When did the protest take place? Britain and the colonies had been at war for over a year; reconciliation seemed unlikely. The Second Continental Congress met at Independence Hall in Philadelphia and voted in favor of declaring independence with no opposing votes. Two days later, they adopted the Declaration of Independence. This document officially announced that the thirteen colonies considered themselves as sovereign state separate entity from Britain: named the United States of America. The committee selected Thomas Jefferson to draft the statement. When was it adopted? He had a long reign as a monarch.
This made Britain the dominant European imperial power in the world. In the colonies, he got a reputation of a tyrant for the many taxes he imposed. This battle took place on October 19, , at Yorktown, Virginia. The British Army was defeated and Cornwallis was forced to surrender. It was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. The morale of America and France was greatly boosted by the victory and the defeat caused the popular support for the war in Britain to fall. The Founding Fathers are the individuals who spearheaded the revolution and helped establish the American government.
Sometimes, it is used to refer to the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Adams, Jefferson, and Franklin helped draft the Declaration. Many of the Founding Fathers went on to become president, which of these did not? Often considered the father of the nation, he was the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and presided over the Constitutional convention. He was later unanimously elected by the Electoral College as the first president of the United States - he still remains the only president to receive all of the electoral votes.
He was in office for two terms from to His terms established many White House traditions that following presidents continued to carry on. The nation's first governing document was drafted by the Second Continental Congress in , sent to the states for ratification in , and became the law of the land in This document created a very loose organization of the thirteen sovereign states under a limited central government. The majority of the power was left to the states.
It became clear that this document made the federal government too weak to govern properly and it was replaced by the Constitution. In and , Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays led four thousand rebels in an armed uprising in Massachusetts. Many rural farmers had their land and possessions seized over debts and tax obligations. The veterans of the revolution received low pay during the war and had trouble collecting money owed to them from the federal government, which was struggling to pay off debts from the war.
The disgruntled citizens organized and attempted to seize weapons from a government armory and overthrow the government. What was this rebellion called? This Founding Father was a key figure in creating the Constitution and the first ten amendments. The Articles of Confederation had made the central government weak with no power to tax or pay off their debts from the Revolutionary War.
He helped pushed other government officials to replace the ineffective document and was a co-author of the Federalists Papers - a collection of essays in support of ratifying the Constitution. He also served as the secretary of state under President Thomas Jefferson and the fourth president of the United States. The Federalist Party was the first major political party in America, lasting from the s to The party advocated for a strong central government, a national bank and tariffs to promote economic growth and friendly diplomatic relations with Great Britain.
The party supported the policies of this man, who founded the nation's financial system. They were in control until Three years later, this man was killed after a duel with his rival. Hint: he is the subject of a popular Broadway musical. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison founded this party in They aimed to oppose the Federalist Party's push for centralizing policies. They advocated for decentralization of power and a stronger commitment to protecting states rights. A core value of the party was republicanism, which they worried the Federalist party was threatening.
In , they overwhelmed the Federalists and pushed them out of control. This party controlled the presidency and Congress until After several states called for the constitution to have more protection for individual liberties and more prohibitions on governmental power, ten amendments were simultaneously added to the Constitution. The amendments include freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom to assemble, the right to bear arms, the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, and bans on excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.
Any powers not delegated to the federal government were also delegated to the states. From , America fought another war against a Western European nation. This nation had been enforcing a naval blockade to cut off trade with a rival nation. America argued that this was illegal under international law. The country was also forcing American merchant sailors into their navy and was funding Native American groups to block American expansion into more territory.
The capital Washington was burned during a raid in this war. Which country did America battle with during this conflict? During the war of , a lawyer and amateur poet boarded a British ship to negotiate the release of American prisoners. He learned of their plan to bombard Ft. McHenry and was not allowed to leave, forcing him to watch. In the morning, he saw the American flag still waving. After President Jefferson acquired the new land from France, he commissioned an expedition to explore and map the territory.
The expedition's goals were to find the best route across the land, establish an American presence throughout the territory to prevent European powers from trying to claim it, study the flora and fauna, and establish trade with the Native tribes. Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark headed the expedition, which took place from to On May 28, , President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which permitted him to remove southern Native American tribes from their ancestral homelands and relocate them to federal reservations out west.
They were forced to march out to the federal territory. Many suffered from disease and starvation while moving. Over four thousand died before finishing the trip. The convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York. About women and men attended. While there, Stanton presented the Declaration of Sentiments - which made a strong case for starting a women's suffrage movement. Many in attendance were skeptical and considered women's suffrage to be a far-fetched idea at the time.
The sixteenth president led American through the Civil War and helped preserve the Union. He was elected in with strong support in the North and West, but very little in the South. Before he even moved into the White House, seven southern slave states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. He famously freed the slaves in several states with the Emancipation Proclamation in He was reelected in , only to be assassinated a year later.
South Carolina seceded from the union and demanded that the Union soldiers abandon their military facilities. The president attempted to resupply the soldiers in the state and failed. South Carolina began seizing federal property in Charleston until there was only one Union stronghold left. In , the Confederate States Army bombarded the Union soldiers.
The Union returned fire but was forced to surrender. The president called for 75, volunteers to suppress the rebellious states and four more southern states joined the Confederacy. This battle is considered the official beginning of the Civil War. He also served as Secretary of War before he was elected as president of the Confederacy in His strong military and political background made him a popular and logical choice. He remained in the role until the war ended in He was captured by the Union and accused of treason. However, he was never tried for the crime and was set free after two years in prison.
She escaped slavery in Mayland to freedom in Philadelphia. She risked her life again to rescue her family. Using a secret network of abolitionist safe houses called the Underground Railroad, she made thirteen missions and rescued approximately 70 slaves. She also aided the famed abolitionist John Brown. During the Civil War, she worked for the Union Army as cook and nurse, and later as an armed scout and spy. After the war, she was a vocal supporter of the women's suffrage movement.
He was born into slavery in Maryland. He learned how to read and secretly began reading newspapers and political pamphlets. He also taught other slaves how to read and would organize a weekly Sunday school. He eventually escaped to New York City and then settled with his wife in Massachusetts. He began to share his life story and became a vocal abolitionist. He published his story in an autobiography in He was also a big supporter of the women's rights movement.
Union Major General George Meade defeated the confederate army's attacks and effectively ended their attempted invasion of the North. The Confederacy lost 28, soldiers, which was nearly a third of the Northern Virginia army. This battle is considered the turning point of the war in favor of the Union. When the Civil War began he answered President Lincoln's call for volunteers. He began commanding a 21st Illinois volunteer regiment. He was promoted to major general of volunteers. His methods were controversial and met with a lot of criticism, but he continued to move through the ranks.
As the commander of the Union armies, he worked closely with President Lincoln. He went on to become the 18th president of the United States. The assassin was an actor and Confederate sympathizer who was angry about the abolition of slavery. He shot the president in the back of the head and Lincoln died the next morning.
Lincoln was the first president to be murdered in office. The assassin fled and was shot and killed after he refused to surrender to authorities. While the Emancipation Proclamation had abolished slavery in the rebel states, it had not reached the border states that had been loyal to the Union. After the Civil War, an amendment to the Constitution was created to formally outlaw slavery and involuntary servitude throughout the entire nation, except in cases where it is punishment for a crime.
The amendment passed the Senate in , was passed by the House in , and was ratified by the states later that year. Getting the Constitution changed is a long and arduous process. Article Five details the procedure for making an amendment to the document. To propose a new amendment, either a two-thirds majority in the House and Senate must support it or Congress may call a national convention. If it passes these stages, the amendment must then be ratified by the states in a three-fourths majority - that means 38 out of About 11, amendment proposals have been made by Congress since How many have actually been successful?
This era took place — Some politicians desired to get the South back into the Union as quickly and as painlessly as possible while others sought to further protect the rights of the newly freed African-American citizens. It was during this time that the Ku Klux Klan formed in the South. The group began attacking black leaders and attempting to overthrow local governments. President Grant sent federal troops to combat the Klan. The era ended when the next president, Rutherford B.
Hayes, withdrew the troops. The women's suffrage movement began to gain moment in the s, especially after the first women's rights convention took place in Two national suffrage organizations were created, one led by Susan B. The suffragettes made multiple attempts to vote - Anthony was arrested for this and charged in The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution finally granted women the right to vote in the year?
The Great Depression was the longest economic depression of the 20th century, taking place during the s. It began in the United States and its effects were felt all over the world. In some countries, it was even higher. The economic depression was kicked off by a terrible stock market crash in the US. The date of the crash, which became known as Black Tuesday, was?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as the 32nd president of the United States. He served as president longer than any other in history. Previous presidents had only done two terms because they were following the traditions set by George Washington. However, it was not actually a law - it was only an unspoken rule.
After FDR's death, Congress passed the 22nd Amendment in that restricted the president to two terms. Pearl Harbor was a surprise military attack by the Japanese on the United States naval base in Hawaii. Four navy battleships sunk. The attack was intended to be a preemptive strike to keep the US navy from interfering with the plans of the Japanese Imperial Navy. It had the opposite effect and the attack led America to enter World War II and officially declare war on Japan the next day.
Rather than invade the country, the United States dropped two atomic bombs on two cities in Japan during the final stages of World War II. The first was dropped on August 6, , and the second on August 9, At least , people perished in the attacks. Japan announced its surrender six days after the second bombing on August 15, It is still the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare. Which two cities were the victims of the bombs? The Allies landed on the shore of Normandy, France. It is the largest seaborne invasion in history. Hint: it was codenamed Operation Neptune and is more commonly called D-Day.
On December 1, , in Montgomery, Alabama, this woman refused to give up her seat on the bus for a white woman when the driver, James F. Blake, ordered her to. She was arrested for this resistance. Though she was not the first woman to do this, the NAACP choose her to organize their movement around and she inspired the Montgomery Bus Boycott. She is often called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement. This landmark Supreme Court decision declared that state laws segregating public school were unconstitutional.
It overturned the court's decision in , which had permitted state-sponsored segregation under the concept of "separate but equal. The parents argued that the idea of separate but equal was not true because the segregation of public school created unequal and inferior learning conditions for the black students. The legislation finally outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. It also outlawed unequal application of voter registration requirements, segregation in schools and other public places, and discrimination in employment.
President John F. Kennedy first called for the bill in his civil rights speech. It was later signed into law by President Lyndon B. The Supreme Court became important under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall — , a federalist and nationalist who built a strong Supreme Court and strengthened the national government. The s were highly contentious, as the First Party System emerged in the contest between Hamilton and his Federalist party, and Thomas Jefferson and his Republican party.
Washington and Hamilton were building a strong national government, with a broad financial base, and the support of merchants and financiers throughout the country. Jeffersonians opposed the new national Bank, the Navy, and federal taxes. The Federalists favored Britain, which was embattled in a series of wars with France. Jefferson's victory in opened the era of Jeffersonian democracy , and doomed the upper-crust Federalists to increasingly marginal roles. The Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon in opened vast Western expanses of fertile land, which exactly met the needs of the rapidly expanding population of yeomen farmers whom Jefferson championed.
The Americans declared war on Britain the War of to uphold American honor at sea,  and to end the Indian raids in the west, as well as to temporarily seize Canadian territory as a negotiating chip. Secretary of State James Monroe said in June , "It might be necessary to invade Canada, not as an object of the war but as a means to bring it to a satisfactory conclusion. The Federalists, who had opposed the war to the point of trading with the enemy and threatening secession, were devastated by the triumphant ending of the war. The remaining Indians east of the Mississippi were kept on reservations or moved via the Trail of Tears to reservations in what later became Oklahoma.
The spread of democracy opened the ballot box to nearly all white men, allowing the Jacksonian democracy to dominate politics during the Second Party System. Whigs, representing wealthier planters, merchants, financiers, and professionals, wanted to modernize the society, using tariffs and federally funded internal improvements ; they were blocked by the Jacksonians, who closed down the national Bank in the s.
The Jacksonians wanted expansion—that is " Manifest Destiny "—into new lands that would be occupied by farmers and planters. Thanks to the annexation of Texas, the defeat of Mexico in war, and a compromise with Britain, the western third of the nation rounded out the continental United States by Howe argues that the transformation America underwent was not so much political democratization but rather the explosive growth of technologies and networks of infrastructure and communication—the telegraph, railroads, the post office, and an expanding print industry. They made possible the religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening , the expansion of education and social reform.
They modernized party politics and sped up business by enabling the fast, efficient movement of goods, money, and people across an expanding nation. They transformed a loose-knit collection of parochial agricultural communities into a powerful cosmopolitan nation. During and , 13 new states were formed. The nation's first capital was in New York City. The home state of Andrew Jackson is South Carolina.
Breaking loose from European models, the Americans developed their own high culture, notably in literature and in higher education. The Second Great Awakening brought revivals across the country, forming new denominations and greatly increasing church membership, especially among Methodists and Baptists.
By the s increasing numbers of immigrants were arriving from Europe, especially British, Irish, and Germans. Many settled in the cities, which were starting to emerge as a major factor in the economy and society. The Whigs had warned that annexation of Texas would lead to a crisis over slavery, and they were proven right by the turmoil of the s that led to the Civil War. George Washington, a renowned hero of the American Revolutionary War , commander of the Continental Army , and president of the Constitutional Convention , was unanimously chosen as the first President of the United States under the new U.
All the leaders of the new nation were committed to republicanism , and the doubts of the Anti-Federalists of were allayed with the passage of a Bill of Rights as the first ten amendments to the Constitution in The first census, conducted by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson , enumerated a population of 3.
There were only 12 cities of more than 5, population, as the great majority of the people were farmers. Congress passed the Judiciary Act of , which established the entire federal judiciary. At the time, the act provided for a Supreme Court of six justices, three circuit courts , and 13 district courts. It also created the offices of U. Marshal , Deputy Marshal, and District Attorney in each federal judicial district. The Compromise of located the national capital in the southern state of Maryland now the District of Columbia , and enabled the federal assumption of state debts.
Washington had hoped that his Secretary of the Treasury would be Robert Morris , celebrated Philadelphia merchant and so-called "financier of the Revolution", but he declined and instead the post went to the president's young former aide-de-camp Alexander Hamilton who with Washington's support and Jefferson's opposition, convinced Congress to pass a far-reaching financial program that was patterned after the system developed in England a century earlier.
It funded the debts of the American Revolution, set up a national bank, and set up a system of tariffs and taxes. His policies had the effect of linking the economic interests of the states, and of wealthy Americans, to the success of the national government, as well as enhancing the international financial standing of the new nation. Most Representatives of the South opposed Hamilton's plan because they had already repudiated their debts and thus gained little from it.
But more importantly, there were early signs of the economic and cultural rift between the Northern and Southern states that was to burst into flames seven decades later, being that the South and its plantation-based economy resisted the idea of a centralized federal government and being subordinated to Northeastern business interests. Despite considerable opposition in Congress from Southerners, Hamilton's plan was moved into effect during the middle of The First Bank of the United States was thus created that year despite arguments from Thomas Jefferson and his supporters that it was unconstitutional while Hamilton declared that it was entirely within the powers granted to the federal government.
Hamilton's other proposals, including protection tariffs for nascent American industry, were defeated. The Whiskey Rebellion happened in —when settlers in the Monongahela Valley of western Pennsylvania protested against the new federal tax on whiskey, which the settlers shipped across the mountains to earn money. It was the first serious test of the federal government. Washington ordered federal marshals to serve court orders requiring the tax protesters to appear in federal district court. By August , the protests became dangerously close to outright rebellion, and on August 7, several thousand armed settlers gathered near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Washington then invoked the Militia Law of to summon the militias of several states. A force of 13, men was organized, and Washington personally led it to Western Pennsylvania. The revolt immediately collapsed, and there was no violence. Foreign policy unexpectedly took center stage starting in , when revolutionary France became engulfed in war with the rest of Europe, an event that was to lead to 22 years of fighting. France claimed that its alliance with the US meant that the latter was bound to come to their aid. The Washington administration's policy of neutrality was widely supported, but the Jeffersonians strongly favored France and deeply distrusted the British, who they saw as enemies of Republicanism.
In addition, they sought to annex Spanish territory in the South and West. Meanwhile, Hamilton and the business community favored Britain, which was by far America's largest trading partner. The Republicans gained support in the winter of —94 as Britain seized American merchant ships and impressed their crews into the Royal Navy, but the tensions were resolved with the Jay Treaty of , which opened up 10 years of prosperous trade in exchange for which Britain would remove troops from its fortifications along the Canada—US border.
The Jeffersonians viewed the Treaty as a surrender to British moneyed interests, and mobilized their supporters nationwide to defeat the treaty. The Federalists likewise rallied supporters in a vicious conflict, which continued until when Washington publicly intervened in the debate, using his prestige to secure ratification. By this point, the economic and political advantages of the Federalist position had become clear to all concerned, combined with growing disdain for France after the Reign of Terror and Jacobin anti-religious policies.
Jefferson promptly resigned as Secretary of State. Historian George Herring notes the "remarkable and fortuitous economic and diplomatic gains" produced by the Jay Treaty. Continuing conflict between Hamilton and Jefferson, especially over foreign policy, led to the formation of the Federalist and Republican parties. Although Washington remained aloof and warned against political parties in his farewell address , he generally supported Hamilton and Hamiltonian programs over those of Jefferson.
Federalist support was concentrated in the major Northern cities and South Carolina. After his death in he became the great symbolic hero of the Federalists. The First Party System between and featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party was created by Alexander Hamilton and was dominant to Both parties originated in national politics but moved to organize supporters and voters in every state. These comprised "probably the first modern party system in the world" because they were based on voters, not factions of aristocrats at court or parliament.
By , politics in every state was nearly monopolized by the two parties. Two political Sects have arisen within the U. The Federalists promoted the financial system of Treasury Secretary Hamilton, which emphasized federal assumption of state debts, a tariff to pay off those debts, a national bank to facilitate financing, and encouragement of banking and manufacturing. The Republicans, based in the plantation South, opposed a strong executive power, were hostile to a standing army and navy, demanded a limited reading of the Constitutional powers of the federal government, and strongly opposed the Hamilton financial program.
Perhaps even more important was foreign policy, where the Federalists favored Britain because of its political stability and its close ties to American trade, while the Republicans admired the French and the French Revolution. Jefferson was especially fearful that British aristocratic influences would undermine republicanism. Britain and France were at war —, with one brief interruption. American policy was neutrality, with the federalists hostile to France, and the Republicans hostile to Britain. The Jay Treaty of marked the decisive mobilization of the two parties and their supporters in every state.
President Washington, while officially nonpartisan, generally supported the Federalists and that party made Washington their iconic hero. Washington retired in , firmly declining to serve for more than eight years as the nation's head. Adams defeated Jefferson in the presidential election , who as the runner-up became Vice President under the operation of the Electoral College of that time.
Even before he entered the presidency, Adams had quarreled with Alexander Hamilton —and thus was hindered by a divided Federalist party. These domestic difficulties were compounded by international complications: France, angered by American approval in of the Jay Treaty with its great enemy Britain proclaimed that food and war material bound for British ports were subject to seizure by the French navy.
By , France had seized American ships and had broken off diplomatic relations with the United States. Federalists used the " XYZ Affair " to create a new American army, strengthen the fledgling United States Navy , impose the Alien and Sedition Acts to stop pro-French activities which had severe repercussions for American civil liberties , and enact new taxes to pay for it.
The Naturalization Act , which changed the residency requirement for citizenship from five to 14 years, was targeted at Irish and French immigrants suspected of supporting the Republican Party. The Sedition Act proscribed writing, speaking or publishing anything of "a false, scandalous and malicious" nature against the President or Congress. The few convictions won under the Sedition Act only created martyrs to the cause of civil liberties and aroused support for the Republicans. Jefferson and his allies launched a counterattack, with two states stating in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that state legislatures could nullify acts of Congress.
However, all the other states rejected this proposition, and nullification —or as it was called, the "principle of 98"—became the preserve of a faction of the Republicans called the Quids. In , after a series of naval battles with the French known as the Quasi-War , full-scale war seemed inevitable.
In this crisis, Adams broke with his party and sent three new commissioners to France. Napoleon , who had just come to power, received them cordially, and the danger of conflict subsided with the negotiation of the Convention of , which formally released the United States from its wartime alliance with France.
In his final hours in office, Adams appointed John Marshall as chief justice. Serving until his death in , Marshall dramatically expanded the powers of the Supreme Court and provided a Federalist interpretation of the Constitution that made for a strong national government. Jefferson is a central figure in early American history, highly praised for his political leadership, but also criticized for the role of slavery in his private life.
He championed equality, democracy and republicanism, attacking aristocratic and monarchistic tendencies. He was a leader in American independence, advocated religious freedom and tolerance, and opposed the centralizing tendencies of the urban financial elite. He formed the second national political party and led it to dominance in , then worked for western expansion and exploration.
Critics decry the contradiction between his ownership of hundreds of slaves and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal", and argue that he fathered children with his slave mistress. Under Washington and Adams the Federalists had established a strong government, but sometimes it followed policies that alienated the citizenry. For example, in , to pay for the rapidly expanding army and navy, the Federalists had enacted a new tax on houses, land and slaves, affecting every property owner in the country.
In the Fries's Rebellion hundreds of farmers in Pennsylvania revolted—Federalists saw a breakdown in civil society. Some tax resisters were arrested—then pardoned by Adams. Republicans denounced this action as an example of Federalist tyranny. Jefferson had steadily gathered behind him a great mass of small farmers, shopkeepers and other workers which asserted themselves as Democratic-Republicans in the election of Jefferson enjoyed extraordinary favor because of his appeal to American idealism. In his inaugural address, the first such speech in the new capital of Washington, DC , he promised "a wise and frugal government" to preserve order among the inhabitants but would "leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry, and improvement".
Jefferson encouraged agriculture and westward expansion, most notably by the Louisiana Purchase and subsequent Lewis and Clark Expedition. Believing America to be a haven for the oppressed, he reduced the residency requirement for naturalization back to five years again. This was accomplished by reducing the number of executive department employees and Army and Navy officers and enlisted men, and by otherwise curtailing government and military spending.
Jefferson's domestic policy was uneventful and hands-off, the administration mainly concerning itself with foreign affairs and particularly territorial expansion. Except for Gallatin's reforms, their main preoccupation was purging the government of Federalist judges. The president and his associates were widely distrustful of the judicial branch, especially because Adams had made several "midnight" appointments prior to leaving office in March In Marbury vs Madison , the Supreme Court under John Marshall established the precedent of being able to review and overturn legislation passed by Congress.
This ruling by leading Federalist upset Jefferson to the point where his administration began opening impeachment hearings against judges that were perceived as abusing their power. The attempted purge of the judicial branch reached its climax with the trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase. When Chase was acquitted by the Senate, Jefferson abandoned his campaign. With the upcoming expiration in of the year ban on Congressional action on the subject, Jefferson, a lifelong enemy of the slave trade, successfully called on Congress to criminalize the international slave trade, calling it "violations of human rights which have been so long continued on the unoffending inhabitants of Africa, and which the morality, the reputation, and the best interests of our country have long been eager to proscribe.
The Jeffersonians had a distinct foreign policy:  .
The Louisiana Purchase in gave Western farmers use of the important Mississippi River waterway, removed the French presence from the western border of the United States, and, most important, provided U. A few weeks afterward, war resumed between Britain and Napoleon 's France. The United States, dependent on European revenues from the export of agricultural goods, tried to export food and raw materials to both warring Great Powers and to profit from transporting goods between their home markets and Caribbean colonies.
Both sides permitted this trade when it benefited them but opposed it when it did not. Following the destruction of the French navy at the Battle of Trafalgar , Britain sought to impose a stranglehold over French overseas trade ties. Thus, in retaliation against U. Believing that Britain could not rely on other sources of food than the United States, Congress and President Jefferson suspended all U. The Embargo Act, however, devastated American agricultural exports and weakened American ports while Britain found other sources of food. James Madison won the U. He was quick to repeal the Embargo Act, refreshing American seaports.
Unfortunately, despite his intellectual brilliance, Madison lacked Jefferson's leadership and tried to merely copy his predecessor's policies verbatim. He tried various trade restrictions to try to force Britain and France to respect freedom of the seas, but they were unsuccessful. The British had undisputed mastery over the sea after defeating the French and Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in , and they took advantage of this to seize American ships at will and force their sailors into serving the Royal Navy.
Even worse, the size of the U. Navy was reduced due to ideological opposition to a large standing military and the Federal government became considerably weakened when the charter of the First National Bank expired and Congress declined to renew it. A clamor for military action thus erupted just as relations with Britain and France were at a low point and the U. In response to continued British interference with American shipping including the practice of impressment of American sailors into the British Navy , and to British aid to American Indians in the Old Northwest , the Twelfth Congress —led by Southern and Western Jeffersonians—declared war on Britain in Westerners and Southerners were the most ardent supporters of the war, given their concerns about defending national honor and expanding western settlements, and having access to world markets for their agricultural exports.
New England was making a fine profit and its Federalists opposed the war, almost to the point of secession. The Federalist reputation collapsed in the triumphalism of and the party no longer played a national role. The war was draw in the war after bitter fighting that lasted even after the Burning of Washington in August and Andrew Jackson 's smashing defeat of the British invasion army at the Battle of New Orleans in January The ratification of the Treaty of Ghent in February, , ended the war, returned to the status quo ante bellum. Britain's alliance with the Native Americans ended, and the Indians were the major losers of the war.
News of the victory at New Orleans over the best British combat troops came at the same time as news of the peace, giving Americans a psychological triumph and opening the Era of Good Feelings. Following the War of , America began to assert a newfound sense of nationalism. America began to rally around national heroes such as Andrew Jackson and patriotic feelings emerged in such works as Francis Scott Key 's poem The Star-Spangled Banner. Under the direction of Chief Justice John Marshall , the Supreme Court issued a series of opinions reinforcing the role of the national government.
The signing of the Adams-Onis Treaty helped to settle the western border of the country through popular and peaceable means. Even as nationalism increased across the country, its effects were limited by a renewed sense of sectionalism. The New England states that had opposed the War of felt an increasing decline in political power with the demise of the Federalist Party. This loss was tempered with the arrival of a new industrial movement and increased demands for northern banking. The industrial revolution in the United States was advanced by the immigration of Samuel Slater from Great Britain and arrival of textile mills beginning in Lowell, Massachusetts.
In the south, the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney radically increased the value of slave labor. The export of southern cotton was now the predominant export of the U. The western states continued to thrive under the "frontier spirit. Following the death of Tecumseh in , Native Americans lacked the unity to stop white settlement.
Domestically, the presidency of James Monroe — was hailed at the time and since as the "Era of Good Feelings" because of the decline of partisan politics and heated rhetoric after the war. The Federalist Party collapsed, but without an opponent the Democratic-Republican Party decayed as sectional interests came to the fore.
He asserted the Americas should be free from additional European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in wars between European powers and their colonies but to consider any new colonies or interference with independent countries in the Americas as hostile acts towards the United States. No new colonies were ever formed. As the 19th century dawned, Florida had been undisputed Spanish territory for almost years, aside from 20 years of British control between the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution.
Although a sparsely inhabited swampland, expansionist-minded Americans were eager to grab it and already, in , American settlers had invaded the westernmost tip of Florida and expelled the local Spanish authorities, after which Congress hastily passed a bill annexing it under the claim that the Louisiana Purchase had guaranteed the territory to the United States.
During the War of , American troops occupied and seized the area around Mobile Bay. Spain, then engulfed in war with France, did not react to either of these actions. Also taking advantage of the mother country's distraction, Spain's Latin American colonies rose up in revolt and Madrid was forced to denude Florida of troops to suppress the rebellions. In , Andrew Jackson led an army into Florida to quell the chaotic situation there. He arrested and hanged two British agents who had been encouraging Indian raids, leading to an outcry in London and calls for war.
However, cooler heads prevailed and the situation did not escalate further. The Spanish agreed to turn over the no-longer-defensible Florida to the US and also give up their extremely flimsy claims to the distant Oregon Territory, in exchange for which American claims on Texas were renounced some Americans had also been claiming parts of that territory under the Louisiana Purchase.
Although American designs on Texas did not disappear, they were put on the backburner for the more immediately important Florida. Meanwhile, in , the U. Included in this settlement was the headwaters of the Red River in what would eventually become Minnesota, and the Mesabi Range, which eventually proved to contain vast amounts of iron ore. The eastern border of Canada continued to be disputed and was not settled until Monroe was reelected without opposition in , and the old caucus system for selecting Republican candidates collapsed in In the presidential election of , factions in Tennessee and Pennsylvania put forth Andrew Jackson.
Personality and sectional allegiance played important roles in determining the outcome of the election. No candidate gained a majority in the Electoral College , so the president was selected by the House of Representatives , where Clay was the most influential figure. During Adams' administration , new party alignments appeared.
Adams' followers took the name of " National Republicans ", to reflect the mainstream of Jeffersonian Republicanism. Although he governed honestly and efficiently, Adams was not a popular president, and his administration was marked with frustrations. Adams failed in his effort to institute a national system of roads and canals as part of the American System economic plan.
His coldly intellectual temperament did not win friends. Charismatic Andrew Jackson, by contrast, in collaboration with strategist Martin Van Buren rallied his followers in the newly emerging Democratic Party. In the election of , Jackson defeated Adams by an overwhelming electoral majority in the first presidential election since to mark a wholesale voter rejection of the previous administration's policies. The electoral campaign was correspondingly as vicious as the one 28 years earlier, with Jackson and Adams's camps hurtling the worst mudslinging accusations at one another. The former painted himself as a war hero and the champion of the masses against Northeastern elites while the latter argued that he was a man of education and social grace against an uncouth, semi-literate backwoodsman.
This belied the fact that Andrew Jackson was a societal elite by any definition, owning a large plantation with dozens of slaves and mostly surrounding himself with men of wealth and property. The election saw the coming to power of Jacksonian Democracy , thus marking the transition from the First Party System which reflected Jeffersonian Democracy to the Second Party System.
Historians debate the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern American politics, with the decisive establishment of democracy and the formation of the two party system. When Jackson took office on March 4, , many doubted if he would survive his term in office.
A week short of his 63rd birthday, he was the oldest man yet elected president and suffering from the effects of old battle wounds. He also had a frequent hacking cough and sometimes spit up blood. The inauguration ball became a notorious event in the history of the American presidency as a large mob of guests swarmed through the White House, tracking dirt and mud everywhere, and consuming a giant cheese that had been presented as an inaugural gift to the president. A contemporary journalist described the spectacle as "the reign of King Mob". Starting in the s, American politics became more democratic as many state and local offices went from being appointed to elective, and the old requirements for voters to own property [ citation needed ] were abolished.
Voice voting in states gave way to ballots printed by the parties, and by the s in every state except South Carolina presidential electors were chosen directly by the voters. Jacksonian Democracy drew its support from the small farmers of the West, and the workers, artisans and small merchants of the East. They favored geographical expansion to create more farms for people like them, and distrusted the upper classes who envisioned an industrial nation built on finance and manufacturing.
The entrepreneurs, for whom Henry Clay and Daniel Webster were heroes, fought back and formed the Whig party. Political machines appeared early in the history of the United States, and for all the exhortations of Jacksonian Democracy, it was they and not the average voter that nominated candidates. In addition, the system supported establishment politicians and party loyalists, and much legislation was designed to reward men and businesses who supported a particular party or candidate.
As a consequence, the chance of single issue and ideology-based candidates being elected to major office dwindled and so those parties who were successful were pragmatist ones which appealed to multiple constituencies. Examples of single issue parties included the Anti-Masonic Party , which emerged in the Northeastern states.
Its goal was to outlaw Freemasonry as a violation of republicanism; members were energized by reports that a man who threatened to expose Masonic secrets had been murdered. Others included abolitionist parties, workers' parties like the Workingmen's Party , the Locofocos who opposed monopolies , and assorted nativist parties who denounced the Roman Catholic Church as a threat to Republicanism in the United States.
None of these parties were capable of mounting a broad enough appeal to voters or winning major elections. The election of was a significant benchmark, marking the climax of the trend toward broader voter eligibility and participation. Vermont had universal male suffrage since its entry into the Union, and Tennessee permitted suffrage for the vast majority of taxpayers. New Jersey, Maryland, and South Carolina all abolished property and tax-paying requirements between and States entering the Union after either had universal white male suffrage or a low taxpaying requirement.
From to , Connecticut , Massachusetts and New York abolished all property requirements. In , members of the Electoral College were still selected by six state legislatures. By , presidential electors were chosen by popular vote in every state but Delaware and South Carolina.
Colonization and Settlement, – | Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
Nothing dramatized this democratic sentiment more than the election of Andrew Jackson. In , Congress passed the Indian Removal Act , which authorized the President to negotiate treaties that exchanged Indian tribal lands in the eastern states for lands west of the Mississippi River. In , a special Indian territory was established in what is now the eastern part of Oklahoma. In all, Native American tribes signed 94 treaties during Jackson's two terms, ceding thousands of square miles to the Federal government. The Cherokees insisted on their independence from state government authority and faced expulsion from their lands when a faction of Cherokees signed the Treaty of New Echota in , obtaining money in exchange for their land.
Despite protests from the elected Cherokee government and many white supporters, the Cherokees were forced to trek to the Indian Territory in Many died of disease and privation in what became known as the "Trail of Tears". Toward the end of his first term in office, Jackson was forced to confront the state of South Carolina on the issue of the protective tariff. The protective tariff passed by Congress and signed into law by Jackson in was milder than that of , but it further embittered many in the state.
In response, several South Carolina citizens endorsed the " states rights " principle of "nullification", which was enunciated by John C. South Carolina dealt with the tariff by adopting the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared both the Tariff of and the Tariff of null and void within state borders. Nullification was only the most recent in a series of state challenges to the authority of the federal government.
In response to South Carolina's threat, Jackson sent seven small naval vessels and a man-of-war to Charleston in November On December 10, he issued a resounding proclamation against the nullifiers. South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason", and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Senator Henry Clay, though an advocate of protection and a political rival of Jackson, piloted a compromise measure through Congress.
The rest of the South declared South Carolina's course unwise and unconstitutional. Eventually, South Carolina rescinded its action. Jackson had committed the federal government to the principle of Union supremacy. South Carolina, however, had obtained many of the demands it sought and had demonstrated that a single state could force its will on Congress. Even before the nullification issue had been settled, another controversy arose to challenge Jackson's leadership. It concerned the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States. The First Bank of the United States had been established in , under Alexander Hamilton's guidance and had been chartered for a year period.
After the Revolutionary War, the United States had a large war debt to France and others, and the banking system of the fledgling nation was in disarray, as state banks printed their own currency, and the plethora of different bank notes made commerce difficult. Hamilton's national bank had been chartered to solve the debt problem and to unify the nation under one currency. While it stabilized the currency and stimulated trade, it was resented by Westerners and workers who believed that it was granting special favors to a few powerful men.
When its charter expired in , it was not renewed.