After the lapse of time, these dramatized farces were acted out. They generally consisted of one hundred to three hundred verses. Few of them were ever written down and still fewer printed. All that have come down to us, about pieces, date from the period 1 1 After there appeared the soties, closely related to these farces but having real fools or clowns in the chief role. The Guild of lawyers, the Basoches, was most instrumental in develop- ing the farces.
Miraulmont, their historian, tells us that at set times during the year they would present pieces in which they would ridicule their own individual members and in editions secrettes galantes des maisons particulieres. On Shrove Tuesday they would hold a session and satirize the law just as the choir boys did to the church service at Christmas time. They would deal with an imagi- nary legal process usually of a very coarse nature. We don't know much about the repertoire of these societies but here are some examples dealing with litigation: Whether a baby bom six months after the wedding can be considered legitimate; a defloration case; the jarce du pect pet where man and wife accuse each other of breaking wind in formal legal manner; or Les femmes qui de- mandent les arresages in which the woman brings suit for non- fulfillment of marital duties but later becomes reconciled to her husband.
Again there is no lack of farces dealing with unfaithful wives. Thus we find the story of a one-eyed man whose wife covers that one eye while her lover escapes; and then that of the fool whose wife is confined much too early. The gallantries of the clerics were also dramatized.
In general it may be said that only a small fraction of the farces can be regarded as dramatized fabliaux which were but little used. However, the prim- itive joy in piquant and panurgic situations is not to be mistaken in them. The higher classes of that time were no exception. The plays which were publicly produced in France during the reign of Henry ix were exceedingly offensive. Thus, The fimny tale of the physician who cures all diseases and makes the nose of the child of a pregnant ivonian; or the boisterous and merry tale which describes the dis- pute over a girl between a young monk and an old gendarme, held before the God Cupid.
At the time of Louis xi and Charles the Bold there were representations comparable to those of antiquity — with absolutely naked girls participating in scenes like the Judg- ment of Paris, the History of Noah, etc. Schnaase reports some of the doings at a party that Philip the Good gave at Lille in on the occasion of a summons to a crusade issued by Pope Pius 11, with all the accompanying revelry and license.
At one end of the board was a naked girl covered only by her long hair and a thin veil, whose breasts poured forth Hypocras a favorite drink; and on the table there was a naked boy who scattered rose water in an even more naive fashion. The paintings and the tapestries of the rich showed the same scenes. These are usually found in the castles of the nobility. Would to Heaven that none were even seen in the resi- dences of prelates and the clergy. But I cannot deny that I have even seen certain lewd paintings in the interior of a famous church which was decked out this way in honor of Easter.
I had them removed and carried them elsewhere. Sauval says that one could see represented in them gods and goddesses, as well as men and women indulging in unnatural and horrible excesses. In the regent queen caused many of these paintings to be destroyed; and the loss amounted to more than half a million francs.
Le R. P. Gabriel de Castaigne et l' « Or Potable » - Persée
The handwritten prayer books were decorated with miniatures; and collectors saved those which portrayed offensive matters. Brantome's writings constitute an inexhaustible source for evalu- ating the moral conditions of the higher society of that time. He writes: "The gallery of Count du Chateau- Vilain, known as Seign- eur Adjacet, was visited by a horde of women in the company of their admirers. Their eyes were entranced by the splendid and rare paintings that hung in this gallery. They saw a very pretty painting which portrayed beautiful women at the bath embracing one another and doing one another various other kinds of love service; upon observing which, even the coldest nun or hermitess could become ardent.
One of the women whom I knew suddenly turned to her lover and kissed him excitedly, intoxicated with the amorous madness depicted on the wall: 'I can't stand it any longer. Quick, into the carriage and home. I am burning! Come on! We will extinguish the fire. All around, and even inside, it had delicate but clear representations of some figures of Aretino and many scenes of co- habiting animals. During the feasts that this prince gave, the beaker would be passed around to the women who had to drink from it and who found great amusement in it. Among them were cer- tain ladies who had two or three or more lovers each, and these 32 exemplified 27 postures of Aretino.
The pictures were perfect like- nesses — some fully naked, some in the same clothes and coiffure that they always wore; and the same was true of the men rep- resented. In short this book was splendidly made. It cost about nine hundred thalens, and the drawings were colored. Obscene amusements Were the order of the day with the gallant ladies of the court, as contemporary writings demonstrate. Something more should be said concerning knighthood.
This institution possessed indubitable merits but it also was disfigured by many defects which are not at all in accordance with the notions commonly held about it. For generally it is supposed that knighthood and the Minnesingers were based on, and culminated in, the highest degree of reverence for women. Yet it was anything but that. The lady love was the feudal lord and he served her in the expectation that his services would finally be recompensed with the desired, ultimate boon.
In this concept of mutuality there lay a deeply immoral moment which was soon to become the point of attack for the annihilating criticism of knight- hood. Since this mutuality was nearly always carried into the realm of the sexual, the homage to woman soon was lost. Because there had to result a gradual demolition of all marital relationships, and a revaluation of all moral conceptions concerning marital fideli- ty and purity of family life. This strong emphasis on sexual matters was aided by the thor- ough occupation with love in all its phases which characterizes the didactic poetry of that time.
In the Minnesongs for example the preponderant theme is the corporeal attraction of the lady who is being solicited, and the joys of physical love. No attention is paid to the spiritual qualities of the woman, who indeed has value only as an object for serving man's insatiable passions. Consequently, pleasure in woman is confined to the externals; if she possesses physical merits these are glorified by her knight in songs of appropriate praise.
But what if these corporeal attractions decay? Then they become disesteemed, as are from the start all those women who have not been dowered with beauty, and are cast upon the junk heap. The Minnesongs can be pronounced to be immoral in the wide usage of the term, if only for the reason that it is always a married woman who is the mistress of the poet's heart. And since there was no lack of jealous husbands at this time, the singing troubadour was frequently compelled to use fictitious names and allegorical signs in order to conceal the identity of his lady.
It is this circumstance that to a considerable degree spoils the naturalness and truth of the experiences in these poems. Her most intimate beauties and private favors were poetized and revealed to an interested world, and what woman could remain deaf to music so flattering to her ear! The forms which the Minnesingers assumed were frequently very grotesque.
The knights wore the shirt of their beloved, saved their hair, often their pubic hair, and were present to lend a helping hand when their lady-loves disrobed and retired. Ulrich von Lichtenstein drank with great relish the water of his beloved's bath, had his lip operated for her sake, etc. Once the lady's favor was won, the happy lover did not have to wait very long for the satis- faction of his impatient desire.
These relationships took place with- out delay and quite openly, and were sanctioned, indeed demanded, by society. To such a pass did matters reach, that the husband was often compelled to be content with a secondary, inferior posi- tion in his wife's favor. Certainly one cannot become very enthusi- astic about the moral conditions of that time.
It is not extraordinary, therefore, when the poet inflamed by the charms of his beloved and reveling in the memories of sweet hours of intimacy, gave such free rein to his fancy that his words were somewhat too outspoken for seminary girls. It is even pardonable, for these songs are the expression of a genuinely experienced emo- tion. Not quite the same justification exists for the composition of erotic verses which are calculated to dazzle or to amuse by their brilliance, since in this case there is no inner feeling struggling for expression that might, however slightly, excuse the license of speech.
For the most part, itinerant singers, troubadours dependent on the kindness of the knight, were the creators of this poetry. Troubadours from trou- ver denotes discoverer, poet. They flourished in the period be- tween the middle of the twelfth and fourteenth century. Their pro- ductions include violent satires against the clergy, didactic poems, but above all, love songs and abstruse speculations anent the nature of love.
They sought to establish their fame in the Tensons, in which questions posed at various courts of love were treated in pedantic fashion. These tensons consisted of dialogues in alternating couplets in which these various speculative opinions were expressed. In their own land the troubadours led an idle and uncertain life but they found a cordial welcome at the palaces of the nobles where they consorted with low villains. This afforded them a fine opportunity to gather the anecdotes and the chronique scandaleuse of the day which they afterwards utilized for the benefit of their hearers, with due corrections.
The unquestionable beauty of many of their songs is nevertheless disfigured by numerous failings. Thus the tales are sometimes extravagant and more often offensive, not merely in expression but also in content. Many obscene matters are even put into the mouths of women. Love is represented as an art by this poetry, and reduced to rules. Hence the expression. Saber d'amor: to be wise in matters of love. It is very likely that manuals were composed for this art, for which Ovid served as preceptor. It has already been mentioned that there existed a great predi- lection for investigating the nature and essence of love; and this brings us to the courts of love with their questions of the Minne- singers, frequently very free ones, too!
The Roman de la Rose is an excellent example of this pedantic inclination to a scholastic con- sideration of love. There were debates on such ques- tions as these: Which lover shows more affection — he who is so jealous as to be disturbed on the slightest provocation, or he who is so prepossessed in favor of his love as not to be jealous even when substantial proofs are at hand?
Which lover owes more to his love — he who has won her heart after a long siege or he who has not to so- licit so long? Which lover demonstrates his love more — he who at the behest of his love absents himself from a tournament that he de- sires to witness, or he who, again at the request of his love, accom- panies her to a tournament he would rather have missed. The existence of these courts of love is certified by numerous poems of the troubadours. What we are not certain however is whether they were regarded as pastimes, or whether the decisions of these courts really had any effect upon the courtly society.
The first of these suppositions seems the more likely. Probably these questions about love were brought up at social gatherings for the delectation of the guests.
paris robert estienne
Aretino would also seem to be of this mind. Schultz is doubtless right when he says: "It is highly probable that both ladies and gallants who had been following the suit of a cer- tain young man with interest, would discuss the matter to deter- mine whether the lover had already attained the final favor or whether he was to suffer much longer.
The distortions of the knightly service of women, and the moral excesses of the time afforded ample material for didactic poetry and satire. There were those preachers who babbled about the good old times and who wished to lead their misguided and neglected con- temporaries back to morality and honor. Raymond Vidal com- posed a volume in which he imparted wise doctrines to lovers. Peire Giullem composed a novel in which love, and her attendants, grace, shame, and frivolity, appeared as allegorical characters.
All these attempts and numerous others pale by comparison with the Roman de la Rose of Guillaume of Louis ca. In certain respects he stands on the threshold between two periods. The earlier knightly gallantry to women had been succeeded by a satirical and superior sort, and the art of love was taught out of the treasure trove of rich experience. The pruriency and voluptuousness of the representa- tions were in accordance with the taste of the time.
The satirical treatment of the errors of society, combined with an amazing eru- dition, lent a prestige to this work which it maintained throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, even though there rose up among the attacked many who defended the old order. Lyric poetry of the troubadours had but a shadowy existence in the fifteenth century. Its rare and precious forms, its affectation, its concealed allusions did not appeal to the new taste, which sought genuine, homely lyricism. Among those who satisfied the new de- mands were Froissart, Besselin and especially Villon, who was bom near Paris, in 1.
He came to Paris to attend the university but the loose student life attracted him much more than did science, and he was drawn deeper and deeper into the whirlpool of pleasure. His chief occupation was aimer. When one of his sweethearts dis- missed him he revenged himself by composing a satirical poem, for which he was publicly flogged. Thereupon he left Paris but not before he had composed in his will — the Small Testament. The date of his death is unknown but it falls between and His chief work is the Grand Testament which he composed in the shadow of imminent death by hanging. It was a collection of ballads and poems in which he bequeathed to his rela- tives and cronies that which did not belong to him and which the heirs would have to steal to make their own.
To his enemies he bequeathed a jest or a term of abuse. His roguish songs were collect- ed by a friend under the title Repues franches. All his works make a peculiar impression upon us with their rapid alternation of the coarsely erotic, and the noblest and purest of sentiment. With great candor he reveals to us his evil characteristics, and even his crimes.
All his works are characterized by melancholy, humor, and a naive devotion to his impressions of reality; all his works breathe a deep truthfulness. His expression is frequently foul and obscene, and the wordplays which he skillfully scatters throughout his ver- ses have nearly always an obscene allusion. Despite all his short- comings, Villon remains the best folk poet before Marot, and stands in conscious opposition to the lascivious, sentimental, idyllic poetry which was the accepted thing in France since the Roman de la Rose. In the realm of the humorous story the two outstanding produc- tions are the Mensa Philosophica and the Cent Novelles Nouvelles.
The first was printed in and is attributed to Michael Scot. The author's purpose is, in his own words, to teach his readers what and how to speak at the table. The fourth part contains a collection of "honorable, merry" stories that are adapted for table amusement, and include a great number of indecent stories. Michael Scot, who died in , can un- hesitatingly be regarded as the author of the first three treatises. The fourth treatise, however, which includes the erotical tales is very likely the production of a Dominican monk.
The Mensa served as model for the later narrators of humorous tales. The Cent Novelles Nouvelles, so called to distinguish them from the Cent Nouvelles antiche, were produced about but did not get into print before i; they may be regarded as the first French book of tales which was consciously produced for this purpose. Neither the first printing of Verard nor any of the subsequent ones give the name of the author; all sorts of guesses have been made, even the name of Louis xi having been suggested. At any rate it was assumed as certain that they sprang from the King's table.
The Marquis d'Argens mentions that the favorite table talk in that mon- arch's refectory consisted of obscene love adventures, and these stories doubtless gave the impetus to this bock. It remained for Wright in his edition of the work and the Grisebach, to es- tablish that Anthoine de la Sale was the author. The latter was bom at Provence in 1 , jomneyed through Italy, Brabant and Flanders and in 5 took part in a military expedition to Portugal.
After his return he became a judge in Aries, and tutor to the Dauphin and to the sons of Count Saint-Pol. Little is known of his last years, except that he was past seventy when he died. The form of the stories resembles Boccaccio's. A group of young noblemen, just returned from the hunt are gathered round the fireplace, and as they feast they regale each other with coarse, humorous stories.
The stories are told broadly, are rooted in a rude, rough eroticism, and are scarcely fit for female ears. Fifteen of them are borrowed from Poggio, and Boccaccio too contributes some material; furthermore, the author took much from the fabliaux of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Lusty cavaliers, faithless and frivolous wives, jealous husbands, cunning monks and lascivious nuns pass before our eyes in colorful alternation. All their thoughts are con- cerned with the satisfaction of sexual desire. Yet even the most delicate matters are represented with smooth grace, which seems to be instinctive in the French people.
La Sale is also the author of another very well known work which appeared anonymously, Les quinze joyes de manage. The edition of this work issued with many lacunae, by Jehan Treperel in Paris between and , contains a foreword which gives the name of the author in a charade. This riddle was not deciphered until when Dr. Andre Pother, municipal librarian of Rouen, wrote the solution to a certain bookseller Techener. This work is not merely a collection of obscenities but a striking and mordant satire on marriage, and though done in an admirable style, is quite pessi- mistic and misogynous.
These stories of adventures and love appealed to him so much that he requisitioned d'Herberay des Essarts to translate them into French. The task was completed in 1 and despite its long winded title aroused the intensest interest and gave rise to numerous imita- tions which were failures. In all of them the erotic element was dominant. It is in the heroic romances of gallantry, in fictions like Amadis and in the pastorals, that songs of praise are sung to sexual love, which constituted the chief desideratum of life.
It is almost a tradition that all heroes of the Amadis romances must have been the fruit of premarital unions; and the knights who extol the notions of free sexual relations always find ladies of like mind. In the heroic romances of gallantry there is not quite such a degree of freedom; indeed it was the part of courtiy perfection to apply a curb to erotic passion and to paraphrase matters almost sanctimoni- ously instead of employing the blunt word. But this does not imply that a nobler conception of love had come to be entertained.
Madame Scudery is a prototype of the poets who composed these romances. Although she lost much of her popularity after Boileau's biting satire, the public continued to favor these romances; and in Germany they were even more popular than in France. However, this fare of false sentimentality which our modem appetites can no longer enjoy, did not hold the sole place in the esteem of that period.
Other genres, more substantial, were also favored; and the grotesque, the piquant, the ribald found as many lovers as the Amadis romances, or even more. The chief rep- resentatives of each variety will now be mentioned. The first place is without a doubt occupied by Master Frangois Rabelais with his Gargantua and Pantagruel, which is more than a grotesque-humorous fiction.
There is unrolled be- fore our eyes a satirical picture of the times, which has never found its equal. There is no need for us to give a more detailed analysis of the work since this will be found in any history of literature. This world famous satire owes its origin to the suggestion of his publishers, who requested Rabelais to write a popular work to indemnify them for the poor sale of that author's medical works. So Rabelais composed his Pantagruel roy des Dipsodes, restitue a son naturel avec ses faicetz et ses promesses esponentables; composez par feu M.
Alcofribas abstracteur de quintessence to which he soon added the revised satire La vie ires horrifique de Gargantua, pere Pantagruel fadis compose e par M. Alcofribas, abstracteur de quin- tessence. In the first book Rabelais lets the giant Pantagruel journey through all provinces of folly. Everywhere he punishes fools and protects the righteous.
Rabelais lashes the crimes of the church and the monks and their lascivious life with unsurpassed, vigorous humor. In line with the comic content, the narrative is adorned with speeches and words in foreign languages, and with linguistic frills of all sorts which despite their nonsense, give a most just characterization of the persons represented. Naturally this book was a thorn in the side of those whom it attacked, and it would have fared ill with the author had not the royal hand protected him. Francis i in particular took great delight in the unrestrained merriment of the delightful work.
However, Rabelais never aimed at lewdness in these books. Even as prudish a historian of literature as E. Engel admits that while certain chap- ters in Gargantua are so immeasurably indecent that it is impossible to give even a list of its headings, it must nevertheless be admitted that Rabelais is never lewd, no matter how far he strays beyond the bounds of what is permissible to the writer or artist, or how much he indulges in offensive and monstrous nastiness. He never aims to excite the reader sensually, though he always and quite without scruple, uses the shocking word to designate the shocking deed.
In other words, although he revels in the vocabulary of coarseness so that many chapters are complete lexica of porno- graphy, which have no equal even in the wide realms of French literature, he never smirks, and only uses such words to portray faithfully coarse men and raw situations. In the rhymed foreword to Gargantua, Rabelais expresses himself unequivocally about the purpose of his work: Mieulx est de ris que de larmes escrire pource que rire est le propre de Vhomme. His work is a splendid antidote to the literature of libidinousness and pruri- ency — like a mudbath.
His piercing scorn is also directed against the female sex, particularly against the immorality of his feminine contemporaries. How insatiable the women of his time were may be gathered from the following anecdote from Rabelais: One fine morning Panurge met a fellow who was carrying two baby girls of about two or three years of age in a double knapsack, slung across his shoulders — one in front and the other on his back. Panurge who had but little respect for the female species asked the man immedi- ately whether the children were virgins.
To which the man replied that he had been carrying them about for two years; that the one in front whom he carried on his chest — he supposed that she was still a virgin; but as for the one whom he carried on his back, he could not undertake to speak with certainty. Quite in the spirit of Rabelais, but not at all a part of literature, are the Erreurs popolaires et propos vulgaires touchant la? The very headings betray the roguish wantonness of the author: why one should not meet women before going to bed; the abuse of women who bathe in order to become gravid; how it is possible that a woman should bear nine children at once; whether it is good for a woman to sit on a hot kettle or place the night cap of her husband on her belly to assure an easy parturition; are there sure signs of a girl's virginity; etc.
Guillaume Bouchet, who Hved between 15 13 and and was a bookseller at Poitiers, has also long been famed as an imitator of Rabelais. He wrote the Series, fifty gallant "jokes" which have the effect of well-told anecdotes in their pregnant setting. One reads here of the lady who has to sit on the pot de chambre and gets pinched in her private parts by a crayfish; of the dreamer who dreams of gold but who receives turds; of the cuckolded husband who must get into the privy at once but who cannot open the door because his wife and her lover are having a very important conference there.
Whereas the stories of the Heptameron and the Nouvelles Recreations still contain much that is superfluous, the tendency toward the pure form of the anecdote appears ever more clearly in the last decades of the 1 6th century, to assume final form in the work of Bouchet and Beroalde de Verville. In these anec- dotes of the Series, and of the Moyen de parvenir soon to be dis- cussed, with their condensation and pointedness, the material of the old French fabliaux assumed the form of the modern French conte.
A few illustrations will prove this.
- Etre en forme ! (ED ORGANISATION) (French Edition).
- Coran, Le (French Edition).
- Te ve, mi amor, t.v. (Narrativa) (Spanish Edition);
The midwife supports her and desires to put her upon the bed. Whereupon she cries: "No, not on the bed; that's where I met my misfor- tune. His wife who had not been listening very atten- tively remarked, quite naively: "Tush, that can't be so difficult. I always know whether it is inside or not. Thereupon she said to him, "Yes, dear, I took great care not to let myself go in spite of the fact that I desired you, because I had already been deceived too many times in such matters.
Gay gives a full report about his life and works. Bonaventure des Periers was at once philosopher and author. He was bom at the end of the fifteenth century and stood in relationship to Clement Marot and Rabelais. By Catholics he was suspected of Protestantism, and by the latter of licentiousness. In he published Cymbalum mundi, a collection of philosophical dialogues. Immediately, the whole edition, with the exception of two copies, was placed under embargo and destroyed.
Of these two, one is in the Bibhotheque Nationale, the other in the municipal library of Versailles. The protection of Margaret of Valois saved him from persecution and the following year another edition was issued by a different publisher, Bonn of Lyons. For a short while he belonged to the intimate circle gathered around Margaret which was devoted to the cultivation of bel-esprit. In he committed suicide in a fit of insanity. After his death his works were issued by his friends, and among them were Les Nouvelles. In much the same way Nicolas of Troyes, the saddle master, wrote down the humorous stories that came to his ears.
He lived about 1 at the time of Francis i and composed his stories just before the Heptameron. His stories depend on Boccaccio, La Sale, Cent nov- elles nouvelles, Gesta Romanorum, old sermons and books of leg- ends, the dialogues of the holy Gregory, Jacob de Vitry and others. But the man's own wife who has been one of the company, subsequently deceives him again. Once the husband leaves for a short trip to Paris and when he returns his wife asks what he has done with the Httle ploughman that he used to have be- fore.
Her mistress lies in wait for him one day, gives him his dough and gets in return what was coming to the maid. Whereupon his wife consents to have him transfer his pregnancy to the maid whom he promptly impreg- nates. A hermit presents him with a ring that adds half a foot to the stature of his member. A certain bishop finds the said ring and encounters many strange adventures.
These tales are valuable to us for the historical materials they contain. Aside from this, however, the circumstantial narratives of the upright artisan are neither of literary nor cultural value. Infinitely more alive is the master of the droll tale, Francois Beroalde de Verville i , whom we now consider. He was the author of a series of novels including La Pucelle d'Orleans but none of these would have res- cued his name from oblivion had he not hit upon the happy notion of collecting piquant anecdotes.
The volume titled Moyen de Par- venir appeared about with no author's or publisher's name and no place of publication. Subsequent editions bore other quaint titles, as Le Coupgu de la Melancholie and Venus en belle hu7neur, etc. We have here a collection of extremely free tales related round the festive board. The modern reader needs much patience to read Beroalde who makes many demands upon that particular virtue because he is very prolix and repetitious.
The boon companions spin their yarns to great lengths indeed. Most of the anecdotes have to do with the genital and anal regions; and it would appear as though this strong, and not at all prudish nation, took particular joy in swimming in cesspools. Beroalde finds special pleasure in put- ting the juiciest jests and anecdotes into the mouths of famous writ- ers like Sappho, Rabelais, Calvin and many other scholars whom he vulgarizes before us. His influence was very considerable and for a long time his work was attributed to Rabelais.
Even today we find some of his witty tales included in contemporary works. A few examples will illustrate how coarse these anecdotes are. Several characters are conversing: f The Other: I will tell you all about it. Gaffer Genebrard had married a young, pretty, and dainty wife, and in due course they went to bed. He kissed her and fondled her to his heart's content he was soon content and then tapped her gently, saying: "Roach, sweetheart, roach. I never hear anything but roach in this house!
But it is a wondrous thing how this mys- tery of nature can come together again after it has been parted. He bade Mercury sew up the bellies of the two halves; and thus the belly is tender to the touch to this day. The lace he used to sew up the man was too long, so the end hung down in front; and when he came to the woman he took too short a lace, and there was not enough to finish her; hence for want of a stitch a gash remained open.
Do you understand that? Then lay it up in the cedar chest by the hearth. Know you, learned sirs, what are the seven wonders of the world? You say not a word. It is evi- dent that I can teach you some rare doctrines, so make ready to listen. Don't you know that though the hen and the cow live in the same field neither eats buttered eggs! I will tell you greater secrets which contain the marrow of all the sciences. The seven miracles are as follows: i.
A black hen, which lays a white egg. Claret, which goes in red and comes out white. The spigot that has no ears, and yet hears well enough when there is talk of grappling. The vessel which has its mouth at the bottom, and yet lets nothing out. The bow which bends of itself without a winch. The rose which sucks the marrow of men's bones, and yet does not break them. The anus which opens and shuts like a purse, without any strings. Ah, ha! What do you say to that? This trap was at least half a foot in diameter, it was ready set, and the spring was stiff and strong.
In the night Brother Jean woke up to mictu- rate, and took hold of the trap by the rim, thinking it had been the pot. He then presented John Chouart to the instrument, and as it stretched down as far as the catch, the spring went off, and grabbed hold of the Greyfriar. He bawled out loudly e- nough to awake the Seven Sleepers, and they brought a candle, and set him free. It was in summertime, and the house being full, he who was a familiar friend slept in the lower room, where the good wife and her maid lay in another bed. The rascal got up to take the air, and the night being dark, he called out to the maid: "Marchioness, I have lost my way; prithee, come and set me right.
Why, what's this? Go away, I will have nothing to do with you. In marked contrast to Beroalde's naturalness and primitiveness is the courtliness that emanates from every line of the Heptameron, despite its attention to sexual matters. Marguerite de Valois, born on April ii, and dying on 21st of December , stood at the center of the literary circle gathered at the court of her brother, Francis i. Rabelais thought a great deal of her and dedicated the third book of his Pantagruel to her.
Clement Marot who poetized about her was regarded as her lover. The fruit of this social intercourse was the Heptameron des nouvelles which was written in conscious debt to Boccaccio. A company of ladies and gentlemen who are journeying to the Pyrenees to take the baths, take refuge in a monastery in order to escape a storm and flood. To beguile the tedium of the enforced delay, everyone of the group tells a love story. Besides certain very tolerant opinions springing from the spirit of a sophisticated humanitarianism, there are some extremely forceful attacks on the evils of the time, espe- cially on the abuses of the church, and the immorality, pride and superstition of the monks.
French literature owes its first fluent and merry book of entertainment, free from excessive erudition and bombastic euphuism, to Marguerite. In her introduction the authoress relates how the Dauphin, and Madame Marguerite that is, herself had resolved jointly and with the further assistance of other ladies, to write a collection of stories like Boccaccio's, whose work but recently translated by a secretary of the king, had met with great success. Lotheisen believes that the stories were not meant for publication but were intended only for a small circle of friends.
In the first edition was issued by Pierre Boaistuau under the title: Histoire des amans fortunes but it did not bear Marguerite's name. However, since he had mutilated the text Marguerite's daughter, Johanna of Navarre, caused to be issued in a more conscientious but castrated text, under the title by which it has come to be known: The Heptaineron. Later editions contain the unmutilated text. The authoress set as her task the narration of real occurrences and historical incidents, in the form of the very short stories that her age loved. Generally they are of a prurient nature but told with a seemingly naive candor.
However erotic they may be, they are told quite undisguisedly but they do not aim to excite the read- er through lascivious descriptions. Marguerite was thor- oughly aware of the daring nature of her material but it was part of the age and she was certainly no prude among her contempo- raries. And sometimes, when an extremely erotic tale is told, Mar- guerite was shrewd enough, aping the hypocrisy of her time, to make it yield a pious moral.
Beroalde de Verville, des Periers and Margaret of Valois are then a few of the most significant representatives of French writers of funny tales. Their work is by no means diminished in import- ance because they borrowed most of their material from popular sources. Karl Amrain Anthropophytheia x, gives a very illu- minating explanation of the wandering of such stories. He holds that the female domestics who are notorious for their love of tattle put into circulation all the intimate details, love talk, panurgics, obscenity, and chit-chat of their sensual and loose mistresses, the high born ladies whom they prepared for love.
The tales then ran the gamut of the lower classes and the best were embellished and mag- nified. Finally the poets and collectors of facetiae gave them pi- quant form and thus they reached the upper classes. This explains the frequent recurrence of similar stories in collections far re- moved in space and time. There is no question of plagiarism at all. Even today there are extant among people jokes and anecdotes which first appeared hundreds of years ago.
When we discussed the Heptmneron we mentioned the name of Clement Marot. Born in , he early became a page at the court of Marguerite where his charm and wit brought him much success with women. As valet to the king, he stood in close relation- ship to Diana of Poitiers. He accompanied Francis i on the latter's expedition into Italy, was wounded near Pavia and captured, but was soon released, and in was back in France. He then went to Geneva where he became a member of the reformed church, but owing to his amorous exploits was banished from the city.
He went back to Italy where he re- turned to Catholicism, dying at Turin in September 1 in com- parative poverty. Of his many writings only the Epigrams are readable today. No matter how brilliant his other poems are they are vitiated by the defects of the style of the time, the obsolete emotion and pon- derous pomp.
For erotica however Marot found the clear classic form of the epigram whose master he was. He was able to enclose a whole Italian story in eight lines of verse; and so great was his skill that this morsel contained all the spice of the original. The age he lived in with its intense joy in love gave him the mate- rial for his maddest inspirations and he created pictures which recall the strength of a Goya. Marot's epigrams entertained and corrupted the dazzling court of Francis, and they still sparkle, like little mirrors, with all the license and insouciance of that time.
The driving force of Marot's period, the force that colored and ruled over its thought and emotion was the erotic. It has been sug- gested that Charles viii of Burgundy, to whom all Europe is re- sponsible for the spreading of lues according to Bloch undertook his Italian expedition merely because he yearned for Italian women. He and his men were received with great enthusiasm.
For over one hundred and twenty days and nights, the king and his soldiery revelled in a limitlessly giddy life, until the defeat at the river Tarro on July 6, He was just barely able to force his march with a part of his baggage. In this way did the royal libertine hope to perpetuate the memory of the pleasures of his insane sensuality in various Italian cities.
But this catalogue has been lost. The loveliest and noblest of the creatures arranged a grandiose spectacle at Chieri on September 6, They wanted to wish the monarch luck upon his arrival and proclaim him the pro- tector of the fair sex. Among other scenes which they portrayed for his royal delectation was an actual confinement.
There is one authentic eye witness who has depicted the un- bridled life of pleasure characteristic of his time with clarity and fidelity, namely Pierre de Bourdeille, Seigneur de Brantome 1 I6I4. His childhood was spent at the court of the queen of Na- varre. Henry 11 bestowed upon him the abbey of Brantome, by which name he has come to be remembered.
After journeys through Italy, Spain, England and Scotland he participated in the cam- paigns of his time and finally in a sudden fall of his horse sustained grave injuries which kept him in bed for four whole years. During this period he devoted himself to study and to the writing of his works. On July 5, 16 14 he retired to his castle which he had built at Richmont, a mile and a half away from the abbey. His most famous work, Gallant Ladies, is entirely subjective throughout.
We see and hear the courtiers who have been bom and reared in fastidiousness, and how they trifle away their days. Everything amuses them, for everything has a ridiculous side. Brantome is a brilliant chatterer, nonchalant and amusing, who blurts out the secrets of discreet alcoves with cunning little eyes and corked ears. We moderns are attracted by the impartiality of his presentation, and with the un- concerned manner in which he treats the most intimate things.
But the charge of frivolity cannot be maintained against him. There are many contributions to sexual pathology in his work. His chronicle of scandals contains seven treatises on the follow- ing themes — i: Concerning women who cultivate love and make their husbands cuckolds, 2: What has the most charm in love — the emotion, the face, or speech. These seven headings by no means exhaust the contents of the work. Brantome no sooner begins his theme than every name and expression calls up an anecdote which he promptly sets down. This in turn provides material for interesting parallels, and so he labori- ously returns to the starting point — but he doesn't stay there very long.
For very soon another ton mot or piquant story ensnares him which he cannot for all the world pass over. He gives homage to the beautiful and "honorable" women who grant their love despite marital shackles, whenever and to whomsoever they please, and his sympathy is entirely on the side of the fair sex. A tremendous amount of interesting material is revealed to us in this work which is of great value in the history of culture and manners, because it re- veals to us a clearer and more consistent picture of that period than could be derived from a thousand sermons.
They are merely a Utopia, a beautiful and pious wish, but alas! Every century has its merits and its weaknesses. No age is really better or worse; it is merely differ- ent. The personal viewpoint of the historian is responsible for his drawing one age in gray and another in rosy colors.
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In sixteenth century France we already find all genres of litera- ture and erotic writers, from the most delicate emotional depictions to the foulest brothel-poetry, from the serious learned writer to the coarsest and most unintelligent buffoon. And in the France of the seventeenth century, there is no lack of erotic light literature, nor of anti-royalist and anti-clerical pamphlets, nor of free chan- sons, nor of lascivious popularizations and outlines of sex.
Thus for instance we might mention the pamphlet which Adrien de Montluc directed against the government, entitled Infortwie des filles de joie siiivie de la Maigre In this brochure the author espouses most energetically the interests of the filles de joies whom there was talk of compelling to settle outside the walls of Paris. Lupanie, histoire ajnoureuse de ce temps , attributed to Blessebois, is generally regarded as a satire directed against the Montespan, but erroneously, since this short erotic story portrays a middle class milieu.
In addition, there are extant a number of scandalous stories about Alen9on which the author terms a modern Sodom. Every one of the crowned heads served as a target for obscene jest and satire, despite the extremely strict censorship. The immoral life of the clergy and the inmates of the convents are criticised in Le libertinage secret de cloitre, and Le moine au parloir The latter work is a collection of more than bold tales and anecdotes, in prose and verse, whose chief headings will give one a notion of the contents: les tetons naissants, la religieuse en chemise, V accouchement, le chat, le ventre litre, le bon office, etc.
Collections of chansons are very numerous. I will merely mention the Le nouveau cabinet des Muses gaillardes , reprinted fre- quently in the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Among the most important works in the popularizations of sex, should be mentioned Tableau de V amour conjugal , by Nicolas Venette, often reprinted, and Le nouveau jardin de V amour In other words, in this erotic history of France no lengthy proof is needed that lascivious literature existed there in the seventeenth century.
Indeed, contemporary writers confirm the inclination of their contemporaries to excesses, and to a naturalistic conception of the sexual. Nevertheless, their testimony must be accepted with great reservation, for the greatest failing of most historians is the tendency to generalize from but a few if true particulars. There is no doubt that erotic manners occupied a predominating place in seventeenth- century France; but it is equally certain that there were to be found unprejudiced and incorruptible men who did not permit them- selves to be swept away by the whirlpool of sensuality but kept their heads cool in order to judge the weaknesses of their time.
A few such will now be mentioned. Chief among these writers is Gideon Tallement des Reaux 1 6 whose Histoiriettes is of the first importance for a knowledge of the manners and morals of the time. While Brantome is lengthy and detailed, the later writer is brief, succinct, and hence pleasant to read. For a long time the manuscript remained unprinted. In when the library of the Castle of Montigny was sold, the Marquis de Chateaugiron purchased it for twenty francs, had the folio pages copied.
Later, when the society of French Bibliophiles was organized, he turned it over to them for publication. Since when the first edition appeared there have been numerous other editions. Another writer of significance is Bussy-Rabutin, the notorious author of the Histoire amoureuse des Gaules. He sprang from a very distinguished family, entered the military service very early and earned great distinction. During the war of the Fronde he first served Prince Conde but then took the side of the King. Until he was lucky, but afterwards a series of misfortunes descended upon him.
The most improbable rumors were circulated about him. Thus he was reputed, in the company of three cronies, to have celebrated the black mass during passion week; and again, to have exhumed a corpse with which his drunken fellows danced crazy dances. The penalty for these rumored extravaganzas was a year of exile. Bussy had hit upon the idea of writing down the gallant adventures of great ladies, partly for his own pastime and partly for the delecta- tion of his mistress, Madame de Monglas. Only four or five persons were permitted to read the manuscript but one of these few was a traitor.
Madame La Baume divulged the contents, and what was much worse for the author several courtiers were able to persuade Louis XIV that his mistress had not fared so well in this work. The embittered king didn't hesitate to sentence the foolhardy pamphlet- eer, who had had the additional audacity to send him the manu- script, to thirteen months in the Bastille. After his release, Bussy had to retire to his estate, and it was not until that he regained permission to reappear at court.
In he died at the age of sev- enty-five. There is no doubt that Bussy owed his incarceration entirely to the king's personal displeasure for there was nothing novel in the Histoire to justify his punishment. All of them sought to show that under Henry iv and Louis xiii marital infidelity was a pastime, under Louis xrv a rule, and later an obligation. The cuckolded husband was regarded not as a tragic person but always a comical creature at whose expense one had lots of fun; indeed, not even crowned heads were immune from the fate of wearing horns.
The various editions of the Histoire were naturally secretly printed and distributed. Bussy-Rabutin can also be regarded as the author of an extremely obscene comedy La Comtesse d'Olonne which was circulated in many editions. On conserve enfin de lui une abondante correspondance Hoefer, t.
On trouve cet exemplaire d? Un second ex-libris manuscrit grec se trouve au bas du feuillet de titre ek tvn tou Yoresiou Foresius : il pourrait s'agir du P? Lugano le 13 d? Il fut jet? Leoben et y mourut le 3 avril ? Un des premiers et des plus beaux livres grecs imprim?
Dos restaur? Publicado por Robert Estienne Stephanus About this Item: Robert Estienne Stephanus , The Greek New Testament. Editio Regia. Textus Receptus. Printed by Robert Stephanus, Paris. Fine Leather binding, newly bound in one handsome volume by Starr Bookworks. Crisp, clean, bright pages, some light foxing, some notes in margins All pages present, possibly missing last blank page. Beautiful display of the Editio Regia. Robert Estienne, typographer and scholar, also known as Robert Stephani, or Stephanus in Latin, was born in Paris, France ; son of the famous printer Henri Estienne.
In , after the death of his father, Robert took over the printing shop. While working in Paris during the rule of King Francis I, Robert established himself as the Royal Typographer , the Printer in Greek to the king because he printed many Greek editions of classical authors, grammatical works, and other schoolbooks. But Stephanus is most famous for his printing of religious texts such as: the entire Hebrew Bible, ; and his four editions of the Greek New Testament, , , , Since the printing of Erasmus Greek New Testaments in , there had been no debate or challenge of the textual purity of the Greek text.
The Reformation was in full force and the Textus Receptus , the Received Text although that term was not coined until , was Erasmus Greek. Christianity, namely the Protestants of the Reformation, were more concerned with theology rather than textual criticism, until when Robert Stephanus issued his Greek New Testament publications. His first two editions of the Greek New Testament in and , were substantially based on Erasmus text, but in , he issued his Editio Regia , the Royal Edition, which compared other Greek manuscripts to Erasmus.
Stephanus used 15 other Greek Byzantine manuscripts along with the Complutensian Polyglot, and even two other Alexandrian Codices, who were given to him by friends in Italy. The result, the Byzantine manuscripts were in perfect harmony with Erasmus Greek text! This shows the hand of God carefully preserving His Word through the centuries awaiting the unveiling in the Reformation of the sixteenth century.
This third printing, in , was a beautiful masterpiece, printed with a magnificent Greek font and a large folio size. This was not only the most handsome edition, but also the most important of his texts because it was the first to have a textual apparatus listing the readings of the 15 Greek manuscripts he used. The third and fourth editions of Stephanus Greek New Testament standardized the Erasmus text and became the foundation for all future Bibles up to Stephanus work assured the dominance of the text begun by Erasmus, which was the foundation for all the translations in the common tongue of the Reformation.
Textual criticism, namely the Greek Testament of Stephanus, has only strengthened the purity of the Word of God, proving its harmony and authentication of One Author, the Holy Spirit. Publicado por par Mamert Patisson au logis de Robert Estienne. Notre exemplaire est bien complet du feuillet aii, souvent manquant.
Une petite mouillure angulaire sans atteinte au texte en marge du feuillet This collection contains 80 pieces more than the First edition Works Only our edition is indicated by Tchemerzine. Our copy is complete of the sheet a ii , often missing. Posterior Binding early seventeenth century in the calf mottled brown, back with five nerves decorated with iron griffin and cross fleur-de-lysed, double net gilded framing boards struck them weapons center Cauchon and of Hesselin, all slices speckled with red.
Small worm work affecting the joint of the last nerve of the first board. Three joints of nerves of the second flat slightly rubbed. A few small wetting and wormholes narrowing in the inner margin of the volume. A small angular wetting without attacking the text on the margin of the sheet A great bibliophile, famous for his wealth, he was also a lover of works of art and paintings. He was the man of taste par excellence [. Very fond of beautiful curiosities, he had made his house quai des Bethune, in the Ile Saint-Louis, a real museum.
Hesselin died poisoned by a servant in [. The books of his library meet with difficulty; they are usually connected in tortoiseshell with his arms. Provenances: Long bibliographical note of the hand of the Baron Pichon - one of the owners of the volume - on the first guard: "The weapons that are on the plate of this volume are quartered with Cauchon and Hesselin.
The Cauchon branch of Conde were from the Treslon branch and died in in the person of Louis Cauchon dit Hesselin. In-4 de 4 ff. About this Item: Jamyn, etc. Publicado por Robert Estienne, Paris About this Item: Robert Estienne, Paris, Roman and Italic type, title page with Estienne s device, manuscript ex libris "J. Oldham Septem. Remains of stubs, manuscript annotation on some of the blanks, rear pastedown, and later manuscript ex libris on fly "Guil Hen. Harris" of Corpus Christi College Cambridge ca.
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Light age yellowing, title page a bit dusty, a nice well-margined copy in English calf c. A collection of short biographies of illustrious rulers from Roman history, ascribed to various writers of antiquity: Pliny the Younger ca. The "J. Oldham" ex libris and matching marginal annotations throughout, including a recipe for broth scribbled onto the front fly leaf is most probably John Oldham ? He was a controversial figure, linked with those 'peculiars' who migrated to the new world for economic rather than religious reasons, although he is described in William Bradford s Of Plymouth Plantation along with John Lyford as disruptive of colony life.
The two were later thrown out of Plymouth for "disturbing the peace" - assembling a faction of Episcopalians after the example set in the Virginia colony in an attempt to reform local religion. Despite his unpopularity, Oldham made his fortune in coastal trade, and was well-known for maintaining relations with natives in the area. Eventually he made amends with the Plymouth colony, for whom he conveyed a ship to England in The dated inscription in this book, September 30 , is significant: it was during that time the Oldham was in London on business for the Plymouth Colony. While in England he purchased a five-mile tract of land by the Charles River from John Gorges - however his purchase was invalidated by the Massachusetts Bay Company who claimed ownership.
After the dispute was settled in the Company's favour in Oldham returned to the colonies, and between he served in the General Court of Massachusetts on behalf of the town of Watertown, where he had settled.
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It was during this time that he represented the people of Watertown during their resistance of 'Taxation without Representation' the first protest of its kind in the colonies over a century and a half before the American Revolution. Bond cit. In he set out from Watertown to help establish the first English settlement in present-day Connecticut - Wethersfield. Oldham's sudden death in was no less full of adventure and intrigue as his life: during a voyage to Block Island to trade with the natives there, several Pequot warriors boarded his ship, killed its crew including Oldham, and looted its cargo.
Renouard Henry Bond, et al. Vendedor: Phillip J. Edited by Charles Estienne. Text in Latin and Greek. This is the first of just five illustrated books published by Robert Estienne, offered here in a handsome and historically important contemporary English binding. Our volume appears here in a lovely 16th century decorative binding that certainly is English and seems in design and execution similar to the work of the artist whom Nixon dubbed the "Dudley Binder," for the work he did for Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.
Our binding's central panel, with its oval medallion and ornate cornerpieces, is typical of the Dudley Binder's work see, for example, items 16 and 17 in Nixon's "Five Centuries" and Foot's "Davis Gift," Our volume appears here in a lovely 16t. In officina Roberti Stephani Robert Estienne , In officina Roberti Stephani Robert Estienne , , Jacques-Auguste de Thou , was one of the great statesmen and scholars of his time, and the Historiarum is his most important work.
Beautifully printed by Robert Estienne , with the title in red and black and attractive woodcut head- and tail-pieces throughout. Beautifully bound in recent quarter vellum and marbled boards. Peignot II, pointing out that this work was suppressed from the moment of publication. An outstanding copy of a rare and important book: the only other copy I have located of the first edition with the first-state title-page is the Oxford copy. Publicado por Paris, Charles Estienne About this Item: Paris, Charles Estienne, Contemporary panels laid down on a later binding, boards finely tooled and gilt, all edges gilt.
Text double-ruled in red. The edition was begun by Robert Estienne before his departure from Paris and completed by his brother Charles. Daniel B. Updike called it "one of the most exquisite books printed from these fonts. This volume is generally cited as the supreme example of the use of the Royal Greek types. The present panels were executed at the atelier of Claude de Picques, binder to the king and one of the principal figures of the Golden Age of French bookbinding.
Both covers are tooled and gilded with a central panel stamp, 2 different side panel stamps, 2 different corner tools and several smaller decorational tools. The oriental style of the present panels and the oriental looking tools correspond with the content of the book. Almost all of the present elements can be definitely linked to published examples from the royal bindery and to tools used by de Picques or Gomar Estienne before him.
The impressive central panel stamp was also used on the following bindings: The edition of Mer des histoires Binoche et Giquello, sale february 14, , lot 3 - sold for EUR Some of these bindings were also decorated with the inner corner tool of the present binding. The smaller decorations, surrounding the central panel, have been used on some of Jean Grolier's bindings e. Some of these bindings correlate in structural and decorational elements with the present binding as well, e. A few of those bindings are attributed to Gomar Estienne, who was the antecessor of Claude de Picques.
The outer corner panel stamp is the only decorational element we were not able to trace on any other bookbinding. The present binding bears another interesting attribute. The supposedly assymetric adjustment of the side panels on both covers was in fact intended, providing the reader with the opportunity to distinguish between the front and the back cover, even without any lettering and further pictorial elements. We were not able to trace any other binding with this particular trait. Claude de Picques c. He is known to have created some of the finest bindings of his era.
De Picques was Gomar Estienne's successor and inherited all the tools of the royal bindery. The present binding is a good example for this, incorporating several tools which also can be found on bindings by Gomar Estienne. Rebacked and rebound using the original panels, joints splitting, covers somewhat rubbed, and upper right edge of front board with small loss not affecting original cover.
Internally very fresh. Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: Paris, Chez Estienne Michallet, In de 30 ff. Full red morocco, triple gilt fillet around the covers, spine ribbed and richly decorated, upper joint slightly rubbed, inner gilt border, gilt edges. Publicado por chez David Douceur, A Paris In-folio de 4 pp. Exact et tr? Paris, chez David Douceur, Nomenclator octilinguis omnium rerum propria nomina continens, ab Adriano Junio antehac collectus, nunc vero renovatus?
Accessit huic? Hermanni Germbergii opera et studio, cum indice. Parisiis, apud Douceur, Il n'avait? Jean Nicot. Brunet raconte qu'aussit? Ces contrefa? Il est curieux de noter sous quelle rubrique, Jean Nicot a class? Est une herbe de vertu admirable pour guarir toutes navrures, playes, ulc?
Bel exemplaire? De la biblioth? Brunet IV, 71 ; Rothschild I, Folio x mm. Date from colophon. Bound in restored early 19th-century sheep, spine with later red morocco label titled in gilt spine, extremities and board margins heavily rubbed, corners bumped , red-dyed edges, marbled endpapers upper inner hinge split. Light even browning of text, occasional minor spotting, faint contemporary annotations in ink to p. Provenance: Vicomte Courtat inscribed on final final free endpaper. A very good, clean and unstained copy.
The idea of a bilingual dictionary was not his own. It seems, however, that Estienne's work was recognized as an improvement on anything else available" Armstrong, p. Estienne's "main innovations were threefold: contrary to the practice of his predecessors, [Estienne] based his vocabulary exclusively on classical authors. Publicado por Paris, Robert Estienne, Vendedor: Librairie Ancienne J. About this Item: Paris, Robert Estienne, Reliure de M. Bel exemplaire dans une sobre reliure de Godillot.
Publicado por Robert Estienne, Geneva. Vendedor: Sanctuary Books, A. About this Item: Robert Estienne, Geneva. LVII [ "Calend. Pagination: I, leaves: , 1 , 1 , ; II, leaves: , , , ; III, of leaves lacking final blank : 1 , ,  41pp. Text in Latin and Hebrew. In , sold at Sotheby sLondon, 11 April lot Fifth folio edition of the Latin Bible, as "Biblia Utriusque Testamenti," published by Robert Estienne in , but with the original edition of the new Latin translation and commentary on the New Testament by Theodore Beza ; notably, this edition appeared contemporaneously with the printing of John Calvin s Psalms Commentary.
Theodore Beza, a French Reformed Protestant theologian and Calvinist, produced one Latin and four Greek-Latin editions of the New Testament in his lifetime, working carefully through extant Greek manuscript sources. Based on the Hebrew, Pagnini s text is in the center of each page and Beza s translation from the Greek is in smaller type to the side with commentary and alternate readings underneath.
The Estienne-Beza Latin Bible, with its copious notes and ties to Calvinist theology, was of considerable importance in the early modern era. The 20 woodcut biblical illustrations were first used in an Estienne edition of the Bible printed in Paris in This copy, beautifully bound in a Dutch vellum, enjoyedplacement in one of the finest libraries in Britain from around the midth century. See also Renouard, 'Estienne,' p. Schreiber, 'Estienne' Publicado por About this Item: , S Pierre ].
Apologie faicte par un serviteur du Roy, contre les calomnies des Imp? Paris, Charles Estienne, In-4 de 15 ff. Seconde Apologie, contre les calomnies des Imp? A Paris, Chez Charles Estienne, In-4 de 32 ff. Traduitte d'Italien en langue Fran? In-4 de 7 ff. Traduittes de Latin en Fran? In-4 de 8 ff. Avec les pourtraicts d? In-4 de 46 ff. Discours des Histoires de Lorraine et de Flandres. Au Roy treschrestien Henry II.
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In-4 de 56 ff. Le Si? In-4 de 88 ff. Manque le plan de Metz. Ensemble 8 pi? Charles Estienne ? Paris, et lui succ? Adrien Turn? Auteur de trait? Bel exemplaire en v? Quelques annotations marginales du temps. Renouard, Annales de l'imprimerie des Estienne, Publicado por Robert Estienne Paris About this Item: Robert Estienne Paris , Reliure du temps. Eusebius Pamphili Eusebius of Caesarea. Claude Garamond ca. Manque le f aII et le dernier feuillet. Au contreplat, exlibris Chatsworth. Livre d'occasion. Publicado por Paris Robert Estienne 27 January Vendedor: Buddenbrooks, Inc.
A very fine copy, excellently preserved in original state with hinges tight and strong, the calf in beautiful condition, the textblocks clean, crisp and unpressed. This is also a large copy, of significantly greater dimensions than the Schreiber copy. This was a highly important edition of the comedies of Plautus which was instrumental in the forming of Estienne s highly influential THESAURUS "in which Estienne had virtually founded modern Latin lexicography" thus replacing the outdated work of Calepinus.
Estienne had failed to persuade any suitable scholar to compile a new Latin dictionary and so prepared for this work by reading and making exhaustive notes on the whole of Terence and Plautus; these notes were then written out and put in alphabetical order to form the basis of the new work. Plautus, the great comic dramatist of Ancient Rome lived until about B.
He may, in certain respects be regarded as completely original, viz. These lyrical metres of Plautus are wonderfully varied, and the textual critic does well not to attempt to limit the possibilities of original metrical compinations and developments in the Roman comedian. Plautus was a general favourite in the days of republican Rome. T hat he found many admirers, even in the Augustian age, Horace himself bears witness. A number of his plays were lost for a period during the Middle Ages, but found in an ancient manuscript discovered in Aftere the revival of learning Plautus was reinstated, and took rank as one of the great dramatists of antiquity; cf.
Seneca cannot be too heavy nor Plautus too light.
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Provenance: 18th century engraved armorial bookplates of Robert Robinson, M. Publicado por Paris: Robert Estienne, 15 About this Item: Paris: Robert Estienne, 15 Second Edition edited by Italian classical scholar, Pietro Vettori , elegantly printed in folio format by Robert Estienne.