Simply watch this short webinar to discover how. Besides we have prepared a special cinematic highlight for you — of course not without a decent amount of popcorn! After the show test your IP knowledge in our daily Dennemeyer IP Quiz championships and win exclusive prizes for your family at home. If you would like to arrange a meeting with our experts or a demonstration of our software tools or online portals before the conference, please contact us at inta at dennemeyer dot com. Starting April 11 th your knowledge power will be tested in two parallel rounds one for each category and the two leading players of Patents and Trademarks will compete in the Final Battle, which will be a combination of both categories, at the end of May.
Win the battle and the iPad is yours! Since he was the first US President to visit this mother country of cigars and rum. However, the arguably most powerful man on earth was only an opening act. On 25 March, the Rolling Stones played their first ever concert in Havana. One takeaway is that US Presidents come and go - but the Stones stay forever. Another crystal clear message is that Cuba is opening-up.
Exporting companies should therefore start rethinking about their Intellectual Property strategy for the Cuban market. The first question is of course which protective IP rights are available in Cuba. We at Dennemeyer have long-standing contacts with our colleagues in Cuba and are looking forward to play a part in the improvement of the economic relations with Cuba, with our focus in this regard being of course Intellectual Property.
But we will also keep monitoring other developments on Cuba.
Articles in Journals, in Collected Editions and at Conferences
Rumor has it that Sir Paul McCartney will be the next music legend to pay a visit to the Island for a gig. Stay tuned! Check out our webinar to find out more about the upcoming changes to trademark protection in Cuba and Iran. For businesses today it is critical to safeguard sensitive data against the growing number of online and natural threats. For data security, the operative words are confidence and transparency.
Dennemeyer remains dedicated to security and takes extensive technical measures to protect client data when managing intellectual property portfolios. Due to the importance of the topic Dennemeyer will keep on publishing news and articles on data security and keep you informed. Reinhold Nowak in Luxemburg. In this role he will also be the contact person for all media inquiries. The mainstays of professional services and software solutions for the management of patents and trademarks will in future be supplemented in particular by business ventures including consultancy and seminars on intellectual property.
After graduating in economic and social history and communication science, Sebastian Deck trained as an editor at the German School of Journalism in Munich, combining this with postgraduate studies in Practical Journalism at Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich. The workshops took place in Warsaw in the Sheraton hotel.
At the first part of the workshops, Ms. Afterwards, participants were divided into two groups representing two different companies interested in extending their current activity, but their peaceful existence in the European market was not possible without prior coexistence agreement conclusion.
Although at the beginning it seemed impossible to reach an agreement in this regard, we are happy to inform that after a long and difficult discussion both groups managed to sign a coexistence agreement satisfactory for both sides. We received positive feedback from participants who especially appreciated the possibility to actively participate in the discussion. The Forums feature panel discussions and explore and discuss best practices for managing IP costs.
Hear real world experiences from leading companies on how they have managed their IP budgets. These complimentary events are approved for 3. Space at each location is very limit. Learn more and reserve your spot today. This move signals the rapid growth experienced over the past year.
The new address is W. Madison, Suite , Chicago IL Dennemeyer U. This growth is projected to continue throughout Should you have any questions on the relocation, please feel free to contact us. We look forward to seeing and serving you at the improved office surroundings. The new legislation enters into force on 23 March In order to avoid inadequate scope of protection, the owners of the above categorized trademarks have been given a possibility to file a declaration to the Office by 24 September , specifying the exact goods and services intended to be covered by that application.
If no Declaration is filed before the deadline, those trademarks will be deemed to cover only the goods and services described in the literal meaning of the class heading. Do you know the costs of publishing a European patent validation in Morocco? Since the beginning of March , European patents can be validated in Morocco according to the agreement between the European Patent Organisation and the government of the Kingdom of Morocco. But the exact fees for the publication of a validation have not been published by the EPO until now.
As leading provider of professional services and solutions for the IP sector, Dennemeyer has found out the publication fee prior to its official publication. As a result of the Iran nuclear deal signed last year, economic sanctions on the Middle-Eastern country have been lifted on January 16, Governmental authorities and industry organizations were quick to welcome this step in opening up the Iranian economy to international trade and investment. For example, the German-Iranian Chamber of Commerce and the European-Iranian Business Alliance released statements expressing their hope that business relations with Iran will be flourishing again in the future.
With the start of a hopefully new and long-lasting period of good business relations with Iran, exporting companies should start rethinking about their intellectual property strategy for the Iranian market. The first question is of course which protective IP rights are available in Iran. We at Dennemeyer have a long-standing relationship with our colleagues in Iran.
Furthermore, we have experienced that centralized formalities procedures, especially with regards to notarization, can help clients move forward their IP projects almost everywhere and in fact in Iran. During the sanctions, we helped clients, some of them U. With these recent developments in mind, we are looking forward to playing our part in normalizing the economic relations with Iran, with our focus being of course the field of intellectual property.
In December we pledged to donate 1 euro for every correct answer submitted in our IP Quiz. Thanks to the overwhelming response we received from players, we have made a donation totaling 15, euros to the German office of Doctors Without Borders. The donated amount was handed over on January 12, in the presence of Dr. Doctors Without Borders was represented by Andrea Stegmeir, who shared with us her first-hand experience helping those in need in Angola.
Doctors Without Borders is an international humanitarian organisation providing assistance to vulnerable communities, victims of natural disasters and armed conflicts. Every year Doctors Without Borders sends around 2, doctors, nurses, logisticians, water-and-sanitation experts, administrators and other professionals to work alongside approximately 31, locally hired staff. Together they run medical projects in more than 60 countries around the world. The organisation spent million euros on humanitarian activities in ; performing over 8 million outpatient consultations, aiding over thousand severely malnourished children, and performing over 81, major surgical interventions.
We are truly overwhelmed by the amazing response we received from our fellow industry professionals, and would like to thank everybody who played the IP Quiz over December. Below are 12 costly and commonly shared trade mark misunderstandings. Not all trade marks are created equal. To evaluate the strength of a proposed mark, it is critical to understand that trade marks are viewed within a spectrum of distinctiveness. A Generic : On one end of the distinctiveness spectrum, generic terms are common words that name goods or services; these are incapable of functioning as trade marks.
Registration of a generic term would prevent others from rightfully utilising the common word and serve no source identification function. B Descriptive : Moving up the band, a mark is considered merely descriptive if the primary significance of the term immediately describes an ingredient, quality, characteristic, feature, function or purpose of the specifically delineated goods or services. Although adopting a descriptive mark simplifies marketing efforts by conveying features of the product or service to the purchaser, it also presents hurdles at both the registration and enforcement stages.
Common examples of descriptive marks include Arthriticare for arthritis medication , Car Freshener for car deodoriser , and World Book for encyclopedias. C Suggestive : Suggestive trade marks indirectly refer to the goods or services with which they are associated. The mark requires an intellectual leap, imagination, thought or perception in order for the consumer to reach a conclusion as to the nature of the goods or services.
For example, Coppertone for tanning lotion and Chicken Of The Sea for tuna are considered suggestive marks. Traditionally, marketing professionals prefer suggestive marks due to their inherent ability to evoke ideas in the minds of consumers, suggesting the nature of the goods or services offered. By subconsciously linking a mark to a product or service, this approach enhances brand awareness while reducing costs associated with marketing campaigns.
However, a fine line separates descriptive and suggestive trade marks. What a marketer may deem suggestive, the examining attorney may find descriptive. D Arbitrary or fanciful : Finally, arbitrary or fanciful marks are afforded the broadest scope of protection. An arbitrary mark is a word that exists but has no meaning when used on the product itself, whereas a fanciful mark is a word not recognised by the dictionary.
For instance, the marks Pepsi and Exxon are deemed fanciful because they have no meaning or common usage. Alternatively, Apple used in connection with computers is considered an arbitrary mark because it is a known term used in an uncommon fashion. For instance, other companies may own common law rights that compromise the value and availability of a trade mark. Common law rights arise from actual use of a mark in commerce even absent federal registration. Although federal registration affords additional rights that are unavailable under the common law scheme, rights still develop without registration.
These limited rights are cabined to the geographic area in which the mark is used. Within that specific territory, rights are based on the priority of use of a mark. Occasionally, a federal registrant may not be the first user of a trade mark in a specific territory; therefore, an unregistered prior user may enjoy superior rights.
Thus, when applying for a trade mark, even a company with common law rights may file an opposition based on first use in commerce. Further, if the USPTO has deemed a trade mark cancelled or abandoned, that designation does not ensure that your agency may use the mark without complications. A mark may be deemed cancelled or abandoned for a bundle of reasons. As stated above, trade mark rights continue at the common law level if a company continues to employ their mark in commerce. There are many sources in addition to the USPTO, such as common law sources, state trade mark registries and industry publications.
Read the full article as PDF. Our international team of patent and trademark attorneys is admitted to practice before the Patent and Trademark Offices of several additional European and non-European jurisdictions e. As a well-reputed and reliable intellectual property partner for multinational corporations and small and medium sized companies across industries for more than 55 years, the jury has recognized our pan-European footprint and our ability to deliver accurate and top-tier legal services to our European and non-European clients.
However, they are, at times, used incorrectly and trademark owners may not be aware that misuse can have significant consequences. For the countries where the use of the symbols is not mandatory, companies should take into consideration that this could have dissuasive influence on third parties, as a warning that the owner of the trademark will defend against unauthorized use.
As the rules may vary from country to country, we aim to provide an overview of the characteristics of specific countries, as well as some details and advice about the proper use of these symbols and how to avoid potential problems. It is usually placed on the right-hand side of the trademark, superscripted, and in a smaller type size than the mark itself. It is an indication to the public that the sign is used as a trademark with the aim to distinguish the marked products or services from those of other companies.
Understanding that regulations regarding trademark marking in the countries where you market your products may be different, you should seek advice from a local trademark attorney. When seeking advice be sure to provide the list of the most important markets for your product. This will facilitate the identification of the countries where marking is mandatory or where sanctions can be issued in cases of misuse.
Based on the experience and expertise of the new Director, Victoria Friedman, the US office meets the needs of their clients and supports them to establish sophisticated IPR portfolios. Recently, the US law firm office welcomed three new attorneys. Law firm Services, Company News. Dennemeyer has been in business for over 50 years and has observed and in some cases been at the forefront of these developments.
Something you might find interesting about him is that he also plays the Shamisen, which is a three-stringed traditional Japanese musical instrument. The company currently manages a portfolio of 4, active trademarks and designs. IP software, IP management. The China trademark law has been amended to prohibit the registration of a trademark "without genuine intention to use. Industry News, Law firm Services, Trademarks.
However, AI is being employed in several other ways. Patents, IP software. Events, Company News. Industry News, Trademarks. See for yourself below and learn more about Dr. In his role, Dr. Press releases, Company News, Consulting. Law firm Services, Trademarks. With this unique position and its related massive influx of goods comes the negative side effect of the entry of large amounts of counterfeit items.
During her practice in the field of IP she handled various case types dealing with trademarks and industrial designs. We will look into the potential impact on trademark registration and have a glimpse at the challenges that might arise from it. English, Industry News, Trademarks. With several exciting features, such as peer to peer transactions, chronological recording of transactions and decentralization, blockchain provides new options in this area, especially for record keeping of unregistered IPRs.
English, IP management. This is not different in the Gulf region Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE , where traditionally already reigned a certain unease with adhering courts due to lack of predictability, missing special sections, Arabic as the sole procedural language and questions of monetary recoveries.
Here, he is showing us a British patent from the midth century. Note the large wax seal attached to the patent, in his left hand. This concerns international applications filed on or after January 6, , by nationals and residents of the United Arab Emirates with the International Bureau as Receiving Office. In less than two weeks, more than 80 registrants played 2, games. English, Events, Company News.
Industry News, Trademarks, Deutsch. However, in recent years the number of patent applications from SMEs has been stagnating, and industry groups bemoan a lack of SME engagement in patenting activities. Patents, Study. At the same time, the changes to the law will facilitate in many ways trademark filings and registration. He brings a wealth of knowledge from not only a patent law perspective but also trademark and design while staying on top of the latest developments in the Employee Inventor Compensation Law and Anti-Counterfeiting.
Patents, Law firm Services. The money generated in this campaign will be donated to the World Wild Fund for Nature WWF to support their goal for nature to be plastic-free by Participants have the chance to take the championship and win a laptop made of environmentally-friendly resources. Malte Kollner explain. Press releases, Law firm Services, Company News. Digitalization is considered the main industry megatrend. The PCT initially applied in 13 states. In , Jordan became the nd state to join the system.
At the time, a comparable initiative was drawn up in China with respect to the validation of China patents in Cambodia. There are a few companies, including Dennemeyer, that provide the quality and knowledge that customers demand. Law firm Services, IP management. After all, patents are not just a protective measure but an immense source of information. Oliver Mayer, Senior Principal at General Electric - Global Research, puts the spotlight on big data and talks about patterns in patents.
Patents, Video. English, Patents, Press Article. Anthony Carlick ,. Nowadays, we would be hard pressed to find a company that does not have an online presence or, at least, does not invest in building one. The overall aim is to increase the efficiency of the filing and examination process for patents worldwide, and better meet user expectations in terms of quality, predictability, cost-effectiveness and timeliness. English, Company News. Learn the answers to these questions and more in our new corporate video. Efficiency and cost-cutting remain important for economic success. However, innovation, flexibility and adaptation to change are becoming key ingredients.
Industry News, Consulting.
Based on a qualitative approach which uses the Delphi method and semi-structured interviews with 20 IP experts, the study identifies trend cycles using the roadmaps, plans and expectations of trendsetting stakeholders. The result is a thought-provoking forecast of the future of IP through Consulting, IP management.
Travailler chez Dennemeyer. Skip to main content Home IP Insights. Filtrer par:. Filtrer la liste. The Dennemeyer Group The Dennemeyer IP Group has steadily grown its business into a unique and leading global, full-service provider for IP management, offering excellent and world-renowned quality services to its clients across the globe. Webinar: Octimine, our machine-learning software, to enhance your patent search quality. Join our webinar on June 11, , by registering below. On demand webinar: Selecting a trademark renewal provider.
On-demand webinar: International IP traps that can doom litigation. On demand: "Ask the expert" webinar series: Trademarks. Dennemeyer continuously supports local communities. Douglas Santos de Oliveira launches a rocket for the first place. Webinarinhalte: - Lohnt sich PPH? On demand: Patent filing in the light of emerging technologies. Future of trademark filing in alternative markets post Trump. Got patent RFP fatigue? A refreshed and effective process. Frosecution: Innovative flat fee foreign patent filing and prosecution. Make patent annuities great again.
High volume trademark filing west coast edition. On demand: Vergleichende Werbung - Markenverletzungen. Wo die Grenzen des Erlaubten liegen, bestimmt dabei in erster Linie das wettbewerbliche Lauterkeitsrecht. Luxembourg: a basis for optimizing search fees in Europe.
Timing Generally, it takes about six to nine months after filing date and completion of all formalities to receive a Search Report prepared by the EPO on behalf of the Luxembourgish Patent Office.
Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, Vol 2, No 3 (2001)
Formalities There are only few formalities to be fulfilled to bring a patent application validly on file in Luxembourg. Language Regime Most importantly, Luxembourg accepts any of the official languages of the European Patent Office English, French and German as drafting language of a Luxembourgish patent application, with the formal requirement that the claims shall be available in German or French.
Priority document For subsequent filings claiming the priority of a Luxembourgish patent application a priority document is often needed. Representative For prosecuting a patent application in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a local representative needs to be appointed for applicants having their domicile or headquarters outside Europe. Refunds Given the availability of the EPO Search Report through the Luxembourgish patent application, two routes for search fee refunds exist. European patent applications Upon filing a local patent application with the EPO, the priority of the Luxembourgish application needs to be claimed.
PCT applications Upon filing a PCT application with the competent receiving office, the priority of the Luxembourgish application needs to be claimed. Incorporation of amendments Unless taken from dependent claims, amendments should be incorporated only into the description of the subsequent application rather than into the claims, in order to safely benefit from the maximum refund of the Search fee. Copyright by Dr. Protecting designs, copyrights and trademarks: The Italian versus the EU way. Hamlet and the patenting of parameters in Europe.
Clarity: Is it usual, or is it not usual: that is the question. There are only three exceptions to the general rule that the method of and means for measurement of the parameter must be included in the claim, namely: i The description of the method is so long that its inclusion would make the claim unclear through lack of conciseness or difficult to understand in which case the claim should include a reference to the description ; ii A person skilled in the art would know which method to employ, e.
Licence of Right: A possibility to reduce maintenance fees. France is no longer among the countries. Art L governing L. General strategies against threatened preliminary injunctions. Background of preliminary injunctions A patent proprietor who identifies an act infringing one or more of his patents, may have an interest that the infringement is stopped immediately. Back to national filings? A little help for sceptics of the unitary patent. On demand webinar: Current state of the trademark renewal industry.
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On demand webinar: The future of trademark law. August , Was erwartet Sie? On demand webinar: Current state of patent annuity industry. What You Will Discover You will leave the webinar with: Examination of the current patent annuity industry. Potential impact on patent portfolio management. Suggestions on steps you should take. Future implications for the industry. On demand webinar: Future of patent law.
There will be time at the end of this hard-hitting, min webinar for audience questions. Dennemeyer meets University of Sharjah. Dennemeyer supporting young talent and innovation. Notre engagement pour promouvoir les actions caritative: plus de euros de dons en Weihnachtsspendenaktionen bringen mehr als Our Commitment to Charity: Over Dennemeyer Annual Meeting: A look back. Kicking off Dennemeyer Annual Meeting The lecture also focused on: Compulsory license Using injunctive relief Determining FRAND royalty rates License bundling The lecture was followed by an excited discussion among the roughly 30 attendees — as well as by cool drinks.
Wiederherstellung geistiger Eigentumsrechte in Japan. Kazuya Sekiguchi.
- The Great Learning Awakening;
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- El silencio del corazón (Spanish Edition);
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In Bezug auf den 6. Dennemeyer France is Moving Offices. The telephone numbers and email addresses of our employees will remain unchanged. Restoration of IP rights in Japan. Kazuya Sekiguchi discusses the implications. According to the revised rules relating to restoration of IP rights, failure to meet the deadlines of the following procedures can be saved: Filing a translation for foreign language application Article of Patent Law Request for an examination Article of Patent Law.
Requesting a renewal for a trademark Article 21 of Trademark Law. The requirements for the restoration are as follows: There must be a justifiable reason for failing to comply with the time limit, in spite of the applicant taking the necessary measures required; and, Regarding the first five procedures listed above, the request for restoring the IP rights must be filed within two months of the date on which the justifiable reason ceased to exist, as long as this is done within one year six months for the fifth point, requesting the renewal of a trademark after the expiration of the period.
With respect to the sixth procedure claiming priority based on the Paris Convention , the request must be filed within two months of the expiration of the priority period ie, within 14 months of the priority date. The guidelines illustrate in which cases the restoration will or will not be admitted as follows: Cases where the restoration will not be admitted Wrong deadline was docketed due to incorrectly inputted data, wherein no substantial measure eg, double check was taken to avoid such a mistake.
In this paper, we introduce a hybrid approach to extracting meronymy relations, which is based on both patterns and kernel functions. In a first step, meronymy relation hypotheses are extracted from a text corpus by applying patterns. In a second step these relation hypotheses are validated by using several shallow features and a graph kernel approach. In contrast to other meronymy extraction and validation methods which are based on surface or syntactic representations we use a purely semantic approach based on semantic networks.
This involves analyzing each sentence of the Wikipedia corpus by a deep syntactico-semantic parser and converting it into a semantic network. Meronymy relation hypotheses are extracted from the semantic networks by means of an automated theorem prover, which employs a set of logical axioms and patterns in the form of semantic networks.
The meronymy candidates are then validated by means of a graph kernel approach based on common walks. The evaluation shows that this method achieves considerably higher accuracy, recall, and F-measure than a method using purely shallow validation. In contrast to related approaches the model additionally explores and categorizes functionally and thematically demarcated segments of the hypertext types to be categorized.
By classifying these segments conclusions can be drawn about the type of the corresponding compound web document. Based on the notion of uncertain web document structures, the model is defined as a template which grasps nested manifestation levels of hypertext types. Further, we specify the model on the conceptual, formal and physical level and exemplify it by reconstructing competing web document models. Design issues and the overall architecture are described, as well as an outline of the applications offered by the system. Communicative elements from different modalities 'routinize into' cross-modal 'super-signs', which we call multimodal ensembles.
Computational models of human communication are in need of expressive models of multimodal ensembles. In this paper, we exemplify semiotic alignment by means of empirical examples of the building of multimodal ensembles. We then propose a graph model of multimodal dialogue that is expressive enough to capture multimodal ensembles. In line with this model, we define a novel task in machine learning with the aim of training classifiers that can detect semiotic alignment in dialogue.
This model is in support of approaches which need to gain insights into realistic human-machine communication. Syntactic, lexical, or morphological information can only give limited access for estimating the cognitive difficulties for a human being to comprehend a text. In this paper however, we present a readability checker which uses semantic information in addition. This information is represented as semantic networks and is derived by a deep syntactico-semantic analysis. We investigate in which situations a semantic readability indicator can lead to superior results in comparison with ordinary surface indicators like sentence length.
Finally, we compute the weights of our semantic indicators in the readability function based on the user ratings collected in an online evaluation. Usually these approaches are based on supervised learning and extract in a first step several patterns. Normally these approaches are only based on a surface representation or a syntactic tree structure, i. In this work we present an approach which, additionally to shallow patterns, directly operates on semantic networks which are derived by a deep linguistic syntacticosemantic analysis. Furthermore, the shallow approach heavily depends on semantic information, too.
It is shown that recall and precision can be improved considerably than by relying on shallow patterns alone. We present a method for cross-lingual alignment of template and infobox attributes in Wikipedia. The alignment is used to add and complete templates and infoboxes in one language with information derived from Wikipedia in another language. Taatgen and H. This is done by exploring metadata as provided by the Open Archives Initiative OAI to derive document snippets as minimal document representations.
The reason is to reduce the effort of document processing in digital libraries. Further, we perform feature selection and extension by means of social ontologies and related web-based lexical resources. This is done to provide reliable topic-related classifications while circumventing the problem of data sparseness. Finally, we evaluate our model by means of two language-specific corpora. This paper bridges digital libraries on the one hand and computational linguistics on the other. The aim is to make accessible computational linguistic methods to provide thematic classifications in digital libraries based on closed topic models as the DDC.
Our approach utilizes a social ontology to create an alignment of documents within a social network. Comprised category information is used to compute a topic generalization. We propose a feature-frequency-based method for measuring semantic relatedness which is needed in order to reduce the number of document features for the task of topic labelling. This method is evaluated against multiple human judgement experiments comprising two languages and three different resources. Overall the results show that social ontologies provide a rich source of terminological knowledge.
The performance of the semantic relatedness measure with correlation values of up to. Results on the topic labelling experiment show, with an accuracy of up to. Typical indicators are Average sentence length, Average number of syllables per word, etc. Usually the parameters of the linear combination are determined by a linear OLS ordinary least square estimation minimizing the sum of the squared residuals in comparison with human ratings for a given set of texts.
The usage of OLS leads to several drawbacks. First, the parameters are not constraint in any way and are therefore not intuitive and difficult to interpret. Second, if the number of parameters become large, the effect of overfitting easily occurs. Finally, OLS is quite sensitive to outliers. Therefore, an alternative method is presented which avoids these drawbacks and is based on robust regression. Currently the main focus in sustainability research is concerned with archiving methods of textual resources, i. Dabei handelt es sich um Netzwerke sprachlicher Einheiten, die in Zusammenhang mit ihrer Einbettung in das Netzwerk jener Sprachgemeinschaft analysiert werden, welche diese Einheiten und deren Vernetzung hervorgebracht hat.
Ein Hauptaugenmerk des Kapitels liegt dabei auf einem Mehrebenennetzwerkmodell, und zwar in Abkehr von den unipartiten Graphmodellen der Theorie komplexer Netzwerke. The format was evaluated with respect to storage-complexity on the one hand, and efficiency of data access on the other hand. An example of how the treebanks can be integrated within a unique interface is given by means of the DTDB interface. By means of this framework we reliably measure the similarity of document, agent, and word networks by solely regarding their topology.
In doing so, the article departs from classical approaches to complex network theory which focuses on topological characteristics in order to check their small world property. This does not only include characteristics that have been studied in complex network theory, but also some of those which were invented in social network analysis and hypertext theory. We show that network classifications come into reach which go beyond the hypertext structures traditionally analyzed in web mining. The reason is that we focus on networks as a whole as units to be classified—above the level of websites and their constitutive pages.
As a consequence, we bridge classical approaches to text and web mining on the one hand and complex network theory on the other hand. Last but not least, this approach also provides a framework for quantifying the linguistic notion of intertextuality. Detecting and fixing errors in such grammars is therefore a highly tedious task. In this work we present a data mining algorithm which deduces incorrect grammar rules by abductive reasoning out of positive and negative training examples. More specifcally, the constituency trees belonging to successful generation processes and the incomplete trees of failed ones are analyzed.
From this a quality score is derived for each grammar rule by analyzing the occurrences of the rules in the trees and by spotting the exact error locations in the incomplete trees. In prior work on automatic error detection v. The approach of Cussens et al. Zeller introduced a dynamic approach in the related area of detecting errors in computer programs .
Usually, they exploit surfaceoriented indicators like sentence length, word length, word frequency, etc. What kind of information about texts is captured by their structure? It introduces an algorithm for the semantic preprocessing, filtering and typing of these building blocks. Further, this article models the process of wiki generation based on a unified format of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic representations. This three-level approach to make accessible syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects of wiki-based structure formation is complemented by a corresponding database model — called WikiDB — and an API operating thereon.
Finally, the article provides an empirical study of using the three-fold representation format in conjunction with WikiDB. We focus on the task of bringing together generic and extensible techniques for resource and anno- tation management with the highly specific demands in this area of research. Special emphasis is put on the interrelation of images, image segements and textual contents. In addition, we describe the architecture, data model and user interface of the open annotation system used in the image database application that is a part of the eHumanities Desktop.
Its starting point is the notion of an association game in which the impact of varying community models is studied on the emergence of lexical networks. The paper reports on experiments whose results are in accordance with findings in the framework of the naming game. This approach provides interoperability and reusability of annotated syntactic data which in turn extends its applicability within various research contexts.
We demonstrate our approach by means of dependency treebanks of 11 languages. Further, we perform a comparative quantitative analysis of these treebanks in order to demonstrate the interoperability of our approach. The primary application scenario for which we plan to build this resource is the automatic identification of web genres. Web genres are rather difficult to capture and to describe in their entirety, but we plan for the finished reference corpus to contain multi-level tags of the respective genre or genres a web document or a website instantiates.
As the construction of such a corpus is by no means a trivial task, we discuss several alternatives that are, for the time being, mostly based on existing collections. Furthermore, we discuss a shared set of genre categories and a multi-purpose tool as two additional prerequisites for a reference corpus of web genres. Established approaches have to be enhanced and new methods be developed in order to tackle the problem of finding and organising relevant information.
It has often been motivated that semantic classifications of input documents help solving this task. But while approaches of supervised text categorisation perform quite well on genres found in written text, newly evolved genres on the web are much more demanding. In order to successfully develop approaches to web mining, respective corpora are needed. However, the composition of genre- or domain-specific web corpora is still an unsolved problem. It is time consuming to build large corpora of good quality because web pages typically lack reliable meta information.
Wikipedia along with similar approaches of collaborative text production offers a way out of this dilemma. We examine how social tagging, as supported by the MediaWiki software, can be utilised as a source of corpus building. Further, we describe a representation format for social ontologies and present the Wikipedia Category Explorer, a tool which supports categorical views to browse through the Wikipedia and to construct domain specific corpora for machine learning.
It is based on the notion of an association game which is used instead of the classical notion of a naming game Steels, The simulation model integrates a small world-like agent community which restricts agent communication. We hypothesize that this restriction is decisive when it comes to simulate terminological alignment based on lexical priming. The paper presents preliminary experimental results in support of this hypothesis. Other than mainstream approaches to text classification, which rely on the vector space model  or some of its descendants  and, thus, on content-related lexical features, we solely refer to structural differentiae, that is, to patterns of text structure as determinants of class membership.
Further, we suppose that text types span a type hierarchy based on the type-subtype relation . Thus, although we admit that class membership is fuzzy so that overlapping classes are inevitable, we suppose a non-overlapping type system structured into a rooted tree — whether solely based on functional or additional on, e. What regards criteria of goodness of classification, we perform a classical supervised categorization experiment  based on cross-validation as a method of model selection .
That is, we perform a categorization experiment in which for all training and test cases class membership is known ex ante. In summary, we perform a supervised experiment of text classification in order to learn functionally grounded text types where membership to these types is solely based on structural criteria. DOM trees are ordered trees in which every node might be labeled by a vector of attributes including its XML tag and the textual content.
We describe five new kernels suitable for such structures: a kernel based on predefined structural features, a tree kernel derived from the well-known parse tree kernel, the set tree kernel that allows permutations of children, the string tree kernel being an extension of the so-called partial tree kernel, and the soft tree kernel as a more efficient alternative.
Aus semiotischer Perspektive ist es vor allem der Gestaltcharakter, welcher die konnotative Textbedeutung einer Anwendung des FregePrinzips entzieht. Im folgenden wird unter Rekurs auf den Kopenhagener Strukturalismus ein Modell der konnotativen Bedeutung von Texten entwickelt, das sich unter anderem an dem glossematischen Begriff der Konstante orientiert. Die Rolle der Satzebene innerhalb des Prozesses der konnotativen Textbedeutungskonstitution wird angedeutet.
It combines a tree-like model with graph-inducing lexical relations. The paper aims at formalizing two yet unrelated approaches, i. Finally, we compute the correlations and absolute errors for our semantic indicators related to user ratings collected in an online evaluation. Such grammars may consist of a large number of rules. Finding errors is quite tedious and sometimes very time-consuming. Often the generation fails because the relevant input subtree is not specified correctly. This work describes a method to detect and correct wrong assignments of input subtrees to grammar categories by cross-validating grammar rules with the given input structures.
The method also detects and corrects the usage of a category in a grammar rule. The result is implemented in a grammar development workbench and accelerates the grammar writer's work considerably. The paper suggests the algorithms can be ported to other areas in which tree mapping is required. DeLite pinpoints text segments that are difficult to understand and computes for a given text a global readability score, which is a weighted sum of normalized indicator values.
Indicator values are numeric properties derived from linguistic units in the text, such as the distance between a verb and its complements or the number of possible antecedents for a pronoun. Indicators are normalized by means of a derivation of the Fermi function with two parameters. DeLite requires individual parameters for this normalization function and a weight for each indicator to compute the global readability score. Several experiments to determine these parameters were conducted, using different machine learning approaches. The training data consists of more than user ratings of texts from the municipality domain.
The weights for the indicators are learned using two approaches: i robust regression with linear optimization and ii an approximative iterative linear regression algorithm. For evaluation, the computed readability scores are compared to user ratings. The evaluation showed that iterative linear regression yields a smaller square error than robust regression although this method is only approximative.
Both methods yield results outperforming a first manual setting, and for both methods, basically the same set of non-zero weights remain. We sought to determine 1 acoustic features that mark a deglutition act as dysphagic; 2 acoustic changes in healthy older deglutition profiles compared with those of younger adults; 3 the correctness and concordance of rater judgments based on CA; and 4 if education in CA improves individual reliability. We obtained the following results. The duration of deglutition apnea is significantly higher in the older group than in the younger one.
Comparing the younger group and the dysphagic group we found significant differences in duration of deglutition apnea, onset time, and number of gulps. Just one parameter, number of gulps, distinguishes significantly between the older and the dysphagic groups. The second part of the study aimed at evaluating the reliability of CA in detecting dysphagia measured as the concordance and the correctness of CA experts in classifying swallowing sounds. The interrater reliability coefficient AC1 resulted in a value of 0.
Spelling checker algorithms using edit distance methods tend to produce a large number of possibilities for misspelled words. We propose an alternative approach to checking the spelling of Bangla text that uses a finite state automaton FSA to probabilistically create the suggestion list for a misspelled word. FSA has proven to be an effective method for problems requiring probabilistic solution and high error tolerance. We start by using a finite state representation for all the words in the Bangla dictionary; the algorithm then uses the state tables to test a string, and in case of an erroneous string, try to find all possible solutions by attempting singular and multi - step transitions to consume one or more characters and using the su bsequent characters as look - ahead; and finally, we use backtracking to add each possible solution to the suggestion list.
The use of finite state representation for the word implies that the algorithm is much more efficient in the case of non - inflected for ms; in case of nouns, it is even more significant as Bangla nouns are heavily used in the non - inflected form. In terms of error detection and correction, the algorithm uses the statistics of Bangla error pattern and thus produces a small number of signific ant suggestions. One notable limitation is the inability to handle transposition errors as a single edit distance errors.
This is not as significant as it may seem since the number of transposition errors are not as common as other errors in Bangla. This p aper presents the structure and the algorithm to implement a Practical Bangla spell - checker, and discusses the results obtained from the prototype implementation. Zahurul and Uddin, Md. It is used to impr ove the performance of spelling checkers and informatio n retrieval applications, where morphological analysi would be too computationally expensive.
For spellin g checkers specifically, using stemming may drastical ly reduce the dictionary size, often a bottleneck for mobile and embedded devices. This paper presents a computationally inexpensive stemming algorithm for Bengali, which handles suffix removal in a domain independent way. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm in a Bengali spelling checker indicates t hat it can be effectively used in information retrieval applications in general. These reference points do not open necessarily orthogonal perspectives on text classification. As part of explorative data analysis, text classification aims at automatically dividing sets of textual objects into classes of maximum internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity.
This paper deals with classifying texts into text types whose instances serve more or less homogeneous functions. Other than mainstream approaches, which rely on the vector space model Sebastiani, or some of its descendants Baeza-Yates and Ribeiro-Neto, and, thus, on content-related lexical features, we solely refer to structural differentiae. That is, we explore patterns of text structure as determinants of class membership. Our starting point are tree-like text representations which induce feature vectors and tree kernels.
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These kernels are utilized in supervised learning based on cross-validation as a method of model selection Hastie et al. For a subset of categories we show that classification can be performed very well by structural differentia only. The variant includes effects of context-sensitive interpretation as well as processes of meaning constitution and change in the sense of usage-based semantics. Its starting point is a combination of semantic space modeling and text structure analysis.
The principle is implemented by means of a hierarchical constraint satisfaction process which utilizes the notion of hierarchical text structure superimposed by graph-inducing coherence relations. The major contribution of the chapter is a conceptualization and formalization of the principle of compositionality in terms of semantic spaces which tackles some well known deficits of existing approaches. In particular this relates to the missing linguistic interpretability of statistical meaning representations. We describe a method using predefined structural features and also four tree kernels suitable for such structures.
We will demonstrate that, for the two corpora, many text types can be learned based on structural features only. Comparable to text categorization it stays in the area of function learning based on the bag-of-features approach. This scenario faces the problem of a many-to-many relation between websites and their hidden logical document structure. The paper argues that this relation is a prevalent characteristic which interferes any effort of applying the classical apparatus of categorization to web genres.
This is confirmed by a threefold experiment in hypertext categorization. In order to outline a solution to this problem, the paper sketches an alternative method of unsupervised learning which aims at bridging the gap between statistical and structural pattern recognition Bunke et al. Other methods measures the similarity in the framework of the well known vector space model.
In contrast to these we present a new approach to measuring the structural similarity of web-based documents represented by so called generalized trees which are more general than DOM-Trees which represent only directed rooted trees. We will design a new similarity measure for graphs representing web-based hypertext structures. Our similarity measure is mainly based on a novel representation of a graph as strings of linear integers, whose components represent structural properties of the graph. The similarity of two graphs is then defined as the optimal alignment of the underlying property strings.
In this paper we apply the well known technique of sequence alignments to solve a novel and challenging problem: Measuring the structural similarity of generalized trees. More precisely, we first transform our graphs considered as high dimensional objects in linear structures. Then we derive similarity values from the alignments of the property strings in order to measure the structural similarity of generalized trees. Hence, we transform a graph similarity problem to a string similarity problem. We demonstrate that our similarity measure captures important structural information by applying it to two different test sets consisting of graphs representing web-based documents.
The result is implemented in a grammar development workbench and helps accelerating the grammar writer's work considerably. While there are established morphological analyzers for mostly Western and a few other languages using localized interfaces, the same cannot be said for Indic and other less-studied languages for which language processing is just beginning.
There are three primary obstacles to computational morphological analysis of these less-studied languages: the generative rules that define the language morphology, the morphological processor, and the computational interface that a linguist can use to experiment with the generative rules.
In this paper, we present JKimmo, a multilingual morphological open-source framework that uses the PC-KIMMO two-level morphological processor and provides a localized interface for Bangla morphological analysis. We then apply Jkimmo to Bangla computational morphology, demonstrating both its recognition and generation capabilities. It is involving in almost every aspect of life like communication, work, shopping, recreation etc. Communication through mobile devices is the most effective and easy way now a day.
It is faster, easier and you can communicate whenever you want from any-where. Mobile messaging or short message service is one of the popular ways to communicate using mobile devices. It is a big challenge to write and display Bangla characters on mobile devices. In this paper, we describe a Bangla text input method and rendering support on mobile devices for short message service. The aim is to utilize categories of web sites and pages as an additional retrieval criterion. In this context, the bag-of-words model has been utilized just as HTML tags and link structures.
In spite of promising results this adaptation stays in the framework of IR specific models since it neglects the content-based structuring inherent to hypertext units. This paper approaches hypertext modelling from the perspective of graph-theory. It presents an XML-based format for representing websites as hypergraphs.
These hypergraphs are used to shed light on the relation of hypertext structure types and their web-based instances. We place emphasis on two characteristics of this relation: In terms of realizational ambiguity we speak of functional equivalents to the manifestation of the same structure type. In terms of polymorphism we speak of a single web unit which manifests different structure types.
It is shown that polymorphism is a prevalent characteristic of web-based units. This is done by means of a categorization experiment which analyses a corpus of hypergraphs representing the structure and content of pages of conference websites. Ein arabischer Suq ist der profane Tauschort par excellence.
Sie sind es, die am Versammlungs- und Tauschort der Khane mit den Einheimischen zusammentreffen. Das Angebot macht auf die dem Waren-Ding eingeschriebene Botschaft aufmerksam. Seit dem 2. Jahrhundert v. Aber schon ab Mitte des 3. Jahrtausends v. Der Ruinenort: die Botschaft der Spur Palmyra.
Volney , Jahrhunderts vor? Hier findet Volney Gastfreundschaft und Unterkommen. Zerstreut lassen wir unsere Blicke schweifen, Versunkenheit im Anblick des Ruinenfeldes stellt sich nicht mehr ein. In Europa aber werden ihre Berichte kaum zur Kenntnis genommen. Gehen so die Werke der Menschen zu Grunde? Verschwinden so Reiche und Nationen? Das Wenn Reisende des Man bedurfte der Materialisierung in Form des dinglich-konkreten Spuren-Feldes, um sich der Geschichte zu vergewissern.
Mensching , Egger, Stephan: Auf den Spuren der verlorenen Zeit. Frankfurt am Main Scheck, Frank Rainer: Jordanien. Ostfildern, 4. Aufl, Oxford University Press Preface 1. The Invention of a Ritual 2. Venues and Offerings 3. Prayers and Answers 4. A God Says No 5. Rules, Rewards, and Experts 6. Markers and Messes 7. A Detective Story 8. The Demise of a Ritual. This book deals with a subject that evokes the slaughter of animals and the feasts of the Homeric poems and Classical Athens.
Yet the most common Greek word for killing an animal for a good was thuein "to make smoke. So are Latin "fumus", or "smoke" and thus or "incense. The two leading views of Greek sacrifice say little of this smoke. One of these views, Walter Brukert's, presupposes that Greek ways of making animal offerings descended from Stone Age hunters.
As implied by the title of one of Burkert's books, Homo Necans , the Greek worshipper was a prototypical killer. The other leading view, that of Marcel Detienne and the late Jean-Pierre Vernant, supposes that Greek ways of making animals offerings, and also eating them, unified the citizenry of the Classical city-states. The Greek worshipper was the prototypical democrat. The same conclusions would hold for religions with similar rites, such as the religion of pagan Rome , or even of ancient Israel.
Scholars of Greek religion had other reasons to doubt these views, and even to doubt the importance given to animal offerings. Burkert, Vernant, and Detienne trafficked in social science with more or less staying power; and Burkert did the same with natural science. Archeologists had always known there was more to worship than animal sacrifice. Literary critics knew that the stress on rituals, coupled with a divorce of ritual from mythic antecedents, had done a kind of violence to Greek experience, which was as much about gods and heroes known though myth as it was about rites known through anthropology and sociology.
And they knew that the gods of the poets and historians responded to acts of sacrifice less predictably than in the two prevailing views. Further discussion at chapter 6 here. In contrast, Greek tuphein and its English cognate, "smoke," have no sacrificial character. I The Invention of a Ritual. When an ancient Greek prayed, he or she might burn an offering. After noticing the smoke from the fire, a god might grant the prayer and accept the offering, or he might not.
Odysseus experienced both responses. At the start of the Illiad , when the Achaeans suffered from a plague, Odysseus brought a hecatomb of animals to the priest of Apollo, Chryses, hoping that the pries would sacrifice them and pray to Apollo for relief. Chryses was a likely intercessor, for the god had inflicted the plague after Agamemnon refused to release his daughter, a captive. Odysseus returned the girl to her father. With this wrong righted, the priest performed the rite, and Apollo "heard him," ending the plague.
After he escaped from the Cyclops, he sacrificed the ram that had carried him to safety from the monster's cave - an apt thanksgiving. When the smoke rose into the air, Zeus "paid no heed. This time, Odysseus was at a disadvantage. Before, he was not. It did not matter what the offering was. The Achaeans gave some number of ca cattle, Odysseus a particular ram. Other worshippers in Homer gave incense and a woven dress. Odysseus and Chryses offered the hecatomb on behalf of the army, but Odysseus offered the ram on behalf of his crew.
The conduct of the worshippers did matter. The Achaeans had satisfied Apollo, but Odysseus had not satisfied Zeus. The god also mattered. After Apollo granted Chryses's prayer, the Achaeans sang and danced. Sacrifice let the worshippers commune with the god. Or, if the god were displeased, as Zeus was, the rite failed to achieve this effect. The two sides communicated, but did not commune.
The same animal: Stanford ad 9. Whence have these prejudices against you arisen? For certainly this great report and talk has not arisen while you were doing nothing more out of the way than the rest, unless you were doing something other than most people; so tell us. So listen. And perhaps I shall seem to some of you to be joking; be assured, however, I shall speak perfect truth to you. What kind of wisdom is this? Just that which is perhaps human wisdom. For perhaps I really am wise in this wisdom; and these men, perhaps,.
You know Chaerephon, I fancy. And you know the kind of man Chaerephon was, how impetuous in whatever he undertook. Now the Pythia replied that there was no one wiser. And about these things his brother here will bear you witness, since Chaerephon is dead. For I am conscious that I am not wise either much or little.
What then does he mean by declaring that I am the wisest? He certainly cannot be lying, for that is not possible for him. I went to one of those who had a reputation for wisdom,. I seem, then, in just this little thing to be wiser than this man at any rate, that what I do not know I do not think I know either. So I had to go, investigating the meaning of the oracle, to all those who were reputed to know anything. So I must relate to you my wandering as I performed my Herculean labors, so to speak, in order that the oracle might be proved to be irrefutable.
For after the public men I went to the poets, those of tragedies, and those of dithyrambs,. So, taking up the poems of theirs that seemed to me to have been most carefully elaborated by them, I asked them what they meant, that I might at the same time learn something from them. Now I am ashamed to tell you the truth, gentlemen; but still it must be told.
For there was hardly a man present, one might say, who would not speak better than they about the poems they themselves had composed. So again in the case of the poets also I presently recognized this,. And at the same time I perceived that they, on account of their poetry, thought that they were the wisest of men in other things as well, in which they were not. So I went away from them also thinking that I was superior to them in the same thing in which I excelled the public men. And in this I was not deceived; they did know what I did not, and in this way they were wiser than I.
I replied then to myself and to the oracle that it was better for me to be as I am. Therefore I am still even now going about and searching and investigating at the god's behest anyone, whether citizen or foreigner, who I think is wise; and when he does not seem so to me, I give aid to the god and show that he is not wise. And by reason of this occupation I have no leisure to attend to any of the affairs of the state worth mentioning, or of my own , but am in vast poverty. And in addition to these things, the young men who have the most leisure, the sons of the richest men, accompany me of their own accord, find pleasure in hearing people being examined, and often imitate me themselves, and then they undertake to examine others; and then, I fancy, they find a great plenty of people who think they know something, but know little or nothing.
From among them Meletus attacked me, and Anytus and Lycon, Meletus angered on account of the poets, and Anytus on account of the artisans and the public men,. And whether you investigate. Now so far as the accusations are concerned which my first accusers made against me, this is a sufficient defence before you; but against Meletus, the good and patriotic, as he says, and the later ones, I will try to defend myself next. So once more, as if these were another set of accusers, let us take up in turn their sworn statement. It is about as follows: it states that Socrates is a wrongdoer because he corrupts the youth and does not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other.
Such is the accusation. But let us examine each point of this accusation. He says I am a wrongdoer because I corrupt the youth. And that this is so I will try to make plain to you also. Come here, Meletus, tell me: don't you consider it. For it is evident that you know, since you care about it. For you have found the one who corrupts them, as you say, and you bring me before these gentlemen and accuse me; and now, come, tell who makes them better and inform them who he is.
Do you see, Meletus, that you are silent and cannot tell? And yet does it not seem to you disgraceful and a sufficient proof of what I say, that you have never cared about it? But tell, my good man, who. Are these gentlemen able to instruct the youth, and do they make them better? But how about this? Now that I do not lie against God I have the following proof: I have revealed to many of my friends the counsels which God has given me, and in no instance has the event shown that I was mistaken. Once on a time when Chaerephon made inquiry at the Delphic oracle concerning me, in the presence of many people Apollo answered that no man was more free than I, or more just, or more prudent.
However, do not believe the god even in this without due grounds, but examine the god's utterance in detail. Who in the world more free,—for I accept neither gifts nor pay from any one? Whom would you with reason regard as more just than the one so reconciled to his present possessions as to want nothing beside that belongs to another? And would not a person with good reason call me a wise man, who from the time when I began to understand spoken words have never left off seeking after and learning every good thing that I could?
And what shall we say is accountable for this fact, that although everybody knows that it is quite impossible for me to repay with money, many people are eager to make me some gift? Or for this, that no demands are made on me by a single person for the repayment of benefits, while many confess that they owe me a debt of gratitude? Or for this, that while other men get their delicacies in the markets and pay a high price for them, I devise more pleasurable ones from the resources of my soul, with no expenditure of money?
And now, if no one can convict me of misstatement in all that I have said of myself, do I not unquestionably merit praise from both gods and men? Now very likely the god repulsed him from his attempt to investigate an ancient myth as though it were a painting to be tested by the touch. He had recently been at the shrine of Ammon, and it was plain that he was not particularly impressed by most of the things there, but in regard to the everburning lamp he related a story told by the priests which deserves special consideration ; it is that the lamp consumes less and less oil each year, and they hold that this is a proof of a disparity in the years, which all the time is making one year shorter in duration than its predecessor ; for it is reasonable that in less duration of time the amount consumed should be less.
Besides, Demetrius, not to allow that small things are indication of great stands directly in the way of many arts ; for it will result in taking away from us the demonstration of many facts and the prognostication of many others. This was what one might hear from the priests of the prophetic shrine there ; so some other rejoinder must be offered to them, if we would make for the sun the wonted order of its course immutable, in accord with the tradition of the ages.
In fact, the eclipses will prove it, as the sun more frequently casts a shadow on the moon and the moon on the earth ; the other facts are clear, and there is no need to disclose in further detail the imposture in the argument. But on the assumption that the report is true, is it not better to assign the cause to some coldness or moisture in the air by which the flame is made to languish, and so very likely does not take up nor need very much to support it? Or, quite the reverse, may we assign the cause to spells of dryness and heat? For great was the ancient repute of the divine influence there, but at the present time it seems to be somewhat evanescent.
What need to speak of others, when in Boeotia, which in former times spoke with many tongues because of its oracles, the oracles have now failed completely, even as if they were streams of flowing water, and a great drought in prophecy has overspread the land? For nowhere now except in the neighbourhood of Lebadeia has Boeotia aught to offer to those who would draw from the well-spring of prophecy.
As for the rest, silence has come upon some and utter desolation upon others. All this was in harmony, as it were, with events to come ; for Mardonius was vanquished while the Greeks were led, not by a king, but by a guardian and deputy of a king 4 ; and he fell, struck by a stone j ust as the Lydian dreamed that he was struck in his sleep. While they were wondering and questioning the mere possibility that the god had been born, not in their island, but somewhere else, the prophetic priestess told them in another oracle that a crow would show them the spot.
So they went away and, when they reached Chaeroneia, they heard the woman who kept their inn conversing about the oracle with some strangers who were on their way to Tegyrae. There have been also more recent manifestations than these at these oracles, but now the oracles are no more ; so it is well worth while, here in the precinct of the Pythian god, to examine into the reason for the change. Thucydides, v. Proceeding onward from the temple, we had by this time reached the doors of the Cnidian Clubhouse.
There was quiet among the other people there because of the hour, as they were engaged in taking a rub-down or else watching the athletes. The foundations may still be seen. Thus those maladies and emotions of the soul which it would be good to disclaim and conceal in the presence of an older man, they bring naked and exposed before the god. Moralia, e. The fact is that the man who holds that the obsolescence of such of the oracles as have ceased to function has been brought about by some other cause and not by the will of a god gives reason for suspecting that he believes that their creation and continued existence was not due to the god, but was brought about in some other way.
For prophecy is something created by a god, and certainly no greater or more potent force exists to abolish and obliterate it. Now I do not like what Planetiades said, and one of the reasons is the inconsistency which it creates regarding the god,[p. Now moderation, adequacy, excess in nothing, and complete selfsufficiency are above all else the essential characteristics of everything done by the gods ; and if anyone should take this fact as a starting-point, and assert that Greece has far more than its share in the general depopulation which the earlier discords and wars have wrought throughout practically the whole inhabited earth, and that to-day the whole of Greece would hardly muster three thousand men-at-arms, which is the number that the one city of the Megarians sent forth to Plataeae 1 for the god's abandoning of many oracles is nothing other than his way of substantiating the desolation of Greece , in this way such a man would give some accurate evidence of his keenness in reasoning.
For who would profit if there were an oracle in Tegyrae, as there used to be, or at Ptoiim, where during some part of the day one might possibly meet a human being pasturing his flocks? And regarding the oracle here at Delphi, the most ancient in time and the most famous in repute, men record that for a long time it was made desolate and unapproachable by a fierce creature, a serpent; they do not, however, put the correct interpretation upon its lying idle, but quite the reverse ; for it was the desolation that attracted the creature rather than that the creature caused the desolation.
But to-day there is one priestess and we do not complain, for she meets every need. There is no reason, therefore, to blame the god ; the exercise of the prophetic art which continues at the present day is sufficient for all, and sends away all with their desires fulfilled. In the same way, in those days, prophecy employed more voices to speak to more people, but to-day, quite the reverse, we should needs be surprised at the god if he allowed his prophecies to run to waste, like water, or to echo like the rocks with the voices of shepherds and flocks in waste places.
Herodotus, ix. But from the demigods a few souls still, in the long reach of time, because of supreme excellence, come, after being purified, to share completely in divine qualities. Peiper But I cannot brook this talk of universal destruction ; and such impossibilities, in recalling to our minds these utterances, especially those about the crow and the stag, must be allowed to revert upon those that indulge in such exaggeration.
Is not that so? Either process gives forty, and when this is multiplied five times by three it gives the specified number. Caerellium, xviii. Of all these things there are, in many places, sacrifices, ceremonies, and legends which preserve and jealously guard vestiges and tokens embodied here and there in their fabric. Moralia, c, and the lines of Empedocles there quoted.
Moralia, c. Moralia, c and d. Moralia, b and e. But the greatest error in regard to the truth is that of the theologians of Delphi who think that the god[p. And as for the story which I have heard before about this flight and the removal to another place, it is dreadfully strange and paradoxical, but if it has any vestige of truth in it, let us not imagine that what was done in those days about the oracle was any slight or common affair. Let this statement be ventured by us, following the lead of many others before us, that coincidently with the total defection of the guardian spirits assigned to the oracles and prophetic shrines, occurs the defection of the oracles themselves ; and when the spirits flee or go to another place, the oracles themselves lose their power, but when the spirits return many years later, the oracles, like musical instruments, become articulate, since those who can put them to use are present and in charge of them.
But you unwittingly take back what you concede ; for you agree that these demigods exist, but by your postulating that they are not bad nor mortal you no longer keep them ; for in what respect do they differ from gods, if as regards their being they possess immortality and as regards their virtues freedom from all emotion or sin?
The father of Aemilianus the orator, to whom some of you have listened, was Epitherses, who lived in our town and was my teacher in grammar. He said that once upon a time in making a voyage to Italy he embarked on a ship carrying freight and many passengers. It was already evening when, near the Echinades Islands, the wind dropped, and the ship drifted near Paxi. Almost everybody was awake, and a good many had not finished their after-dinner wine.
Suddenly from the island of Paxi was heard the voice of someone loudly calling Thamus, so that all were amazed. Thamus was an Egyptian pilot, not known by name even to many on board. As many persons were on the vessel, the story was soon spread abroad in Rome, and Thamus was sent for by Tiberius Caesar. Herodotus, ii. He himself, by the emperor's order, had made a voyage for inquiry and observation to the nearest of these islands which had only a few inhabitants, holy men who were all held inviolate by the Britons.
Shortly after his arrival there occurred a great tumult in the air and many portents ; violent winds suddenly swept down and lightning-flashes darted to earth.
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When these abated, the people of the island said that the passing of someone of the mightier souls had befallen. Moralia, a - a. What, in fact, is there to prevent our accepting an utterance that is impressive and most highly philosophical? For if it be rejected, it does away with many things which are possible but cannot be proved ; and if it be allowed as a principle, it brings in its train many things that are impossible or non-existent.
For by this reasoning Epicurus will be shown to be a worse man than Gorgias the sophist, and Metrodorus worse than Alexis the comic poet; for Alexis lived twice as long as Metrodorus and Gorgias more than a third as long again as Epicurus. For example, many of the animals that are sluggish in movement and slow in their reactions and many that are lascivious and ungovernable live a longer time than the quick and the clever. Therefore they do not well who make God's eternal existence to be the result of watchfulness and the thrusting aside of destructive agencies.
No, immunity from emotion and destruction ought to reside in the blessed Being, and should require no activity on His part. Perhaps, however, to speak thus with reference to people that are not present does not show great consideration. So it is right that Cleombrotus should resume the topic which he discontinued a few moments ago about the migration and flight of the demigods. Yet it seems to be close to the subject of natural phenomena and Plato 1 has given the key-note for it, not by an unqualified pronouncement, but as the result of a vague concept, cautiously suggesting also the underlying idea in an enigmatic way ; but, for all that, there has been loud disparagement of him on the part of other philosophers.
But there is set before us for general use a bowl of myths and stories combined, and where could one meet with more kindly listeners for testing these stories, even as one tests coins from foreign lands? It was near the Persian Gulf that I found him, where he holds a meeting with human beings once every year ; and there I had an opportunity to talk with him and met with a kindly reception.
The other days of his life, according to his statement, he spends in association with roving nymphs and demigods. He was the handsomest man I ever saw in personal appearance and he never suffered from any disease, inasmuch as once each month he partook of the medicinal and bitter fruit of a certain herb. He was practised in the use of many tongues ; but with me, for the most part, he spoke a Doric which was almost music. While he was speaking, a fragrance overspread the place, as his mouth breathed forth a most pleasant perfume.
Besides his learning and his knowledge of history, always at his command, he was inspired to prophesy one day in each year when he went down to the sea and told of the future. Potentates and kings' secretaries would come each year and depart. His power of prophecy he referred to the demigods. He made most account of Delphi and there was none of the stories told of Dionysus or of the rites performed here of which he had not heard ; these too he asserted were the momentous experiences of the demigods and so, plainly, were those which had to do with the Python.
Such also, he said, were the stories about Typhons and Titans 3 ; battles of demigods against demigods had taken place, followed by the exile of the vanquished, or else judgement inflicted by a god upon the sinners, as, for example, for the sin which Typhon is said to have committed in the case of Osiris, or Cronus in the case of Uranus ; and the honours once paid to these deities have become quite dim to our eyes or have vanished altogether when the deities were transferred to another world. In fact, I learn that the Solymi, who live next to the Lycians, paid especial honour to Cronus.
Many accounts similar to these are to be had from theological history. But, as that man said, if we call some of the demigods by the current name of gods, that is no cause for wonder ; for each of them is wont to be called after that god with whom he is allied and from whom' he has derived his portion of power and honour.
Moralia, b-c. Cleombrotus said nothing more, and his account appeared marvellous to all. The inner area of the triangle is the common hearth of all, and is called the Plain of Truth, in which the accounts, the forms, and the patterns of all things that have come to pass and of all that shall come to pass rest undisturbed ; and round about them lies Eternity, whence Time, like an ever-flowing stream, is conveyed to the worlds.
Opportunity to see and to contemplate these things is vouchsafed to human souls once in ten thousand years if they have lived goodly lives ; and the best of the initiatory rites here are but a dream of that highest rite and initiation; and the words of our philosophic inquiry are framed to recall these fair sights there — else is our labour vain. He had ranged widely in literature and was no foreigner, but a Greek by birth, and replete with Greek culture to a high degree. Of these he leaves two to be held in common, the earth for all below and Olympus for all above, and the three that lie between were assigned to the three gods.
Enough of legends! Plato, however, is very far from calling the five different divisions of the world five different worlds ; and in those passages again, in which he contends against those who postulate an infinite number of worlds, he says that his opinion is that this world is the only-begotten and beloved of God, having been created out of the corporeal whole, entire, complete, and sufficient unto itself.
Wherefore one might well be surprised that he, in stating the truth himself, has supplied others with a source for a doctrine that is unconvincing and lacking in reason. We will not spend much time on it, but only touch upon it long enough to inquire into its plausibility ; and then we will follow up the original proposition.
Then again it is more consistent with reason that the world should not be the only-begotten of God and quite alone. For He, being consummately good, is lacking in none of the virtues, and least of all in those which concern justice and friendliness ; for these are the fairest and are fitting for gods. Nor is it in the nature of God to possess anything to no purpose or for no use. Therefore there exist other gods and other worlds outside, in relation with which He exercises the social virtues. For not in relation with Himself nor with any part of Himself is there any exercise of justice or benevolence or kindness, but only in relation with others.
Thus it is not likely that this world, friendless, neighbourless, and unvisited, swings back and forth in the infinite void, since we see that Nature includes individual things in classes and species, like seeds in pods and envelopes. For there is nothing in the whole list of existing things for which there is not some general designation, nor does anything that does not possess certain qualities, either in common with others or solely by itself, obtain such an appellation.
Now the world is not spoken of as having qualities in common with others. If in all creation such a thing as one man, one horse, one star, one god, one demigod does not exist, what is there to prevent creation from having, not one world, but more than one? For he who says that creation has but one land and one sea overlooks a matter which is perfectly plain, the doctrine of similar parts 1 ; for we divide the earth into parts which bear similar names, and the sea likewise.
A part of the world, however, is not a world, but something combined from the differing elements in Nature. For if there are more worlds than one, and each of them has received, as its meet portion, substance and matter having a restricted measure and limit, then there will be nothing left unplaced or unorganized, an unused remnant, as it were, to crash into them from the outside. For the law of reason over each world, having control over the matter assigned to each, will not allow anything to be carried away from it nor to wander about and crash into another world, nor anything from another world to crash into it, because Nature has neither unlimited and infinite magnitude nor irrational and disorganized movement.
For if each of the bodies has its own particular place, as he asserts, the earth must of necessity turn toward the centre from all directions and the water be above it, settling below the lighter elements because of its weight. If, therefore, there be more worlds than one, it will come to pass that in many places the earth will rest above the fire and the air, and in many places below them ; and the air and the water likewise, in some places existing in positions in keeping with nature and in other places in positions contrary to nature.
As this, in his opinion, is impossible, the inference is that there are neither two worlds nor more, but only this one, composed of the whole of matter and resting firmly in keeping with Nature, as befits the diversity of its bodies. All this, however, has been put in a way that is more plausible than true. And if a man could force himself, by reasoning, to dare the concept of a violent motion of the infinite, what difference, if referred to this, is created for the bodies in their movements?
For in the void there is no power in the bodies, nor do the bodies have a predisposition and an impetus, by virtue of which they cling to the centre and have a universal tendency in this one direction. It is equally difficult, in the case of inanimate bodies and an incorporeal and undifferentiated position, to conceive of a movement created from the bodies or an attraction created by the position. Thus one conclusion is left : when the centre is spoken of it is not with reference to any place, but with reference to the bodies.
For in this world of ours, which has a single unity in its organization from numerous dissimilar elements, these differences necessarily create various movements towards various objects. Evidence of this is found in the fact that everything, when it undergoes transformation, changes its position coincidently with the change in its substance. For example, dispersion distributes upwards and round about the matter rising from the centre and condensation and consolidation press it down towards the centre and drive it together.
Moralia, b and b. Because one may postulate as the author of these occurrences and changes, that cause will keep each of the worlds together within itself; for each world has earth and sea, and each has its own centre and occurrences that [p. In what lies beyond, whether it be nothing or an infinite void, no centre exists, as has been said; and if there are several worlds, in each one is a centre which belongs to it alone, with the result that the movements of its bodies are its own, some towards it, some away from it, and some around it, quite in keeping with the distinctions which these men themselves make.
But anyone who insists that, while there are many centres, the heavy substances are impelled from all sides towards one only,1 does not differ at all from him who insists that, while there are many men, the blood from all shall flow together into a single vein and the brains of all shall be enveloped in a single membrane, deeming it a dreadful thing in the case of natural bodies if all the solids shall not occupy one place only and the fluids also only one place. Such a man as that will be abnormal, and so will he be who is indignant if everything constituting a whole has its own parts, of which it makes use in their natural arrangement and position in every case.
For that would be preposterous, and so too if anybody called that a world which had a moon somewhere inside it2; as well call that a man who carries his brains in his heels or his heart in his head! For the land and the sea and the heavens in each will be placed to accord with nature, as is fitting ; and each of the worlds has its above and below and its round [p. Moralia, a-b. Demosthenes, Oration vii. For that would be preposterous, and so too if anybody called that a world which had a moon somewhere inside it 2 ; as well call that a man who carries his brains in his heels or his heart in his head!
For how is it either to remain fixed, if it has weight, or to move towards the world like other heavy substances when it is no part of the world and has no place in the order of its being? Land embraced in another world and bound up with it ought not to raise any question as to how it comes about that it does not break away from the whole and transfer itself to our world, because we see the nature and the tension under which each of the parts is held secure.
Moralia, b. For, in the first place, if it is preposterous that there should be many supreme gods bearing this name, then surely these persons' ideas will be far more preposterous ; for they make an infinite number of suns and moons and Apollos and Artemises and Poseidons in the infinite cycle of worlds. But the second point is this : what is the need that there be many gods bearing the name of Zeus, if there be more worlds than one, and that there should not be in each world, as pre-eminent governor and ruler of the whole, a god possessing sense and reason, such as the one who among us bears the name of Lord and Father of all?
Or again, what shall prevent all worlds from being subject to the Destiny and Providence of Zeus, and what shall prevent his overseeing and directing them all in turn and supplying them all with first principles, material sources, and schemes of all that is being carried out? Yet such an organization is altogether appropriate for the gods. In fact, the Deity is not averse to changes, but has a very great joy therein, to judge, if need be, by the alternations and cycles in the heavens among the bodies that are visible there.
Infinity is altogether senseless and unreasoning, and nowhere admits a god, but in all relations it brings into action the concept of chance and accident. But the Oversight and Providence in a limited group and number of worlds, when compared with that which has entered one body and become attached to one and reshapes and remodels it an infinite number of times, seems to me to contain nothing involving less dignity or greater labour. Having spoken at this length, I stopped. It happens, however, that they do not all have one form of construction, nor have they all a similar origin, but the pyramid is the simplest and smallest, while the dodecahedron is the largest and most complicated.
Of the remaining two the icosahedron is more than double the octahedron in the number of its triangles. For this reason it is impossible for them all to derive their origin from one and the same matter. Hence it follows that the only primal body is the pyramid, and not one of the others, since by their nature they are outdistanced by it in coming into being.
But for us it will suffice to acquire the knowledge in brief form. Since air is formed when fire is extinguished, and when rarefied again gives off fire out of itself, we must observe the behaviour of each of the generative elements and their transmutations. Therefore one element of air is produced from two corpuscles of fire combined and united ; and that of air again, when divided, is separated into two corpuscles of fire, and again, when compressed and condensed, it goes off into the form of water. Moralia, d. For he insists that all the five shall not undergo construction at the same time, but the simplest always, which requires the least trouble to construct, shall first issue forth into being.
Then, as a corollary to this, and not conflicting with it, he lays down the principle that not all matter brings forth the simplest and most rudimentary form first, but that sometimes the ponderous and complex forms, in the time of their coming into being, are earlier in arising out of matter. But apart from this, five bodies having been postulated as primary, and on the strength of this the number of worlds being put as the same, he adduces probability with reference to four only ; the cube he has taken off the board, as if he were playing a game with counters, since, because of its nature, it cannot transmute itself into them nor confer upon them the power of transmutation into itself, inasmuch as the triangles are not homologous triangles.
For in the others the common triangle which underlies them all is the half-triangle ; but in this, and peculiar to it alone, is the isosceles triangle, which makes no convergence towards the other nor any conjunction that would unify the two. I leave out of account the fact that they make the element of the dodecahedron, as it is called, something else and not that scalene from which Plato constructs the pyramid and the octahedron and the icosahedron.