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e-book The Reach (T.O.A.D. Book 5)

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Sort order. I read this book to my younger brother. He really liked the animals and the big trucks. He thought the moral of the book was to entertain people. The real moral of the story was that if you put your mind to it you can reach whatever you want. This book is about this toad that made a brand new house on top of a very steep hill.

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She was waiting for all of her things to be moved to her new house, but they were having trouble getting up the big hill. So they just dumped all her stuff off at the foot of the hill. Then she has a party and the hill is to steep for the animals to make it up. The toad has to make a solution to her steep hill. I recommend this book to young kids. This is a great story about animals and big trucks. Both girls and boys will like this book, because all kids like animals.

View 1 comment. These Usborne phonics readers are bright and attractive with a fun flip out pages. This book is all about the "oa" sound. I wish I had a numbered listing for these books as I think it would help to know how they introduced the word families so that you could us them in that order as they find the vocabulary builds as you go along. A fun story. We meet Toad again or for the first time if you found the order these are in. I love the idea of overcoming an obstacle through determination and hard wor These Usborne phonics readers are bright and attractive with a fun flip out pages.

I love the idea of overcoming an obstacle through determination and hard work. Also, that frog has serious mechanical skills for an amphibian. I think I am enjoying these books way too much. The back of the book gives a vocabulary list and notes the words that do not follow the phonics rules. We loved this book. Great easy words for new readers. Aug 03, Viviane Elbee rated it really liked it Shelves: picture-books.

Fun book for beginner readers - especially appealing for those who like construction. Mar 05, Talea rated it it was ok Shelves: children , fiction. Mar 17, Elizabeth rated it really liked it. ATOS 1. Not as enjoyable as others in the series, but it does work a different list of vocabulary words and the illustrations and pop-out pages help make this more engaging. I also have hundreds of detailed reports that I offer too. These reports give a complete break-down of everything in the book, so you'll know just how clean it is or isn't.

Visit my website Not as enjoyable as others in the series, but it does work a different list of vocabulary words and the illustrations and pop-out pages help make this more engaging. Visit my website: The Book Radar. Jul 24, Danie Cutter rated it really liked it Shelves: childrens. Great book, easy words for children learning to read. Like the fact that while it uses phonics there are also "patterns" for the words eg Goose and Loose so is suited to pattern recognition methods of learning to read as well.

Have bought the whole series as daughter loves these. This set o Great book, easy words for children learning to read. This set of books is top of the learn to read books we've come across so far. Feb 12, Andrea rated it liked it Recommends it for: learning to read. Shelves: baby-toddler , elementary , usborne-books. Usborne Phonics products are specially designed to help children learn how to read. They incorporate fun and learning.

Reader tries to save the idle, stiffened toad by putting it in her pond

Children learn so much when they are young and their brain is forming so quickly. By incorporating reading into the things that they learn early on, they are more likely to succeed. If you are interested in purchasing this item, please visit my Usborne Independent Consultant Website at www. I really enjoyed this book as well. I think it has a great story line and easy words for new readers. The words in this book can represent single phonemes by breaking down each letter.

This allows a new reader to be able to sound out the words in a much easier manner. Toad is very cute. I like that she made a road for her friends. I liked the truck she had. Pollution has been historic since oil exploration and refining works began at the beginning of the twentieth century up to industrialization, agricultural development, and urban growth at present, causing a rapid deterioration of the ecosystems found there.

The sampling stations were established along the basin according to the degree of contamination found. Thus, they were grouped by two zones: industrial and rural. In May , the first sampling of monitoring study was carried out, while the second was carried out in February Figure 2. The industrial zone I was formed by the following sampling stations red oval, Figure 2 : Ejido Cangrejera: site adjacent to the petrochemical complexes of Pajaritos and Cangrejera, where various derivatives of chlorine and ethylene compounds are produced.

In addition, the presence of POPs in both environmental and biological matrices has already been evidenced in this area, as well as the effects that these could be causing in terrestrial organisms [ 24 , 28 , 29 ]. Estero del Pantano: site located on the banks of the Calzadas River. According to [ 11 ] the river receives discharges of sewage and industrial waters.

Also, the presence of POPs and lead Pb has been demonstrated, as well as the effects of these compounds on terrestrial and aquatic organisms [ 10 , 11 , 30 ]. It presents scarce urbanization and ecosystems still well preserved. At present, concentrations of pollutants have not been reported in this sampling station. San Carlos: Located next to the Uxpana river, upstream and that ends at the Coatzacoalcos river.

It has well-preserved ecosystems. Like the previous one, no contaminant concentrations have been reported in this site. The sampling stations of the rural area selected are characterized by semi-preserved ecosystems and minor impact by agricultural production, being susceptible areas where organophosphorus, organochlorine, or carbamate pesticides can be used to control pests or vectors.

Adult male giant toads were collected per site by night transects and hand capture. In the first sampling May , 40 toads were collected, while in the second sampling February, , 30 toads were collected. The body weight and snout-venth length SVL were taken. While with the rest the hematological parameters were analyzed.


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The toads were released in their respective habitat. This enzyme is very sensitive to the effects of increased blood lead, even at very low levels [ 32 ]. The whole blood samples 0. Units of enzymatic activity were expressed as micromole per min per liter of red blood cells RBC , which were calculated using the following formula Eq. The chemical and morphological parameters of the blood can provide a wide range of biomarkers; its use has increased because the sampling can be very fast and non-destructive [ 36 ].

The hematological parameters can provide evidence of pathology including anemia, dehydration, infectious processes, parasitism, or poisoning [ 37 ]. These parameters in turn may be related to pollution and its effects [ 38 ].

Getting High with a Hallucinogenic Toad Prophet

The volume of the cell pack or hematocrit HT is the percentage of the total volume of blood composed of red blood cells. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC is the range of the weight of hemoglobin by the volume of the erythrocyte. An iron deficiency, increased immature erythrocytes reticulocytosis and methemoglobin can result in a decrease in MCHC values [ 32 ].

Some toxic compounds can alter the functioning of the hematological system through interference with cellular production in the bone marrow or in the synthesis of the heme group, by direct cytotoxicity to the cells, or by injuries in other tissues resulting in a loss of blood cells [ 32 , 39 ]. The determination was made following the protocol of the commercial distributor [ 40 ].

The MCHC was calculated integrating the two previous parameters following equation. Condition indices are potentially attractive biomarkers because they are simple to implement and provide information on the use of energy as well as the general health status of the organism [ 41 ]. Pollutants can produce rapid and marked changes in condition indices. To calculate the CF, the snout-vent length SVL of the toads was taken with a vernier caliper mm and its body weight BW g with an electronic scale.

Subsequently, these two parameters were integrated and used the following formula Eq. The statistical analysis was carried out with the GrapPhad Prism 6. When the results were compared per sampling area for each year, it was obtained that in the toads of the industrial zone But, for , the levels of this enzyme were found similar for the toads of both zones Comparison of biological responses biomarkers in blood of giant toad R.

This inhibition can be attributed to concentrations of lead found in the blood of giant toads, where residents of the industrial zone contained higher concentrations of this metal [ 11 ]. In this sense, intense industrialization in the lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos river is associated with the increase of heavy metals such as lead [ 47 , 48 ].

Different studies in this region have reported the presence of lead in organisms such as fish, turtles, toads, and even humans, associated with neighboring industrial complexes [ 11 , 30 , 49 ]. Therefore, these could be factors that led to exposure to lead in the toads of the industrial zone in both and This could be due to two factors. On the other hand, a second factor that could be causing this exposure would be the extraordinary meteorological phenomena that have occurred in this area, for example, recent floods. It has been documented that some heavy metals, such as lead, and organic compounds can be mobilized and affect their bioavailability due to the removal of sediments when extreme weather events such as floods occur [ 27 ], so possibly an event like this has increased the exposure to lead in the organisms in the area.

The concentrations of hemoglobin and the percentage of hematocrit are presented in Figure 3. However, when comparing by area in each year, a statistically significant decrease in the hemoglobin concentration of R. Otherwise, with the percentage of HT, the levels in were similar in both areas. When both parameters were integrated in MCHC Figure 3D , a statistically significant decrease was observed in the toads of the rural area in When comparing areas for each year, a statistically significant decrease was obtained for organisms in the industrial zone While in the sampling, toads from the rural area showed a significant decrease compared to those in the industrial zone In turn, it is also observed that Coatzacoalcos toads showed higher levels 1.

Very few studies, in relation to pollutants and hematological parameters, have been carried out with amphibians. The results obtained in our study are contrary to those obtained in [ 52 ] where they showed a decrease in hematological parameters according to the presence of lead in tissues of the Egyptian toad Amietophrynus regularis. We consider that the hematological parameters of Coatzacoalcos toads are altered increases or decreases when comparing areas in both years.

Two Ocean Reach

But not so, if they are compared per year between zones, because similar values are obtained in Hb and HT, only one alteration was found in the MCHC in the organisms of the rural area in The increase of some parameters, such as Hb, could be related to a response of organisms to a decrease in the transport of oxygen in the blood hypoxia , derived from anemia anemic hypoxia [ 53 ]. Hypoxia in some vertebrate organisms fish, amphibians has been related to the natural and anthropogenic increase of ammonium, sulfides, or organic matter, as well as the presence of pollutants organic or heavy metals—lead and excess nutrients [ 54 , 55 ].

In the case of MCHC, the decrease in organisms residing in industrial zones, in the sampling of , can be attributed to contamination in these places, being associated with a microcytic anemia, which could have been caused by exposure to pollutants such as heavy metals e.

The above could support the hypothesis of the increase of pollutant concentrations in the rural area which is affecting the resident organisms of this area. On the other hand, the fact of finding parameters of greater hematological parameters in the Coatzacoalcos organisms compared with the laboratory ones could support the hypothesis proposed by [ 11 ], where they point out that one of the mechanisms of response of vertebrates to an exposure could be the increase in the number of erythrocytes polycythemia increasing the capacity of oxygen transport, and therefore, some hematological parameters.

Suggesting this phenomenon as a compensation mechanism against anemic hypoxia.

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The results of the condition factor of R. As observed, only a significant increase in CF of the toads of the rural area was found in When comparing between areas for both years, a significant decrease of When the CF of the Coatzacoalcos toads are compared with the ones of the laboratory The estimation of the condition factor in amphibians is important to evaluate if they are under environmental stress [ 56 ]. This biomarker is commonly used to assess the general health status of aquatic and terrestrial organisms, because it is considered a non-destructive biomarker of energy reserves [ 57 ].

This is very important given that energy reserves can be used for the maintenance, development, or reproduction of amphibians. Commonly, a greater reserve of energy in organisms gives them greater resistance without food, greater survival, and better reproductive performance compared to individuals with lower reserves [ 58 ]. There is very little information on the use of the condition factor in amphibians in contaminated sites.

How fast do the tiny toads grow?

Some researchers [ 58 ] reported a decrease in the condition factor and enzymatic alterations in semi-aquatic and terrestrial frogs resident in agricultural sites, associating it with a possible activation of compensatory or detoxification systems in amphibians in the face of environmental stress or a decrease in their prey mosquitoes by the application of insecticides.

In other organisms, such as fish and birds, the decrease in the condition factor after exposure to heavy metals and organochlorine compounds, respectively, has been reported [ 59 , 60 ]. Exposure of organisms to pollutants can increase energy requirements, decrease the metabolic or nutrient assimilation rate, and even alter digestion enzymes [ 41 , 54 , 61 ].