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Under the new system, each building in Singapore has its own unique postcode. The state names are not used. According to Yateendra Joshi of New Delhi, "State names are totally redundant and are not required in the address at all. The post code and the delivery post office go together, as in Hyderabad or Bangalore Nothing but a space, ideally a dash, should come between the two. If you need to specify the state, it should come after the postal code, as in Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh or AP. For long and other forms of the country names, see the Index.

Links from country names are to postal authorities, if known, otherwise to other postal information pages for the country. Delivery is only to post office boxes. IRAN: Prior to Iran had 5-digit postal codes; now is converting to digit codes the code shown in the table above is made up, for lack of a genuine example. Iran's postcode page is HERE. Searching the Web for Isreali postal addresses written in the Roman alphabet shows examples with the postcode on the left, and others with the postcode on the right.

IRAN: Iranian addresses are written in major to minor order, town at the top, followed by street address, then addressee. The postal code is important because there are many cases of duplicate street names in the same city, even a few duplicate building numbers in the same street. The length of the PO Box number is variable.

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The zone is two digits for regular post-office box delivery, or 3 digits starting with 1 to indicate direct building delivery. This site does not work well except with Internet Explorer. A previous version of the site had a postcode lookup area Arabic only but if the new site has one, I can't find it. November , this link doesn't work any more, I can't find any English pages on the site.

It is the island in the Comoros that voted to stay French when the others voted for independence, but the UN supports the Comoros' claim to the island. Mail to street addresses is returned to the sender. Examples of valid addresses: Dr E. French Polynesia, New Caledonia are not countries either, but parts or dependencies of other countries such as France. Other Portuguese islands in the area such as Madeira, however, must be addressed through Portugal. The island name can be omitted for Las Palmas.

You can also write de between the town and island names instead of a hyphen. There is only one town — Adamstown — so town names or street addresses don't seem to be needed or used; you can address people by name or PO Box. Ted Cookson who has visited every country in the world, and who has been to Pitcairn three times reports: Adamstown is the only settlement on Pitcairn. But no one lives at Bounty Bay. Actually, there are only about 45 people on the island these days anyway. In spite of all the talk over the years, there is still no airport on Pitcairn and will not be one in the short-term.

And there is no shipping service from the U. Cruise ships call from four to six times a year. Expensive yachts also go to Pitcairn now and again from Mangareva in French Polynesia. The islanders arrange for freight to be delivered to the island once or more annually on ships which normally originate in New Zealand and stop off en route to the Panama Canal.

Mail is carried on all of these vessels. These classifications have nothing to do with postal addressing and should not be used in postal addresses. Hence the fact that they have their own postal administrations from La Poste, and issue their own stamps — French postcodes are comparatively recent introductions. They even have their own currency, the French Pacific Franc. Where to find the most confusing addresses on earth What should be the name of this section? The United Kingdom itself is a country. Thus it is a country that is made up of four countries.

A country made of countries might seem a paradox, yet the countries that make up the UK, especially England, Scotland, and Wales, do not think of themselves as anything less; Scotland has its own Parliament and banknotes, Wales has its own language and National Assembly, all three have national identities going back more than a thousand years, and the Encyclopedia Britannica calls them countries next item. Canada Post uses it as their only recognized name for the United Kingdom. By this definition it includes the countries of England, Scotland, and Wales.

It has nothing to do with Empire or world domination and simply refers to the time when the island was administered and fought over by the French. In any case, the ambiguity of the term Great Britain — is it a country, an island, or a group of islands? It is home to the Bretons, Britons who fled from the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries and who renamed the place Little Britain , and who speak a Celtic language, also called Breton, similar to Welsh and Cornish.

Bretagne became part of France in Some say that Breton and Welsh fisherfolk can chat with each other in their closely related languages. Another term to avoid, since the Irish do not consider their island a British isle. A better term would be The Islands of Britain and Ireland. Opinions are divided as to whether these and other adjacent islands such as the Scottish islands Outer Hebrides are also British Isles or part of Great Britain see conflicting definitions above.

But be careful: in the Western Hemisphere, sometimes this term is used to refer to the British Virgin Islands and possibly other Caribbean Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, Bahamas, and Bermuda, and territories such as the Cayman Islands. Rex or Regina F.

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Most of these countries gained their independence after World War II some earlier but many of them remained in the Commonwealth next item. The non-UK, non-Dependency parts of the Commonwealth do not use UK postal codes because they are independent countries. The Overseas Territories are not members of the Commonwealth because they are not independent countries.

Each Overseas Territory is a separate jurisdiction with its own postal addressing arrangements; some of them participate in the UK postcode system. Prior to that Ireland was ruled by England and before that, like much of England itself, by Vikings, but unlike England, never by the Romans or Normans.

Ireland's capital is Dublin. Ireland is not part of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth. Thus contrary to popular belief, Ulster is not a proper synonym for Northern Ireland. The notation and formats used are the very latest recommended by Royal Mail except Ireland, which has nothing to do with Royal Mail. As always, links are to the appropriate postal authorities. British Antarctic Territory is not included because "you can't get there from here" the USPS does not recognize it as a destination.

NP is not an actual vessel, but the the name for the group of Royal Navy and Royal Marines who run the civilian government on Diego Garcia. They are headed by a Royal Navy officer who represents Britain on the island. The US Navy describes the situation better here. The BFPO number is here. The postal town should be written in uppercase and, as noted above, current practice seems to favor omitting the county, since counties are a moving target anyway.

It's difficult for Americans to comprehend the constant reshuffling of British counties, given the immutability of our own states, not to mention the fanatical cultural nationalism surrounding statehood :- Apparently, it is also difficult for some Britons. Recently Royal Mail the British postal service has been updating its addressing standards and recommendations. The Royal Mail website includes an Address Management page referenced below that summarizes the new format. Since it is a web page, it is likely to disappear at any moment, so I've taken the liberty of reproducing its summary table, titled What Is a Correct Postal Address?

Example Name of addressee Title, initials, surname. Of course without some sort of street or PO Box details the address is incomplete and some of them must be present, but the rules for valid combinations are exceptionally complicated - as you imply with your wonderful 'where to find the most confusing addresses on earth' introduction.

The first letter or pair of letters identifies the city or town which contains the main sorting office for the area. See also the exceptions below. The next figure or pair of figures [or digit and letter, or possibly even pair of letters] identifies the postal district eg, G1 covers part of the centre of Glasgow, G2 covers a different part and so on. Greg Boettcher offers a list of initial letter s of British postal codes in CSV format, which in all but 7 cases pinpoint the postal district.

The fields are: British postal code, Main sorting office, Region. Each sector is served by a delivery office where the postal workers who actually deliver the mail get hold of it. One worker will deliver all of the mail to the addresses covered by this designation.

Finally comes the full postcode called the 'unit postcode' which on average contains 'delivery points', ie, letterboxes which the mail gets put through e. There are a couple of exceptions worth mentioning. London postal codes have starting letters which use the points of the compass eg N4 6BQ for an address in the north of the city or SW1 4AB for one in the south-west. Ben Watson adds, The reason London postcodes 'areas' are based on points of the compass is not because the city is so large, but because postally, London has been divided this way for well over a hundred years.

Around London, you can see that some of the very old street name signs have NW or whatever after or below the street name modern London street signs state the full postal district - eg. Mark Brader observes that the system has been extended twice — from the original NW to NW1 in the first half of the 20th century, then to NW1 1AB in the second half as your other submitters have mentioned. Some of the street signs with 'NW1' would date from before there were postal codes. However, there some sort of logic behind it! The district of the main office in an area is always 1, then the rest of the numbers were assigned sequentially to an alphabetically ordered list of the rest of the districts in the area..

Which is confirmed by Hugh Dunne: When British postal codes were first introduced, they only covered London and were of the form W1, SE9, etc — but this was in the s. Thus 'London W1', although seen in literature, is archaic and should not be encountered in modern addresses. Mark Brader states, however, that This is wrong. There were no numbers back then. The term for notations like 'London NW1' and 'New York 22', where the coded part is meaningful only with respect to the particular city, is 'postal zone', not 'postal code'.

In some places when postal codes were introduced they were designed to incorporate the existing postal zones, such as London. I believe some other UK cities had numbered postal zones and these became the numerical part of the postal code, e. Similarly, I believe New York 22, N. In Canada, all postal zones were obsoleted when postal codes came into use. See the links below. Most of the links that were here before are defunct or have turned into commercials; c'est la Web.

The address lookup service that was once online must now be ordered on CD. They use UK postal codes. These regions can cover vast areas and are not necessarily close to the named town. Scotland also includes the Outer Hebrides, which also have UK postal codes. Ken Westmoreland adds, Berwick-upon-Tweed in England is covered by the Scottish postcode area TD, much to the annoyance of locals there.

Although Scotland and Wales have counties just like England does e. Clackmannanshire, Stirlingshire, West Lothian, etc, in Scotland , we don't necessarily write them.

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They are not essential for addressing, and in Scotland especially, using a county name might do more harm than good, since there are old and new county names and boundaries and much confusion about which town is in which county. From Chris Cooke in Scotland: The big thing to realise about counties is that in , most English and Welsh counties were changed, and Scottish and Northern Irish counties were abolished completely.

The Northern Ireland counties were later reinstated I think, but Scotland remained divided into regions yeuch until , when they were all abolished and the counties reinstated - but with different boundaries to the pre ones! England kept its counties throughout, but in and ? As to Wales, Alan Perry reported in July , There was yet another change to county names in Wales [in ]; places like Gwynedd and South Glamorgan etc no longer exist! The former 8 counties have been replaced by 22 county borough councils and a few newly-named county councils.

Addressing conventions from the Royal Mail Postal Address Book for Wales indicates addresses should be: For an address inside a county borough: name of street name of town name of county borough council post code For an address inside a county council: name of street name of town name of county council post code Alan says, Most folk use the full address for a county borough but often leave out the county council name in the second case. I don't know why. I suspect, however, that this information is dated — I can't find any material on this at the Royal Mail site, which makes sense now that counties have been deprecated.

None of these are part of the UK, but all of them are British Islands strictly defined. Ken Westmoreland reports: The Channel Islands and Isle of Man didn't have their own postal administrations until the late s, when the UK let them set up their own ones. Guernsey now has blue pillar boxes, the only British territory I know that does. Hence they didn't become part of the UK postcode system until the early s. A letter I never got as a result, so it is better to play it safe. The other difficulty is that with the Isle of Man administrating its own postcodes they aren't sold as part of the default database and some UK websites refuse to recognise them as valid as a result.

The new postcode is expected to help reduce delays in the direction of mail to the Islands. Islanders have also found that many shopping websites refuse orders without a postcode. Falkland Islands inhabitants often find that their letters have transited the postal systems of places such as the Faroe Islands, Iceland or the most popular destination for lost Falklands mail, Falkirk in Scotland. The postcode should also make on-line shopping easier for Falklands residents, given that most Internet-purchasing services require a post or zip code before transactions can be completed.

People say that postcodes and automated sorting aren't needed in a place only 2. Reportedly the Gibraltar Government is considering options to introduce a postcode system; see this discussion. In February a reader offered the following clarification: The 'City Line Format' should be blank in the case of Gibraltar.

At just 3. Or in this case say 13 Irish Town, Gibraltar. Domestic mail could simply be addressed Main Street , 12 Tuckey's Lane , etc although people will frequently write Gibraltar below even for domestic mail as they are far more acustomed to using the post in an international mail context. Below is some extra explanation - if you have a sample address that 'appears' to disagree with the above!

You do get addresses that are longer, but they are not towns in the postal sense. All falls within the street address strictly speaking, or is optional and unnecessary. Firstly you simply get some roads where people sometimes give the names relative to others. Indeed, you will see examples given relative to streets with confusing names such as 'Irish Town' which adds to foreign confusion! Next you get developments and urbanisations. However, in such addresses the development name forms part of the street element, although would generally be given on the next line.

Also here the Marina Bay is technically not required because all the streets would be recognised postally. However it is convention to include them, as buildings would generally include them. And although given after the street address, they are not required. While convention is that examples such as 'Upper Rock' or 'South District' are less rarely given, others such as 'Europa Point' or 'Catalan Bay' are generally deemed as always part of the address. Indeed 'Europa Point' and 'Catalan Bay Village' are the closest things to towns in Gibraltar, as they are geographically distinct from the rest.

They are given for geographical placing only, and are not postally towns. So should be viewed as a third line of street address. Note: Some websites will erroneously say the capital of Gibraltar is 'Gibraltar town' or 'Gibraltar city' etc. But the whole of Gibraltar is Gibraltar and that always means the whole place. While there is a city centre, and slight geographical separation of Europa Point and Catalan Bay from the rest, they are still inside 'Gibraltar' which is always the name of the country. On international order forms we often have to write Gibraltar many times, but it is the country we are repeating upwards, not some fictional main town called Gibraltar city: Street: 26 Main Street, Town: Gibraltar, in reality, name of country State: Gibraltar, in reality, name of country PostCode: Gibraltar Country: Gibraltar.

Indeed, even PO Boxes are numbered continuously in Gibraltar. So, PO Box , Gibraltar is a perfectly valid international address. If optionally given along with a street address, a PO Box number would go after all parts of the address before the country because it is the street address of the user of the postbox, not the PO Box itself.

By contrast, Canada took only three! Another British Overseas Territory, Montserrat, introduced a postcode system in , despite having only people, and only covering the northern part of the island, as the central and southern part are still in the exclusion zone, a legacy of the volcanic eruption in It has some splendid place names, meaning that you can ask the question 'what's the postcode for Gerald's Bottom? About people live in the Falklands, plus lots of penguins. Gibraltar is claimed by Spain and negotiations are presently underway as to its future.

Gibraltar is BFPO 52, used when addressing armed forces personnel. Northern Ireland has six counties. County names can be included, as in the country of Ireland next section , in which case the word County abbreviated Co. The county name is optional, however; usually just the postal town and postal code are sufficient, provided the postal code is on the city line.

Derry — the city — is the principal town in Co. Londonderry but until recently it was also called Londonderry. The counties also have Irish names but I don't know if they can be used in North Ireland addresses. In Fermanagh for many years the Council refused to allocate roadnames or postcodes and insisted in retaining these traditional names. Naturally these townlands also had little relationship to the road layout, and houses had no actual numbers — the address was like: Mr William Jones Ballysomething Bally meaning Townland of Kesh the nearest main village Co.

This important things to remember are: Postcodes are not compulsary , the traditional address format still works. The situation is likely to be chaotic for some time. An Eircode identifies an individual mailbox rather than an area. Ireland is an independent country completely separate from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.

Note that there is no country called the Republic of Ireland; that name was once used, but was abolished long ago; now it is the name of a football team. Ireland has never had postal codes but Dublin — and recently also Cork -- have postal zones. The lack of postal codes makes Ireland unique among European countries.

Implementation of postal codes for Ireland has been an on-again off-again project for years. This section previously contained discussion and links to announcements and de-announcements but all those links have gone stale. A announcement says a location-based postcode system will come into effect in , such as the Loc8 Code see launch announcement , 15 July Traditionally, an Irish city line looked like this: town , Co. Westmeath Bandon, Co. Cork Ballyragget, Co. Kilkenny Cobh, Co. Cork Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin Monivea, Co. Galway Shannon Airport, Co. However, advice found at a now-defunct website in stated that for addresses outside of Dublin, the County should go on its own line as shown in these examples: Ballincollig Birr Co Cork Co Offaly You can write the county name in English or Irish.

Of course such a postcard would never, ever, ever reach me. The translation of [the Irish address], given above, is just exactly that, a translation. Irish placenames have had Anglicized forms since the Ordnance Survey went round respelling them, but those are not the English names, and when one asks what is that in English? Maigh Eo is meaningful. It means The Plain of the Yews. A plain full of mature yew trees must have been an awesome sight, once upon a time.

Mayo isn't meaningful, though it refers to the same place. And to a tasty sandwich condiment. A beef is a slaughtered bovine carcass. Irish mail delivery is modern and highly automated. The full address is scanned for routing and delivery. Postcodes are not used because they are not needed; all delivery points are in the postal database. Former names are in italics. While the IMM allows two or more names for certain countries e.

Netherlands and Holland; Taiwan and Formosa; Malaysia and Malaya, Iran and Persia , we should always use the same and most current name for each country, since country names can be used as database keys. Links from country names are to the relevant section of this document, where you can find postal code format, address information, examples, stories, and further links. Some bikes shouldn't be upgraded. If you have an exotic, hand-made custom bike from a highly-regarded builder, or perhaps a racing bike with a distinguished history, it may be better to restore it as a virtual museum piece -- or even leave it as is.

Another approach with such a bike is to do upgrades that can be reversed later, saving the original parts for possible future restoration. Since the wheels are the most easily damaged parts, and vintage bikes often came with tubular tires, it is often a good idea to equip an original classic with a pair of "rider" wheels in addition to the stock "show" wheels. Restoration is a whole subject unto itself, and is outside of the purview of this article.

The uglier a "beater" is, the better, but it should still be in excellent working order. You should certainly consider upgrading the brakes , possibly the wheels and drive-train parts as well. Older speed "beaters" are often prime candidates for conversion to fixed gear. You may also decide to build up an older steel frame as your primary bike, or your main bike for a particular kind of riding.

Upgrading Older Road Bicycles

As noted, a steel frame is especially well-suited for touring. If you are going to strip the frame and re-equip it, you can build it up any way you would like, with more options than available on new bicycles bought off-the-shelf. There have been great improvements in gear-shifting mechanisms over the last couple of decades. If you live and ride in flat terrain, and rarely shift, this may well not matter to you. On the other hand, if you're in a part of the world where there are hills, and perhaps have gained some weight with the years, it's quite possible that the gearing that was satisfactory to you when you were younger no longer cuts it.

It is not at all unusual to want to add lower gearing and more precise shifting to an older bike, a bike that in other ways may be quite satisfactory. For details on gearing upgrade options, see the companion Upgrade Gears Article. A "fixed gear" bike is the simplest, purest form of cycling. Fixed gear bikes have no gears to shift, only one speed. In addition, they have a fixed drivetrain, with no freewheeling mechanism. This makes coasting impossible. On a fixed-gear bike, whenever the bike moves the pedals will move too, willy-nilly.

This sounds like a bad idea to most people, but there's something about it that makes it a lot of fun!

It's impossible to explain, though fixed-gear fanatics always try to. To understand it, you actually need to ride a fixed-gear bike on a regular basis for a couple of weeks. The first few times you try it, it will feel very strange, and the bike will need to remind you not to try to coast.

It is only once you get used to it and relax to the experience that you can know the joy of fixed-gear riding. This site has a large number of Articles on Fixed Gear Bikes , some philosophical, some practical. Another interesting option is to install an internal-gear hub. You have many more options than in the days of the English Three Speed -- hubs are now available with as many as 14 speeds.

An old English three-speed frame can be a good candidate for an upgrade too. Also see my article on internal-gear hubs. Most bike-boom bicycles had caliper brakes: centerpull brakes were common in the early s. Single-pivot sidepulls were more common in the s. Some of these brakes worked fine, in which case, you might just keep them. Others, especially on lower-end bicycles, could be rather wimpy.

Upgrading to modern brakes may be desirable. Dual-pivot sidepull brakes are especially suitable when brake reach is long. Some older frames, especially touring frames, were equipped with cantilever brakes, which attach to pivots on the fork blades and seatstays.

These brakes are generally powerful if properly adjusted, but you may have to replace the brake arms if changing the wheel sizes. Direct-pull brakes fit the same pivots as traditional cantilever brakes, but require different brake levers. Also see the articles on rim brakes. Disc brakes are powerful, work in the wet, and are popular for off-road use. They are beginning to be seen on road bikes, but they require special mounting tabs on a special, strengthened front fork and on the left chainstay.

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  6. If you are installing a suspension fork, you might consider a disk brake. A suspension fork is a bit out of character with a light road bike but could make sense if you are upgrading an old three-speed for urban riding. Front and rear drum brakes also are manufactured, and are included in some hubs. The Shimano Rollerbrake is a variety of drum brake. These brakes do not require fork or frame modifications. A drum brake works in the wet, and can be suitable at the rear wheel, but it is less good at heat dissipation than a disk brake.

    A front drum brake places unusual stresses on the front fork, and also is likely not to be as powerful as a rim brake or disk brake. Frames made of aluminum , titanium or carbon fiber should not be re-spaced this way, because these materials are not as ductile as steel, and there's a risk of cracking.

    Since you have to add most of the spacers to the right side, this moves the rim off center. This needs to be corrected by re-dishing the wheel. The re-dishing is accomplished by tightening the right-side spokes and sometimes loosening the left-side spokes. The resulting unbalanced tensions will weaken the rear wheel, so this is a marginal solution for heavier riders or for touring applications. If you want to go to an 8- or 9-speed cluster, a cassette hub is the only practical option. See my article on Shimano cassettes and hubs. For further information, see the articles on frame spacing and forkend alignment.

    Higher quality bikes have used mm spacing for the front fork for a long time, and there's no reason to change this, but lower-end bikes of the '70s and earlier sometimes used 96 mm spacing. You can generally fit a mm hub into a 96 mm fork, with a bit of force but don't do this with a cartridge-bearing hub A traditional steel fork also can be respaced. Older bikes that didn't come with quick-release wheels may have axle slots that are too narrow to fit a quick release axle. If so, it isn't too hard to file the slots out to fit. File only the lower face of the rear slots, to maintain wheel alignment.

    Most road bicycles sold in North America and the U. The mm "C" size now used has the advantage of being used all around the world, and of compatibility with wheels that use tubular tires, without having to adjust rim brakes. If your older bicycle has mm aluminum-alloy rims in good condition, you might just keep the old wheels until they need replacement. Many older rims, though, had angled sidewalls which require an extremely accurate job of wheel trueing if the brakes are to work smoothly.

    It is often less trouble just to rebuild or replace the wheels. Steel rims generally should just be replaced. It is rare to find any that offer smooth braking, and none of them stop well when wet. Changing from the mm size to the mm size requires a 4 mm adjustment in brake reach. Most caliper brakes will allow this much adjustment. Some cantilever brakes accommodate only one size of tire, but newer-model brake arms usually do allow adjustment.

    With caliper brakes, the braking with a mm rim will be slightly weaker with the smaller-diameter tires, and with cantilever brakes, stronger. Most steel frames carry a decal identifying the tubing. Often, it will identify the grade of steel used. Low-end bicycles will have a decal which makes the tubing seem fancier than it is, unless you know grades of steel.

    Lower-end Raleigh frames including three-speeds generally used high-tensile steel, which is better. Then we get into the categories of Reynolds tubing. If the label says only "Reynolds frame tubes", the frame uses the cheapest Reynolds straight-gauge tubing. Butted tubing -- thinner in the middle and thicker at the ends -- made for lighter frames without sacrificing strength. Mid-grade frames would have the 3 main frame tubes butted, and cheaper steel for the rest of the frame.

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    High-quality frames would be labeled "guaranteed built with butted tubes, forks and stays", and the front fork would carry a label identifying the taper-gauge fork blades. The need for them was not clear, because an argument can be made that the main footing steel can provide both flexural and shear-friction resistance. Thus the need for separate shear-friction steel was included as a variable in the testing program. Second, if the CIP footing is cast around the PC column, no footing steel can pass under the column, but rather must be moved to a location just beside the column, where it can be bundled with other bars already there.

    The question of whether steel in that location would engage properly with the column steel to transfer moments from the column to the footing also was studied during the test program. The cantilever columns were loaded vertically to simulate gravity and simultaneously subjected to a series of ever-increasing cyclic lateral displacements to study resistance to idealized seismic loading.

    The footings were cast with a lip around the bottom so that all the support occurred at the perimeter, and the column was free to move downward if the shear-friction resistance to gravity load proved inadequate. In the first two spread-footing specimens SF-1 and SF-2 , the footing thickness 22 in. This thickness was chosen because it was the smallest for which the footing concrete could resist the one-way shear forces without tie reinforcement. The reinforcement in the two specimens also was different, with SF-1 being as close as possible to code-compliant and containing the full complement of shear friction, steel top steel and footing ties, as shown in Figure 3.

    Furthermore, NS and EW slots were formed in the bottom of the column through which some of the bottom footing steel could pass in order to improve the moment transfer between elements. Specimen SF-2 represented a less conservative design that contained only half the quantity of footing ties and one quarter of the shear-friction steel. The column also contained no slots, so all of the footing reinforcement that would otherwise have fallen under the column was moved to its sides.

    The third specimen, SF-3, was built with a in. These low strains demonstrated that those two types of reinforcement were not necessary. The load-deflection plots were essentially identical to that of a reference cast-in-place specimen tested in an earlier study. The implication is that the improved force flow permitted by the bar heads is effective in reducing joint shear demands, and the footing, even with the lighter reinforcing used in SF-2, is not the weak link.

    Rather, the column properties control the system strength. This is exactly the desired outcome. Specimen SF-3 contained much more flexural steel to compensate for the smaller footing depth. During the first part of the loading program, it behaved like the other two specimens, with damage concentrated in the column. That failure provided information on the strength of the connection, which allows the formulation of design recommendations. Specimens SF-1 and SF-2 also were tested under pure vertical load.

    This was done after the column had failed in bending during the lateral load tests, and the spiral steel had fractured. In both cases the applied load reached 3. At that load, the column crushed extensively and lost strength, but there was no sign of cracking in the footing or slip of the column through the footing. This result represents a very large margin of safety, and suggests that the shear-friction mechanism is easily adequate to transfer the load from the column to the surrounding footing if the footing thickness is equal to the column diameter.

    Setting the cap The column-to-cap beam connection consists of bars projecting from the column and grouted into ducts in the cap beam, as shown in Figure 1. This concept has been used before, but direct translation from a cast-in-place to a precast design leads to the use of a large number of bars and ducts, with the attendant risks of alignment problems on-site because the ducts have to be quite small. The approach adopted here was to facilitate site assembly by using a small number of large bars in large ducts. The system was tested and proven to work with six No. Input from contractors confirmed that those dimensions would allow easy assembly.

    The structural questions raised by such a detail concern the anchorage of the large bars in the precast cap beam, which is normally approximately 3 ft 6 in. The testing was conducted in two stages. In the first, monotonic pullout tests were conducted of bars grouted into ducts.

    These were at full scale and used bar sizes from No. The measured values showed that anchorage of bars in ducts occurs in a length that is much shorter than that specified for development of the same bar in concrete and that any commercially available bar can easily be anchored in a grouted duct within the depth of a typical cap beam. The longitudinal bars were No.