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VI , The Hague, , vol. Jedin and P. Prodi eds. Piola Caselli ed. I Brussels, , vol. ARUP, E. Robertson and E. Timms eds. Austrian Studies II Edinburgh, , pp. Bergeron ed. Kellenbenz and P. Bergin and L. Brockliss eds. Oxford, , pp. Bonney, R. Rich and C. Wilson eds. Clemoes and K. Hughes eds. Andrien and Lyman L. Johnson eds. Maschke et al eds. Tamse eds. BUSH, M. Holdsworth and T.

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Wiseman eds. XXV Madrid, Setton ed. Kedar, H. Meyer and R. Smail eds. Studies in the history of the crusading kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer Jerusalem, , pp. I Brussels, Romano and U. Tucci eds. Economia naturale, Economia monetaria Turin, , pp.

Benedict ed. Dolley ed.


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Lane and J. Riemersma eds. Guarducci ed. Datini Florence, Ribot and L. De Rosa eds. Vannini Marx ed.

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Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica F. Datini Prato, 2nd. Postan, E. Rich and E. Miller eds. Barta ed. Artola ed. Instituciones Madrid, Elliott and A. GILL, D.

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Bouvier and J-Cl. Perrot eds. Palmarocchi ed. Lugnani Scarano ed. HALL, T. Sharpe ed. Readings in economic history Homewood, Ill. Strayer ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages New York, , vol. Wrigley ed. Hermann ed. Hubatsch ed. HOLL, B. HOLT, J. Gillingham and J. Holt eds. Prestwich Woodbridge, , pp. Holt ed. Hucker ed. HUME, L. KING, J. Rubinstein ed. Liebel-Weckowicz, H. Kellenbenz ed. Jahrhunderts Stuttgart, , pp. Les Chambres des comptes. Lardin and J. Roch eds.

Paviot and J. Verger eds. Tonnerre ed. C ontamine, J. Carozzi and H. Taviani-Carozzi eds. Boudreau, K. Fianu, C. Gauvard, M. Menjot, A. Lamazou-Duplan eds. Pelet and J-F. Poudret eds. Lausanne, , pp. I Valladolid, , pp. Hermann Paris, , pp. Ormrod, R. Bonney and M. Bonney eds. Crowley ed. Tunon De Lara ed. V Barcelona, , pp. LEVI, M. LIND, G. LYNN, J. Jacob ed. Jones ed.

Gentry and lesser nobility in late Medieval Europe Gloucester, , pp. Fedorowicz with M. Bogucka and H. I London, Parker ed. Sobaler Seco eds. Castilla y Navarra, Valladolid, , pp. Deyon et al eds. Morrison and R. Goffin eds. Steele ed. McCloskey eds. Tilly and P. Welfens eds. Williamson eds. Goetzmann and Geert Rouwenhorst eds. Gibson and J. Nelson eds. Neue Folge , 1 , pp. NYE, J. Winch and P. This sample of texts is useful for measuring both the speed with which the ideas of cybernetics became embedded in the French context and the extent of their influence.

Oui, la plus grande. The speed of dissemination of cybernetics, especially in its more popular mediations, carried with it the danger of distortion and dilution. Each of the books considered here is therefore characterized, in different ways, by a strong pedagogic drive — an attempt to explain and clarify and, if necessary, to correct popular misperceptions of cybernetics. However, there is a recurrent tendency in early French introductions to cybernetics to extend this genealogy, first of all with reference to the word itself.

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Linguistically speaking, Wiener's neologism was an inspired choice, a perfect crystallization of the technical and conceptual field he wished to describe. This attempt to reclaim the name of cybernetics is accompanied by a reconstruction of its scientific genealogy, a genealogy in which the importance of French contributions is highlighted.

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Thus Pascal is invoked as a precursor in the construction of calculating machines, and Descartes for his analogies between the machine and the animal Latil, pp. Another type of domestication takes place, it could be argued, with respect to the lexical field of cybernetics. On the one hand, the science and technology informing cybernetics was international; it would be difficult to argue for any kind of cultural—scientific relativism in this respect.

On the other hand, the manner in which some of the central concepts of cybernetics were translated into French was not entirely straightforward. In the sample of texts considered here, it could be said that in certain cases the translation process creates a different constellation of terms in relation to the Anglo-American original. The result in the texts considered here is therefore a distribution or dissemination of the concept of control across a network of associated terms. In the generation of machines that informed Wiener's theorization of cybernetics, such control is effected by way of an information-bearing signal defining the actions to be performed.

The first term commande clarifies the semantics of sequence: the order or command is unidirectional and precedes its execution. The more general-purpose term asservissement describes the hierarchical control relationship between programme and servo mechanism, the second subordinated to the ends dictated by the first. If one is attempting to track the impact of cybernetics on the subsequent intellectual history of post-war France, it is interesting to note that it is the information-theoretical side of cybernetics, as articulated in sequences such as programme—code—communication—signal—message, that seems to have had the greatest impact on the development of structuralism.

While, as the preceding analysis has shown, these two sides of cybernetics are not in principle separable, it could be argued that a certain history of ideas has tended to privilege the information-theoretical side of cybernetics, in particular in its relation to structuralism, and tended to neglect the equally important question of how cybernetics might have contributed to French thinking and debate about technology in the s and s.

In the remainder of this article I will therefore take a closer look at the representation of technology in early French mediations of cybernetics. Latil, Guilbaud, and Ducrocq are categorical in their insistence that cybernetics is not simply about machines: this has become one of the popular perceptions of cybernetics that it is the duty of the informed science writer to correct. Like Wiener, they argue that the cybernetic revolution is as much an epistemological as it is a technological revolution.

The principles it reveals are of the highest order of generality, applicable to living systems as well as to machines. The following analysis will look at the different definitions of the machine provided by the three authors, as well as specific examples of key areas of post-war technological development: industrial production, aviation, and computing. The operation of this category of programmed machines is, however, rigid, its predetermined sequences of actions functioning at fixed intervals, as in clockwork mechanisms or punch-card-operated weaving machines or pianolas.

Or c'est bien brimer l'homme […] que de l'employer comme simple maillon dans une boucle d'asservissement. It is not only the factory system — the paradigmatic case of human alienation — that is subject to the effects of the cybernetic revolution. The post-war technological landscape is in fact marked by a range of higher-level substitutions of the human agent by the machine. In the field of aviation, for example, Ducrocq notes that the function of the pilot has been transformed over a period of less than twenty-five years.

Les paradoxes de la régénération révolutionnaire. Le cas de l'abbé Grégoire (I)

Whereas in flying was still an art, the pilot handling his or her machine in much the same manner as one would handle a horse, in the present day the pilot's perception, judgement, and actions are mediated by radar and a host of electronic equipment located both in the plane and on the ground pp.

The other key domain of machine substitution referred to by the authors is that of the human mind itself. It is certainly automatic, but its programme is rigid and thoroughly determined. It will perform, with spectacular speed, precision, and reliability, calculations that are beyond the capacity of the human computer, but it is not, properly speaking, cybernetic pp. Ducrocq notes a geometrical progression in the production of computers in Western-bloc countries, with a numerical preponderance of these machines in the United States and England.

Based on current trends, he predicts a doubling every two years in the number of computers in global use p. The computer is therefore paradigmatic of the acceleration in technological development experienced in the second half of the twentieth century, a development that is inseparable from the revolution in electronics. While, as Ducrocq reminds us, the basic principles of mechanical calculation remain unchanged since Pascal's invention of , the transition in the first part of the twentieth century to electromechanical operation gears activated by electric motors and more recently to properly electronic operation electrical pulses moving through circuits has led to exponential increases in calculating speeds.

The use of electrical signals as triggers and switches in these more recent machines has resulted in the definitive liberation of information processing from the inertia of mechanical parts Ducrocq, pp. Je recule mes limites. To summarize on the representation of technology: the taxonomy of machines and history of technology found in Latil, Guilbaud, and Ducrocq can be seen to constitute a convergent narrative that takes the reader from the simplest manifestations of human technical activity to the most advanced delegations of technical function in self-correcting machines.

This quasi-teleological narrative allows the reader to understand the past and the present of technological development and also to extrapolate to its near future. In this respect, and in line with our initial description of cybernetics as a New Scientific Enlightenment, the representation of technology in these early texts is almost without exception a positive and optimistic one. It describes a universal history of technical perfectibility in which humanity achieves an ever more precise and effective control over the material world through the delegation of an ever-increasing proportion of human function to the machine.

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