from unknown reasons. After the birth of his twins in , Shakespeare disappeared from public record until , when his works began appearing on the London stage. These seven years are known as "Shakespeare's Lost Years," and have been the source of various stories that remain unverified, including a salacious story involving Shakespeare escaping Stratford prosecution for deer poaching.
This story, among others, are solely entertainment and are not considered as part of the canon that makes up the playwright's personal life. William Shakespeare first made his appearance on the London stage, where his plays would be written and performed, around , although the exact date is unknown. He was, however, well known enough to be attacked by critics in newspapers, and thus was considered to be already an established playwright. After the year , Shakespeare's plays were solely performed by a company owned by a group of actors known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which became London's leading company.
After Queen Elizabeth's death in , the company was given a royal patent that renamed it the King's Men, named so after King James I. Shakespeare, along with a group of players that acted in his play, created his own theatre on the River Thames in and named it the Globe Theatre. After that, a record of property purchases and investments made by Shakespeare showed the playwright had become a very wealthy man, so much so that he bought properties in London and Stratford for himself and his family, as he spent most of his time in London.
It was in that the first known quartos of Shakespeare's plays were published, solidifying his reputation by when his name became the selling point in new productions. This led to his success as both an actor on stage and a playwright, and his name was published on the title page of his plays. Shakespeare continued to work with his company of men at the Globe Theatre until around , the year that he retired from working on the stage.
He, however, continued to support the Globe Theatre, including buying apartments for playwrights and actors to live in, all of which were near to the theatre. I have also composed poetry and related arts myself and they have been brought forth by other publishers. Some have been created through collaborative processes, and their publication has often been a form of collaboration itself.
In the last 12 years, my main effort has been in setting up the Light and Dust Anthology of Poetry. As much as I am happy with web publishing, I don't like the idea of replacing one medium with another, and have continued to publish a few books on paper. The biggest limitation on this activity has not been media orientation but lack of facilities to print books such as I had for some 20 years and lack of money to farm out printing. In , I was only partially aware of how many people were publishing with mimeo machines, and certainly didn't imagine that it would someday be considered a "revolution.
They both got lines of poetry on paper, though neither was very good at reproducing graphics. Silk screen, one of the forgotten arts of the period, was good for art and visual poetry. In many of my early books I used what might now seem curious if not perverse hybrid tech: mimeo books with letterpress covers, for instance. Approximately 30 years after my first mimeo books, I had become thoroughly self conscious about the long route which had lead me from mimeo through offset to the real revolution of electronic publication.
I have hopes that part of this revolution will not be a replacement of one medium with another, but a means of collaboration between the two. I don't like single approaches to poetry, and a thread that runs thorough my work on all levels is an argument against any sort of monoculture. Back in , I had formulated, albeit tentatively, some basic ideas that would work themselves out in a multitude of different ways as I went along.
The most important were that A books should be seen as pieces of sculpture, that they should be apprehended and perceived as more than the illusion of two dimensional space presented on any single page. B That books were not final resting places or static containers, but rather stages in transactional processes which could go on indefinitely, potentially connecting all experience. C That books should never be impersonal. In , I did not know that in less than a decade I would be making books out of everything from cinder blocks to human hair, books that could be played as musical instruments or worn as earrings.
I did, however, have the strong sense that a book should be felt in the hands as well as read with the eyes, and that even its smell could have significance. Although I could be pleased with the complete, utilitarian simplicity of the magic books published by City Lights, I could also be dissatisfied with the much more elegant covers of the more miraculous books published by New Directions.
As well chosen and profoundly moving as the photos on the front of New Directions books might be, they had nothing to do with the blurbs on the backs. This is something I have consistently tried to avoid during the 40 years of publishing books. I have at times seen this disjuncture as metaphor and evidence for a fracturing of books into separate departments for decoration, promotion, and contents, and have resisted this kind of division to the extent that I could.
In designing books, I have tried to make the front and back covers coherent and continuous visual units. These in turn should in some way relate to the design of the pages inside the book. And all design should start from the text or graphics that made up the book's contents.
The book should be a piece of sculpture, designed to work with the changes it goes through as the reader holds it, opens it, and moves from page to page. Likewise, once a book has been published it should begin a process of interactions that, ideally, should not have a final goal or stopping point. The interactions can go from simple to complex, and there's never been a way to predict how or where they will exfoliate. On the simplest level in , they became focal points in my conversations with my home-town literary friends.
The books took part in the active and animated discussions of poetry while I was a university student, and literary discussions tended to include pulling books out of shelves in apartments or to be centers of discussion during cross-country drives or shorter trips for local adventures. They would later become a medium of exchange, in all senses, with poets throughout the world, eventually reaching leading edge writers as far away as Eritriya, Paraguay, and Japan. Some would foster long stretches of what has been a nearly monastic discipline, while others would lead to love affairs, soap operas, changes in attitudes and perceptions, new friends, preposterous situations, strange farces, and dedicated social activism.
In the late s, sending the books out brought others back to me in exchange. Some of the books I sent out did not bring back immediate responses, but lead to meetings at later times. Once I started getting things around, I started getting mail from people I did not know. In a short time, this lead to networks of correspondence that were in many respects more complex than those later facilitated by the internet. Those networks sometimes lead to meetings and long-term friendships.
Some during the s were part of the lavish performance and intermedia festivals of the era. Others lead to travels to visit poets, attend readings, go to art exhibitions, find books and manuscripts in special collections departments and odd little libraries, and so forth. Yet others have been magnets to draw people here, for readings, for visits, for collaborations.
Robert Frost | Poetry Foundation
The volumes of interchange even in a flickering and ethereal medium like the internet could still explore the volume of the world and its potentials as no other medium had done before. By , I had come to the conclusion that poetry needed what I called "triangulation. Translation has been a basic stage of apprenticeship in many literary milieux, and it has been essential to me, even though most of my translations have not been done for publication and will not be published with my consent. Writing criticism and essays is not only a way of getting closer to the work of other people, it has also stimulated my own poetry.
With certain types of visual poetry and art, painting facsimiles has been an essential tool in understanding the work. Publishing poetry should enhance understanding of the work published, and it can be seen as a form of translation. This work requires at least for me particularly careful reading, keyboarding, design, and all the care and concentration needed for those processes to make sense. The interpersonal web of human connections makes sense of making sense.
Setting up readings and performances not only got poets to a place where I could hear them, but conversation with them augmented the work - as discussion of them as poets with whomever I've worked in setting up the reading deepens the understanding of the text. Trying to create a scene where this can take place and generate more poetry becomes yet another part of reading the city and the world and trying to make something of both.
My sense of the importance of reading venues was fostered in part by poets in Milwaukee, my home for over two decades, but it was augmented by checking out other scenes, particularly that in near-by Chicago, and most importantly that of Lower Manhattan, which was going through one of its most active and creative periods when I started writing.
He stays as clear of religion and mysticism as he does of politics. To critic M. Yet, just as Frost is aware of the distances between one man and another, so he is also always aware of the distinction, the ultimate separateness, of nature and man. His is still the modern mind in search of its own meaning. As Frost portrays him, man might be alone in an ultimately indifferent universe, but he may nevertheless look to the natural world for metaphors of his own condition.
Thus, in his search for meaning in the modern world, Frost focuses on those moments when the seen and the unseen, the tangible and the spiritual intersect. John T. Poetry provides the one permissible way of saying one thing and meaning another. Unless you are at home in the metaphor, unless you have had your proper poetical education in the metaphor, you are not safe anywhere. Poets lend voices to current events and elections as they critique and defend the social and political issues of their day.
The lecture, titled "Frost as a Thinker," was co-supported by Poetry magazine and Oxford Learning to make effective shapes and arrangements of energy, rather than particular required patterns. Prose Home Harriet Blog. Visit Home Events Exhibitions Library. Newsletter Subscribe Give. Poetry Foundation. Back to Previous.
Robert Frost. Poems by Robert Frost. Related Content. More About this Poet. Region: U. Acquainted with the Night. After Apple-Picking. The Aim Was Song. Appeared in Poetry Magazine. At Woodward's Gardens. The Census-Taker. Christmas Trees. The CodeHeroics. The Death of the Hired Man. Dust of Snow. Fire and Ice. Fireflies in the Garden. The Flower-Boat. For Once, Then, Something. Fragmentary Blue. Gathering Leaves. The Gift Outright. Good-by and Keep Cold. Home Burial. In a Disused Graveyard. In Dives' Dive. Love and a Question. Mending Wall. Not All There. Not to Keep. Nothing Gold Can Stay.
The Oven Bird. The Pasture. Ring Around.
The Road Not Taken. The Runaway. The Sound of Trees.
The Span of Life. The Star-splitter. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.
Career and Creation of the Globe
Tendencies Cancel. The Tuft of Flowers. The Wood-Pile. Show More. Remarks on the Occasion of the Tagore Centenary. Fall Poems. Poems to read as the leaves change and the weather gets colder. Read More. Poems to integrate into your English Language Arts classroom. Summer Poems. Christmas Poems. Classic and contemporary poems for the holiday season. Political Poems. Winter Poems. Perfect for snowy days and long nights by the fire.
Poetry and the Environment. Recent poetic approaches to the natural world and ecology. Prose from Poetry Magazine. By Kay Ryan. Don Paterson on Robert Frost. From Poetry Lectures May Appeared in Poetry Magazine Earthward. By Amy Frykholm. Appeared in Poetry Magazine Et Al.
From Audio Poem of the Day January By Don Share. One of our best poets on the subject of wishes.
- Microscopic Colitis.
- 2nd Chance;
- Ángel más tonto del mundo (Best seller) (Spanish Edition).
- Loeb Classical Library?
- The American West (Costume & Fashion Source Books).
- Series Order.
Kay Ryan on Robert Frost. From Poetry Off the Shelf September Our greatest American poet collected the wisdom of chicken farmers. The Man and the Manners. By Adam Plunkett.