This paper reviews the second edition of a biography of Alexander Middendorf — — a prominent naturalist and a scientific traveller, a member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Pe- tersburg. The biography was produced in The biography was produced in co-authorship by two scholars from Russia and Estonia. It sheds a new light not only on this important scientist who is not a familiar figure for a non-specialist audience but also on the whole community of the Baltic naturalists and travellers who played an important role in the exploration of nature and natural resources in the Russian empire in the nineteenth century.
Previously published biographical accounts of Sir Boris Uvarov, FRS [sic]— were based mostly on personal recollections by his friends and colleagues recorded for the first time in the s or later. Archival research reveals Archival research reveals the true date of his birth and allows some oher key facts and dates on his early biography to be corrected. View on eco. Publication Date: Publication Name: Archimedes. Pasturing of livestock in forests has had profound consequences for Europe's landscapes.
We collected information on the institutional changes governing forest cattle pasturing and the changes in spatial extent of cattle presence in BPF in last two centuries and information on cattle numbers and their impact on forest regeneration. The spatial extent of cattle pasturing was highly variable, with the distribution of grazing areas frequently changing. Historical data showed that cattle have had a clear impact on forest regeneration. However, the frequent changes that occurred in the extent of cattle grazing indicate that their impact occurred locally, was smaller in other less intensively used areas, and in the forest as a whole.
View on researchgate. It was written by its director Robert Regel, a recognized authority in the field of applied botany both in Russia and worldwide. The review highlights the working of the Bureau in the period between February and the October Revolu- tions and during the first months of the new Soviet government. A letter dated May 22, London by Boris Uvarov — , a Russian-born entomologist and author of the phase theory which provided the rational foundation for the control of locusts , to his colleague and teacher, zoogeographer and taxonomist, Andrey Semenoff Tian-Shanski — is published for the first time.
The letter is remarkable in three respects. Secondly, it offers a glimpse into the ways in which professional entomologists of the period rationalised and structured their accounts of their everyday activities. And, thirdly it documents contemporary attitudes to the instability in Russia during the years following the Revolutions of and the Civil War. The letter is provided with biographical and bibliographical commentaries of the persons and publications mentioned. These Congresses represented the first These Congresses represented the first steps towards the professionalization of agricultural entomology within Russia.
All of the southern provinces suffered losses in agricultural trade due to pest insect outbreaks, but it was Odessa — the largest trade, cultural and scientific center in southern Russia at this time — that emerged to play a central role in the professionalization of applied entomology. The paper examines the initial efforts of naturalists and regional authorities to address the growing problem of pest infestation through a hesitant but developing dialogue with landowners and various layers of centralized state administration.
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The resultant Regional Entomological Congresses were an exceptional phenomenon, both for science as well as for the public life of the region, and represented one of the very few cases of inter-provincial zemstvo cooperation. While the Entomological Congresses were unable to provide a swift resolution to the pest issue, they were effective in raising awareness of the problem within the various layers of Russian society. The paper examines the initial efforts of regional authorities to address the growing problem of pest infestation through a hesitant but developing dialogue with scientists, landowners and various layers of centralized state administration.
The resultant Entomological Congresses were an exceptional phenomenon, both for science as well as for the public life of the region, and represented one of the very few cases of inter-provincial zemstvo cooperation. While they were unable to provide a swift resolution to the pest issue, they were effective in raising awareness of the problem within the various layers of Russian society.
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View on jstor. This chapter examines the rise of applied entomology in the nineteenth-century Russian empire from the time when certain branches of the Russian civil service began collecting field data on insect pests till the moment when the first This chapter examines the rise of applied entomology in the nineteenth-century Russian empire from the time when certain branches of the Russian civil service began collecting field data on insect pests till the moment when the first professional positions for agricultural entomologists were established.
The central theme of our research is the interaction between a small group of trained naturalists, the Russian state administration, and a broader network of provincial observers that was instrumental for the emergence of a discipline whose success ultimately depended on a stable flow of mass-produced field data. The paper explores the complex relations between the state and civil society, and between the political and academic center of St.
Petersburg and regional initiatives that shaped the early history of applied entomology in Russia.
View on springer. The afforestation efforts carried out in the Forestry Experimental Stations: Russian Proposals of the s more. The first forestry experimental stations in Europe appeared in the —s. Russia also had draft proposals for such stations around this time. Discussions about forestry experimental stations began in the s, soon after the Discussions about forestry experimental stations began in the s, soon after the Forestry Society of St.
Petersburg was established with the support of the Forestry Department. The proposal described in detail the organization of the stations, especially the meteorological department, the model for which was the Bavarian forest-meteorology network created by Ernst Ebermayer. The Russian proposal also contained new ideas on how to study soil moisture dynamics under the forest canopy. Despite productive discussions the network of Russian forestry experimental stations never materialized — probably because of the Russo-Turkish war.
The institutionalization of forestry experimentation eventually took place in Russia in the s. This was in response to the — drought and famine, which prompted the organization of the so-called Special Expedition under the supervision of Vasily Dokuchaev. Journal Name: Centaurus, vol. View on onlinelibrary. More Info: Published in Environment and History. Publisher: ingentaconnect. Russian plant breeder and geneticist Nikolai Vavilov was at the center of science and politics during the most tumultuous period in Soviet history and his impact continued long after his death.
His memory was celebrated in a series of His memory was celebrated in a series of jubilees — following the downfall of Trofim Lysenko. This paper anasise them in more broad context to ideological pressure of the State upon the science. The first posthumous jubilee officially celebrated by Russian biologists was his year anniversary in For several years following this jubilee the name of Vavilov became a flag for fighters against Lysenkoism. However, during the Brezhnev era all discussion of Lysenkoism, as well as other crimes of Stalinism, was avoided.
Finally, the year anniversary in was celebrated among Russian biologists and plant breeders quite widely. However, because of increased administrative burden in the agricultural sciences only a few researchers spoke of Lysenkoism. The most active defenders of Vavilov and prosecutors of Lysenkoism were historians of science.
A number of journalists have been eager to reconsider Lysenko as a precursor of some modern concepts in science such as prions, for example , which, as an agronomist who was entirely uneducated about molecular biology, he could not have imagined. Sources from the archives in Prague and Stockholm raise some previously unknown facts regarding the life and activities of the eminent Russian soil scientist and hydrologist Pavel Otockij in s, who emigrated from Russia in For the first time, the place and time of his death can be verified: Stockholm, 28th of May Volume 6. View on ihst. Volume 4.
Research methods, which Kostychev assimilated in the laboratories of E. Balbiani Paris and R. Koch Berlin , provided him an opportunity to undertake a number of microbiological experiments, which turned out to be crucial for the development of the soil science. In my paper, using new archival documents I discuss the circumstances of this trip, which contradict that described in the biographies of those scientists.
And, I ask what government and public fi gures supported research and sponsored them? Keywords: Pavel Kostychev, microbiology, antrax vaccination, L. Pasteur, L. Publication Date: Sep Applied ecology for irrigation engineers. The activity of the individuals celebrated in this year has resulted in the establishment of a research institute and gene bank: the Vavilov The activity of the individuals celebrated in this year has resulted in the establishment of a research institute and gene bank: the Vavilov Institute of Plant Breeding VIR, St.
Petersburg , which keeps one of the most significant collections of cultivated plant seeds in the world. We also celebrate the th anniversary of N. In addition, this year celebrates Alexandr F. Batalin, Ivan P. Borodin, and Robert E. It is supplemented by new archival documents. Key words: history of applied botany, Robert E.
Regel, Sergey P. View on bionet. Russian phitogeographers during the "Second Patriotic War" more. Petersburg, Lipshits more. Lipshits was a unique bibliographic project; it remains an essential guidebook for historians of biology in Russia. It contains biographical and full It contains biographical and full bibliographical entries for all botanists and other scholars engaged in botanical research in Russia in the 18th — midth centuries.
What makes the dictionary an invaluable resource for the history of botany both social history and history of ideas is the fact that it contains data not only on the leading scientists but on minor figures as well, even if the entries provide only a brief biographical account and a short outline of academic activities. However, only the first four volumes of the dictionary up to the letter K came out of print, and a few copies of the proofs for the fifth volume the letters L-M have been preserved.
In this paper author made an attempt to describe on the basis of archival and published materials the sequence of the work progress, the difficulties that encountered S. More Info: Botanicheskiy zhurnal. Vol In Russian. View on elibrary. Most historians of American ecology claim that the main objective of the discipline was to explain how plant communities function.
The author explains this difference by three interrelated groups of factors: 1 different interests of the first generation of researchers who created the discipline in the late 19th - early 20th century in two different countries: 2 primary sources of funding: in Russian case both the state and local authorities were keen on supporting land surveys, 3 distinctive social conditions, in which the institutionalization of the discipline took place in Russia and in America in the first quarter of the 20th century.
More Info: Studies in the History of Biology. Botanists in the Nizhniy Novgorod Expedition of V.
Russia Project 1232.2 Zubr Class LACA
On the example of a particular case — botanists taking part in the Nizhegorodskaya expedition of V. Dokuchaev — the author aims to show how theoretical basis and the objectives of plant geography by detailed research of comparatively The first publication of a comic speech given by Sergei Yu. Botany , History of Biology , and Botanical History. Book Reviews. Chicago University Press, Anna Samokish, Anastasia A. Review of the book Nyhart L. Publication Date: Dec Swiss collector of flora of Caucasus and Far East more.
Review of the book by E. Khabarovsk, Historical Essays in Russian more. Publication Date: Nov Publication Date: Oct 6, Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation. Spetsnaz later referred to special purpose or special operations forces, and the word's widespread use is a relatively recent, post- perestroika development in Russian language. The Soviet public used to know very little about their country's special forces until many state secrets were disclosed under the glasnost "openness" policy of Mikhail Gorbachev during the late s.
Since then, stories about spetsnaz and their supposedly incredible prowess, from the serious to the highly questionable, have captivated the imagination of patriotic Russians, particularly in the background of the decay in military and security forces during perestroika and the post-Soviet era. The concept of using special tactics and strategies was originally proposed by Russian military theorist Mikhail Svechnykov executed during the Great Purge in , who envisaged the development of unconventional warfare capabilities to overcome disadvantages faced by conventional forces in the field.
Its implementation was begun by the "grandfather of the spetsnaz ", Ilya Starinov. These forces were subordinate to front commanders.
In , Georgy Zhukov advocated the creation of 46 military spetsnaz companies, each consisting of servicemen. This was the first use of "spetsnaz" to denote a separate military branch since World War II. These companies were later expanded to battalions and then to brigades. However, some separate companies orSpN and detachments ooSpN existed with brigades until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The spetsnaz included fourteen army brigades, two naval brigades and a number of separate detachments and companies, operating under the Main Intelligence Directorate GRU and collectively known as Spetsnaz GRU.
These units and formations existed in the highest-possible secrecy, and were disguised as Soviet paratroopers Army spetsnaz or naval infantrymen Naval spetsnaz by their uniforms and insignia. Twenty-four years after the birth of Spetsnaz, the first counter-terrorist unit was established by KGB head Yuri Andropov.
Chernobyl: horrifying, masterly television that sears on to your brain
Some civil agencies with non-police functions have created special units also known as spetsnaz , such as the Leader special centre in the Ministry of Emergency Situations MChS. Soviet Spetsnaz soldiers preparing for a mission at Kabul Airport , Afghanistan in They were heavily involved in secret operations and training pro-Soviet forces during the Cold War and in the wars in Afghanistan during the s and Chechnya during the s and s.
Since , as a result of the military reforms , GRU special forces are under the control of the Ground Forces. Most military Spetsnaz units are known by their type of formation company, battalion or brigade and a number, similar to other Soviet or Russian military units. Below is a list of Spetsnaz units in the Russian Armed Forces :  . CSN FSB headquarters is a large complex of buildings and training areas, with dozens of hectares of land and scores of training facilities. The average training period for a CSN officer is about five years.
Alpha Group is a counter-terrorist unit created in It is a professional unit, consisting of about operators and support personnel in five operational detachments.