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German English Achtung! Du kannst die Buchstaben mehr als ein Mal benutzen. You can use the same letter more than once. Beantworte die beiden Teile der Frage. Answer both parts of the question. Beantworte die Fragen auf Deutsch.
Answer the questions in German. Beantworte diese Fragen. Answer these questions.
Die Abschaffung der Armut
Complete the following gap-text with one word for each gap from the list below. Complete the table in German.
Es ist welche Person? Which person is it?
Forschungspublikationen – «Beiträge zur Sozialen Sicherheit»
Write the name in the box. Gib zwei Details. Give two details. Write the correct letter in the box. Piketty has shown that the returns from capital increased faster than the growth rates of GDP and labour income. This would not be a problem if capital were equally distributed across all individuals.
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However, this is not the case, and a chosen few benefit from social prosperity more than the majority. This also implies that there are no equal opportunities or performance-related fairness: prosperity in Germany depends largely upon how rich the family is, what somebody inherits or how rich someone is getting married to.
The combination of lack of upward mobility and growing inequality is a source of enormous social unrest. There are a large variety of measures available to correct these trends. Two tackle inequality at the source. These are measures aiming to reduce the inequality of capital income and wealth concentration, on the one hand: changing inheritance tax by reducing the generous exemptions in the case of inherited firms, for instance, or undoing the flat tax on capital income to equalise the taxation of capital and labour income, or reactivating property tax with the advantage that information on wealth in Germany would inevitably be recorded again.
Another series of measures aims to reduce the inequality of labour earnings which accounts for the largest part of market income: by stabilising the collective bargaining system, reducing the low-wage sector and strengthening earned labour incomes. The legal minimum wage, due to come into effect on January 1 st , in Germany, will prevent further downward pressure on wages and stabilise wages at the bottom of the distribution.
The argument put forward by some opponents of the minimum wage, that it will lead to massive job losses, is empirically unfounded e. Schmitt , Reich et al. Finally, the effectiveness of public redistribution needs to be strengthened again, because this determines how much of market income is left at the end as net income. However, Germany will also face new challenges. For instance, the statutory pension scheme is also part of the public redistribution counted in the concept of net equivalised income.
Recent reforms that led to a lowering of the pension entitlements, combined with the fact that future retirees will have more often interrupted work histories, will tend to boost income inequality, and if the government is not counteracting these effects a sustainable reduction in income inequality appears unlikely. Society as a whole would benefit from a less unequal distribution: ironically, this interesting result was published by the International Monetary Fund Ostry et al. They also show that policy actually can do something about inequality, because public redistribution has no detrimental effect on growth.
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The Piketty Debate in the German Context To put things in a national context, Germany has paid a heavy price for a supply-driven economic policy that has been dominant since the s. The Conceptual Illusions of Inequality In Germany the focus on net income, and the concept of net equivalised household income on which we base our measures of inequality tend to mask the persistent increase in the inequality of earned income even after An Urgent Need for Reform There are a large variety of measures available to correct these trends. Find us here :. Further reading Bosch, G.
Arbeitspapier, Arbeit und Soziales , Fitzenberger, B.