Divine judgment is passed on "each one in accord with his way" because the deity showed no favor to "all who corrupted their ways and their plan s before the flood" Later one learns that Noah was the lone exception to this blanket charge: "his mind was righteous in all his ways, as it had been commanded concerning him. He did not transgress from anything that had been ordained for him. Charles argued that the person who translated Hebrew Jubilees into Greek had failed to notice that in this passage vv.
Hence, in his view the entire passage should be rendered in the future tense: he will make a new and righteous nature, etc. The final judgment and new creation are, therefore, what the writer has in mind. However, K. Berger is correct in maintaining that the verse need not be taken eschatologically in the strict sense of the term.
It refers to the renewal after the flood that is remarked in other sources as well. In this connection 1 Enoch resembles Jubilees to some extent. It speaks about the punishment of the angels and the destruction of "all the souls of lust and the sons of the Watchers, for they have wronged men. Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth, and every evil work will cease. And let the plant of righteousness and truth appear, and the deed will become a blessing; righteousness and truth will they plant in joy for ever.
The targumic tradition espressed in Pseudo-Jonathan and Neofiti may be pointing in this direction with its lengthy rendering of Gen "The Lord said in his Memra, 'None of the evil generations that are to arise in the future will be judged according to the order of judgment applied to the generation of the Flood, that is to be destroyed and wiped out from the world. Gen , which mentions the covenant with Noah and the fact that a flood would never again be sent, may have played a part in the development of this theme. Although the post-diluvian renewal was to be no more successful than the first effort to give creatures a righteous nature, a least a new beginning was made.
As God had resolved to obliterate every living thing on the earth that he had created because all had corrupted their way Jub , so he determined to give them a new nature, a new creation after the flood. Jub ; : Jub introduce the subject of the day of atonement without mentioning it by name. The narrator the angel of the presence turns from the story to address Moses about the people of Israel: "Regarding the Israelites it has been written and ordained: 'If they turn to him in the right way, he will forgive all their wickedness and will pardon all their sins'.
It has been written and ordained that he will have mercy on all who turn from all their errors once each year. Charles suggested that it was "[p]robably based on Jer. The Jeremiah passages speak of God's repenting from carrying out what he planned if Israel would turn from its wickedness; Jon describes the Ninevites' penitence. None of these is overly close to the wording in Jubilees. Hence the topic of the day of atonement surfaces in Jubilees long before the historical event that supposedly gave rise to it--the grieving of Jacob at the "death" of Joseph Jub is only the first reference to atonement in the book's presentation of the flood story.
Jub , which should correspond with Gen Noah's post-diluvian sacrifice , reads: "On the first of the third month he left the ark and built an altar on this mountain. He appeared on the earth, and took a kid, and atoned with its blood for all the sins of the earth because everything that was on it had been obliterated except those who were in the ark with Noah. Jubilees' atoning offering is an addition to the text of Genesis. The clause "he appeared on the earth", while it is the better reading in the Ethiopic manuscript tradition, is probably not original.
Earlier editors had already noted that two Ethiopic verbs which resemble each other in appearance, probably underlie the mistake: "He appeared" is 'astar'aya , while "he atoned" would be 'astasraya. Hence, the original reading was "he atoned for the earth". The likelihood that "he atoned" is the preferable reading increased considerably when the Genesis Apocryphon was deciphered. The facts that Jubilees alludes to the day of atonement in , that the writer has Noah make an atoning sacrifice in , and that both passages are absent from the base in Genesis suggest that the topic was significant for the author.
What could have been the textual or other types of stimuli which made him or his tradition read atonement into the narrative? It turns out to be an unusual theme in ancient treatments of the Genesis flood story. The discussion at this point in Genesis Rabbah says nothing about atonement; rather, the issue debated there is whether Noah's sacrifice was a burnt offering or a peace offering Gen.
Other texts seem more concerned with noting that Noah rebuilt the altar on which Cain and Abel had presented their offerings Pirke de R. Both Jubilees and the Genesis Apocryphon say that Noah atoned for all the earth. Thus the earth had been defiled in such a way that atonement was required for it. It seems from the context in Jubilees that the author has in mind every wrong that had been committed on the earth and that rendered the earth polluted.
In his note to Jub , Charles says about the phrase "made atonement for the earth": "Though Jewish Haggada knows nothing of this particular act of atonement, it is easy to justify such a conception from Lev. The earth itself as being defiled needed expiation. Unnatural vices and murder pollute it. Num Lev , the first biblical passage to which Charles alluded, is set in a context of laws prohibiting actions such as those committed by Egyptians and Canaanites.
These practices defiled the land and caused the previous inhabitants to be vomited from it vv. That is, the people became defiled through such practices and thus defiled the land which had to be punished for its iniquity v. It is worth noting that illicit degrees of sexual relations are the subject of the paragraphs immediately before vv.
The pertinent verses in Leviticus say:. Jubilees does draw attention to the illicit nature of the angelic marriages and thus of the sexual relations involved. While Jub "So they married of them whomever they chose" simply repeats Gen verbatim, the topic returns in chap. There Noah, as he is prescribing laws for his descendants, "testified to his sons that they should do what is right, cover the shame of their bodies, bless the one who had created them, honor father and mother, love one another, and keep themselves from fornication, uncleanness, and from all injustice.
For it was on account of these three things that the flood was on the earth, since it was due to fornication that the Watchers had illicit intercourse--apart from the mandate of their authority--with women. When they married of them whomever they chose they committed the first acts of uncleanness. It is also worth noting that the subject of the fourth-year planting appears in the next chapter in Leviticus , just as it follows Noah's warnings to his children in Jub.
The second passage--Num , which both Charles and Berger noted--occurs in a chapter that speaks about cities for the Levites and cities of refuge along with the related topics of murder and blood revenge. The verses immediately before the relevant section deal with murder and the requirement that a murderer be put to death, with no ransom rpk is used in vv. Here we find atonement connected with pollution of the land by blood. The blood that was shed on the earth is, of course, a major point in Jubilees' version of the angel story, as it is in the BW.
Animate beings ate one another ; the giants engaged in mutual slaughter before their fathers' eyes ; and repeat the law in Genesis about consuming and shedding blood cf. But this point, too, is developed to a greater extent in chap. They fathered as their sons the Nephi l im. They were all dissimilar from one another and would devour one another: the giant killed the Naphil; the Naphil killed the Elyo; the Elyo mankind; and people their fellows. Much blood was shed on the earth.
All the thoughts and wishes of mankind were devoted to thinking up what was useless and wicked all the time. Noah subsequently expressed his fear that when he was gone his children would shed blood on the earth and thus also suffer obliteration v. He mandated great care in treating blood and noted the need to cover it. In the writer shows that he does indeed have Num in mind: "For the earth will not be purified of the blood which has been shed on it; but by the blood of the one who shed it the earth will be purified in all its generations.
While these passages lie behind the introduction of atonement into Jubilees' story, an adjustment had to be made in the special case of Noah and the flood because the blood of the murderers was not available to atone for the defiled earth. Noah alone was in a position to offer such a sacrifice. The sins committed on the earth received atonement through the sacrifice of a goat.
The goat should, although a different word is used in Jubilees than in the Ethiopic Leviticus, remind us of Leviticus 16 and its ceremonies for the day of atonement which involved two goats, one for the Lord and one for Azazel. Azazel is intriguing in this connection because of the similarity between his name and the name of a leading angel in the Watcher story--Asael. Milik translates as: "Then, he sc. He was evidently not a simple he-goat, but a giant who combined goat-like characteristics and those of man.
It seems likely that the writer of Jubilees knew a version of the angel story in which Azazel played a part, but he modified it and turned it to his own purpose of establishing a legal and cultic precedent. He did not name Azazel, just as he did not name Shemihazah or any other angel. Note that the rest of the firstfruits belong to the priests, who are to eat them 'before the altar. The computation of the Feast of Weeks is different from the later prevalent Pharisaic reckoning see xv.
Finally, we might draw attention to the fact that the Pharisaic regulation about pouring water on the altar Jer. We know that the attempt of the Pharisees to enforce its adoption on Alexander Jannaeus resulted in a massacre of the former. Attention might also be drawn to the fact that the Priests and Levites still numbered in their ranks, as in the days of the author of Chronicles, the masters of the schools and the men of learning, and that these positions were not filled as in the days of Shammai and Hillel by men drawn from the laity.
This inference is to be deduced from the fact that the Levites are represented as the guardians of the sacred books and of the secret lore transmitted from the worthies of old time x. There is no evidence for determining the exact date of the Ethiopic version, but since it was practically regarded as a canonical book it was probably made in the sixth century. Ronsch, as we have already pointed out in 4, gives some evidence for regarding the Latin version as made in the fifth century.
Our book is the work of one author, but is largely based on earlier books and traditions. The narrative of Genesis forms of course the bulk of the book, but much that is characteristic in it is due to his use of many pseudepigraphic and ancient traditions. Amongst the former might be mentioned the Book of Noah, from which in a modified form he borrows vii. In vii. Similarly our author lays the Book of Enoch under contribution, and is of great value in this respect in determining the dates of the various sections of this book. See Introd. For other authorities and traditions used by our author see Charles's edition, The Chronicler rewrote with an object the earlier history of Israel and Judah already recounted in Samuel and Kings.
His object was to represent David and his pious successors as observing all the prescripts of the law according to the Priests' Code. In the course of this process all facts that did not square with the Chronicler's presuppositions were either omitted or transformed. Now the author of Jubilees sought to do for Genesis what the Chronicler had done for Samuel and Kings, and so he rewrote it in such a way as to show that the law was rigorously observed even by the Patriarchs.
The author represents his book to be as a whole a revelation of God to Moses, forming a supplement to and an interpretation of the Pentateuch, which he designates 'the first law' vi. This revelation was in part a secret republication of the traditions handed down from father to son in antediluvian and subsequent times. From the time of Moses onwards it was preserved in the hands of the priesthood, till the time came for its being made known. Our author's procedure is of course in direct antagonism with the presuppositions of the Priests' Code in Genesis, for according to this code 'Noah may build no altar, Abraham offer no sacrifice, Jacob erect no sacred pillar.
No offering is recorded till Aaron and his sons are ready' Carpenter, The Hexateuch, i. This fact seems to emphasize in the strongest manner how freely our author reinterpreted his authorities for the past. But he was only using to the full a right that had been exercised for nearly four centuries already in regard to Prophecy and for four or thereabouts in regard to the law. The object of our author was to defend Judaism against the disintegrating effects of Hellenism, and this he did a by glorifying the law as an eternal ordinance and representing the patriarchs as models of piety; b by glorifying Israel and insisting on its separation from the Gentiles; and e by denouncing the Gentiles and particularly Israel's national enemies.
In this last respect Judaism regarded its own attitude to the Gentiles as not only justifiable but also just, because it was a reflection of the divine. But on a it is to be observed further that to our author the law, as a whole, was the realization in time of what was in a sense timeless and eternal. It was observed not only on earth by Israel but in heaven. Parts of the law might have only a time reference, to Israel on earth, but in the privileges of circumcision and the Sabbath, as its highest and everlasting expression, the highest orders of archangels in heaven shared with Israel ii.
The law, therefore, was supreme, and could admit of no assessor in the form of Prophecy. There was no longer any prophet because the law had made the free exercise of his gift an offence against itself and God. So far, therefore, as Prophecy existed, it could exist only under the guise of pseudonymity. The seer, who had like Daniel and others a message for his time, could only gain a hearing by issuing it under the name of some ancient worthy.
Since our author was an upholder of the everlasting validity of the law, and held the strictest views on circumcision, the Sabbath, and the duty of complete separation from the Gentiles, since he believed in angels and demons and a blessed immortality, he was unquestionably a Pharisee of the strictest sect. In the next place, he was a supporter of the Maccabean pontificate. He glorifies Levi's successors as high-priests and civil rulers, and applies to them the title priests of the Most High God '-the title assumed by the Maccabean princes xxxii.
The Book of Jubilees
He was not, however, so thoroughgoing an admirer of this dynasty as the authors of Test. Finally, that our author was a priest might reasonably be inferred from the exaltation of Levi over Judah xxxi-xxxii , and from the statement in xlv. On the influence of Jubilees on I Enoch i-v, xci-civ, Wisdom? Freedom and determinism. The author of Jubilees is a true Pharisee in that he combines belief in Divine omnipotence and providence with the belief in human freedom and responsibility.
He would have adopted heartily the statement of the Pss. Thus the path in which a man should walk is ordained for him and the judgement of all men predetermined on the heavenly tablets: 'And the judgment of all is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets in righteousness -even the judgment of all who depart from the path which is ordained for them to walk in' v.
This idea of an absolute determinism underlies many conceptions of the heavenly tablets see Charles's edition, iii. On the other hand, man's freedom and responsibility are fully recognized: 'If they walk not therein, judgment is written down for every creature' v.
Else He will give thee back into the hand of thy transgression. The Fall. The effects of the Fall were limited to Adam and the animal creation. Adam was driven from the garden iii. But the subsequent depravity of the human race is not traced to the Fall but to the seduction of the daughters of men by the angels, who had been sent down to instruct men v. The evil engendered by the former was brought to an end by the destruction of all the descendants of the angels and of their victims by the Deluge, but the incitement to sin on the part of the demons was to last to the final judgement vii.
This last view appears in I Enoch and the N. The Law. The law was of eternal validity. It was not the expression of the religious consciousness of one or of several ages, but the revelation in time of what was valid from the beginning and unto all eternity. The various enactments of the law moral and ritual, were written on the heavenly tablets iii. This conception of the law, as I have already pointed out, made prophecy impossible unless under the guise of pseudonymity.
Since the law was the ultimate and complete expression of absolute truth, there was no room for any further revelation: much less could any such revelation, were it conceivable, supersede a single jot or tittle of the law as already revealed. The ideal of the faithful Jew was to be realized in the fulfilment of the moral and ritual precepts of this law: the latter were of no less importance than the former.
Though this view of morality tends to be mainly external, our author strikes a deeper note when he declares that, when Israel turned to God with their whole heart, He would circumcise the foreskin of their heart and create a right spirit within them and cleanse them, so that they would not turn away from Him for ever i. Our author specially emphasizes certain elements of the law such as circumcision xvi.
In connexion with many of these he enunciates halacha which belong to an earlier date than those in the Mishnah, but which were either modified or abrogated by later authorities. The Messiah. Although our author is an upholder of the Maccabean dynasty he still clings like the writer of I Enoch lxxxiii-xc to the hope of a Messiah sprung from Judah. He makes, however, only one reference to this Messiah, and no role of any importance is assigned to him see Charles's edition, xxxi. The Messianic expectation showed no vigorous life throughout this century till it was identified with the Maccabean family.
If we are right in regarding the Messianic kingdom as of temporary duration, this is the first instance in which the Messiah is associated with a temporary Messianic kingdom. The Messianic kingdom. According to our author i. Its members were to attain to the full limit of 1, years in happiness and peace. During its continuance the powers of evil were to be restrained xxiii. The last judgement was apparently to take place at its close xxiii.
This view was possibly derived from Mazdeism. The writer of Jubilees, we can hardly doubt, thought that the era of the Messianic kingdom had already set in. Such an expectation was often cherished in the prosperous days of the Maccabees.
Thus it was entertained by the writer of I Enoch lxxxiii-xc in the days of Judas before B. Whether Jonathan was looked upon as the divine agent for introducing the kingdom we cannot say, but as to Simon being regarded in this light there is no doubt. Indeed, his contemporaries came to regard him as the Messiah himself, as we see from Psalm cx, or Hyrcanus in the noble Messianic hymn in Test. Levi The tame effus1on in 1 Macc. Simon was succeeded by John Hyrcanus in B.
Levi 8 he embraced in his own person the triple office of prophet, priest, and civil ruler xxxi. Reuben 6 he was to 'die on behalf of Israel in wars seen and unseen'. In both these passages he seems to be accorded the Messianic office, but not so in our author, as we have seen above.
Hyrcanus is only to introduce the Messianic kingdom, over which the Messiah sprung from Judah is to rule. Priesthood of Melchizedek. That there was originally an account of Melchizedek in our text we have shown in the note on xiii. It would be interesting to inquire how far the writer of Hebrews was indebted to the history of the great Maccabean king-priests for the idea of the Melchizedekian priesthood of which he has made so fruitful a use in chap.
Jubilees, Book of
The Future Life. In our text all hope of a resurrection of the body is abandoned. The souls of the righteous will enjoy a blessed immortality after death xxiii. This is the earliest attested instance of this expectation in the last two centuries B. It is next found in Enoch xci-civ. The Jewish Calendar.
For our author's peculiar views see Charles's edition 18 and the notes on vi. We shall confine our attention here to notable parallels between our author and the New Testament. Besides the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification there are the angels who are set over natural phenomena ii. These angels are inferior to the former. They do not observe the Sabbath as the higher orders; for they are necessarily always engaged in their duties ii.
It is the higher orders that are generally referred to in the New Testament but the angels over natural phenomena are referred to in Revelation: angels of the winds in vii. Again, the guardian angels of individuals, which the New Testament refers to in Matt. On the angelology of our author see Charles's edition. Their fall and punishment are recorded in Jub. These demons attacked men and ruled over them x. Their purpose is to corrupt and lead astray and destroy the wicked x.
They are subject to the prince Mastema x. Men sacrifice to them as gods xxii. They are to pursue their work of moral ruin till the judgement of Mastema x. So in the New Testament, the demons are disembodied spirits Matt. Their chief is Satan Mark iii. They are treated as divinities of the heathen I Cor. They are not to be punished till the final judgement Matt.
On the advent of the Millennium Satan will be bound Rev. The doctrine of retribution is strongly enforced by our author. It is to be individual and national in this world and in the next. As regards the individual the law of exact retribution is according to our author not merely an enactment of human justice -the ancient lox talionis, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; it is observed by God in His government of the world.
The penalty follows in the line of the sin. This view is enforced in 2 Macc. So also in our text in reference to Cain iv. Taken crassly and mechanically the above law is without foundation, but spiritually conceived it represented the profound truth of the kinship of the penalty to the sin enunciated repeatedly in the New Testament: 'Whatsoever a man sows that shall he also reap' Gal.
Again in certain cases the punishment was to follow instantaneously on the transgression xxxvii. The final judgement was to take place at the close of the Messianic kingdom xxiii. This judgement embraces the human and superhuman worlds v. At this judgement there will be no respect of persons, but all will be judged according to their opportunities and abilities v. From the standpoint of our author there could be no hope for the Gentiles.
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Charles from four MSS. Latin Version: see above, 4 a. Dillrnann, Das Buch der Jubilaen. This translation is based on only one MS. Jewish Quarterly Review, , v. This translation is based on Charles's text. Charles, The Book ofjubilees, Ronsch published a Commentary on the Latin Version. See above, 4. Dillmann, 'Pseudepigraphen des A. Kritiken, , For a full bibliography see Charles's Commentary or Schurer. Charles will not be given due to length and difficulty in scanning and editing. If this information is desired, please see his book. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their year weeks, of their Jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as he said unto him, 'Go up to the top of the Mount.
And He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud, and the appearance of the glory of the 4 Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the mount. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history of the division of all the days 5 of the law and of the testimony. And He said: 'Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covenant 6 which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai.
And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognise that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognise that 7 I have been truly with them. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto, thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: ' Unto your seed 8 will I give a land flowing with milk and honey.
And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to gods which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. For they will forget all My commandments, even all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles, and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will 10 prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare.
And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordinances and My commandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set my name 11 upon it, and that it should dwell there. And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own graven image , so as to go astray, and they 12 will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts.
And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change 13 everything so as to work evil before My eyes.
And I will hide My face from them, and I will deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I will remove them from the midst of the land, and I will scatter them amongst the Gentiles. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength, and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek me, so 16 that I shall be found of them, when they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul.
And I will disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I will remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul, and they shall be for a blessing and not for 17 a curse, and they shall be the head and not the tail. And I will build My sanctuary in their midst, and I will dwell with them, and I will be their God and they shall be My people in truth and 18, 19 righteousness.
And I will not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God. Let thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit, and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them 21 from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face.
But they are Thy people and Thy inheritance, which thou hast delivered with thy great power from the hands of the Egyptians: create in them a clean heart and a holy spirit, and let them not be ensnared in 22 their sins from henceforth until eternity. And after this they will turn to Me in all uprightness and with all their heart and with all their soul, and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I will create in them a holy spirit, and I will cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity.
And they all shall be called children of the living God, and every angel and every spirit shall know, yea, they shall know that these are My children, and that I am their Father in uprightness and righteousness, and that 26 I love them. And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell 27 with them throughout eternity.
And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all shall know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all the children of Jacob, and King on Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem shall 29 be holy. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before him -the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer and of all the spirits of his creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, He created the abysses and the darkness, eventide and night , and the light, dawn and day, which He hath 3 prepared in the knowledge of his heart.
And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day. And this was the only work God created 5 on the second day. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of 6 the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear.
And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, 7 and the dry land appeared. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth, and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden 8 and all. These four great works God created on the third day.
And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the 9 light from the darkness. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and 10 for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth.
These three kinds He made on the fourth day. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by his hands, the fish and everything that moves in the 12 waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. And the sun rose above them to prosper them , and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all 13 fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh.
These three kinds He created on the fifth day. And on the sixth day 14 He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave 15 him dominion.
And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. And there were altogether 16 two and twenty kinds. And He finished all his work on the sixth day -all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in 17 everything. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but 18 keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. And all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes -He hath bidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him 19 in heaven and on earth.
And He said unto us: 'Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these shall keep the Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify it unto 20 Myself, even so will I bless them, and they shall be My people and I will be their God. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My first-born son,and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; and I will teach them the 21 Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work.
And He caused His commands to ascend as a sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days. And to this Jacob and his seed it was granted that they should always be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony 25 and law, even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day. He created heaven and earth and everything that He created in six days, and God made the seventh day holy, for all His works; therefore He commanded on its behalf that, whoever does any work thereon 26 shall die, and that he who defiles it shall surely die.
Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe this day that they may keep it holy and not do thereon any work, and not to 27 defile it, as it is holier than all other days. And whoever profanes it shall surely die, and whoever does thereon any work shall surely die eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land; for it is a holy day and a blessed 28 day.
And every one who observes it and keeps Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy and 29 blessed throughout all days like unto us. Declare and say to the children of Israel the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of their hearts; and that it is not lawful to do any work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or drunk, and that it is not lawful to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their gates any burden, 30 which they had not prepared for themselves on the sixth day in their dwellings.
And they shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on that day; for that day is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the jubilees; on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens before it was made 31 known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. And the Creator of all things blessed it, but he did not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone: them 32 alone he permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. And the Creator of all things blessed this day which He had created for blessing and holiness and glory above all 33 days.
This law and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever unto their generations. And the Lord said unto us: 'It is not 5 good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 'This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called 7 [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband.
In the first week was Adam created, and the rib -his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, 9 for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the garden 10 of Eden. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tablets in regard to her that gives birth: 'if she bears a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first week of days, and thirty and three days shall she remain in the blood of her purifying, and she shall not touch any hallowed thing, nor enter into the sanctuary, until she accomplishes these 11 days which are enjoined in the case of a male child.
But in the case of a female child she shall remain in her uncleanness two weeks of days, according to the first two weeks, and sixty-six days 12 in the blood of her purification, and they will be in all eighty days. Therefore, there was ordained regarding her who bears a male or a female child the statute of those days that she should touch no hallowed thing, nor 14 enter into the sanctuary until these days for the male or female child are accomplished.
This is the law and testimony which was written down for Israel, in order that they should observe it all the 15 days. And in the first week of the first jubilee, [ A.
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And he tilled the garden , and was naked and knew it not, and was not ashamed, and he protected the garden from the birds and beasts and cattle, and gathered its fruit, and eat, and put aside the residue for himself and for his wife [and put aside that which was 17 being kept]. And after the completion of the seven years, which he had completed there, seven years exactly, [8 A.
And the woman saw the tree that it was agreeable and pleasant to the eye, and that its fruit 21 was good for food, and she took thereof and eat. And when she had first covered her shame with figleaves, she gave thereof to Adam and he eat, and his eyes were opened, and he saw that he was 22 naked. And he took figleaves and sewed them together, and made an apron for himself, and 23, 24 covered his shame. And God cursed the serpent, and was wroth with it for ever.
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And He was wroth with the woman, because she harkened to the voice of the serpent, and did eat; and He said unto her: 'I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy pains: in sorrow thou shalt bring forth 25 children, and thy return shall be unto thy husband, and he will rule over thee. And on that day on which Adam went forth from the Garden, he offered as a sweet savour an offering, frankincense, galbanum, and stacte, and spices in the morning with the 28 rising of the sun from the day when he covered his shame.
And on that day was closed the mouth of all beasts, and of cattle, and of birds, and of whatever walks, and of whatever moves, so that they could no longer speak: for they had all spoken one with another with one lip and with one tongue. And to Adam alone did He give the wherewithal to cover his shame, of all the beasts and 31 cattle. On this account, it is prescribed on the heavenly tablets as touching all those who know the judgment of the law, that they should cover their shame, and should not uncover themselves as the 32 Gentiles uncover themselves.
And on the new moon of the fourth month, Adam and his wife went 33 forth from the Garden of Eden, and they dwelt in the land of Elda in the land of their creation. And 34 Adam called the name of his wife Eve. And they had no son till the first jubilee, [8 A. Now he tilled the land as he had been instructed in the Garden of Eden. And in the first year of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because God accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept 3 the offering of Cain. Davies only. The Protestant principle that the Bible is simultaneously the Word of God and word of men compels us to pay attention to the way literature is created as well, its reception history, and the way authority was conferred upon it through time by the actions of humans.
The borders of canon were permeated by so many groups under so many different circumstances that it is no longer possible to speak of 'the' one single canon. We only have different forms of the same Bible. To understand this phenomenon we shall have to study the canon from an emic as well as an etic perspective. Different aspects can be studied from these two advantage points. In the history of canonical criticism Childs 16 gave priority to the shape of the biblical canon.
He saw the biblical canon as norma normata for faith. On the other hand Sanders chose for the process of canon forming the main object as being canon criticism. In essence, his approach gives attention to both the emic as well as the etic aspects of canon. Sanders agrees that there is a 'hermeneutical shape to the Jewish and Christian canons'. However, this shape is driven by the thrust of 'theocentric monotheizing pluralism' Sanders At the back of the process of forming a canon to function as norma normans there was always 'the unrecorded hermeneutics that lie amongst all the pages of Scripture, and What is needed therefore is a study of intertextuality within the context of a canon.
Aichele addressed the problem of the ideological aspect of forming a canon. This is a factor that played a role right from the beginning up to today. Ideological forces have been driving the forming of a canon from the beginning, and are still controlling the use of a canon. An existing text is 'recycled' by the reader by understanding the text in relation to him or herself and their community. The reader and the community are always informed by an ideology - that is, a faith or system of beliefs. In this way an intertextual network is formed between text and the situation in which the readers are situated cf.
Even within the canonical text itself an 'intertext' can be formed by using a so-called canon within the canon. Each individual text of the canon does not carry equal weight, because the intertextual formula acts as norm to discriminate between texts.
This process of intertextuality then 'controls which texts are legitimately to be considered as authoritative scripture, sanctioning authoritative intertexts to the reading and interpretation of each of the texts incorporated within it' Lundhaug The concept of intertextuality in its reader-centred form 'can therefore be a useful tool for conceptualizing the functions of a canon' Lundhaug Intertextuality is located in the reader's mind from where it activates a dialogical interplay between reader and texts and between two or more texts.
In this way intertextuality can create a heuristic pattern for understanding and interpreting the Bible. I indicated elsewhere Venter , that the study of intertextuality usually focuses on two aspects of the process: those of aesthetical production and of polylogy. In aesthetical intertextuality the production of texts takes place when existing literature is used to form new texts.
Existing texts are quoted or combined with a new set of words into new texts. Here selection paradigmatic use of words as well as a combination syntagmatic use of words is found. This can take many forms: 'quotation, paraphrase, resume, commentary, criticism, interpretation, allusion, parody and even pastiche' Venter Intertextuality is always present either obviously linking a new text to other existing texts, or symptomatic where the relationship is still visible, although no direct indications are present.
According to Kristeva's theory every 'text' is influenced by a multiplicity of 'texts' and by several ideas which are either re-read, condensed, replaced or deepened into a new form. Codification of the social system takes place by using language, relevant contents and structuring those contents and presenting them in a document. The reader creatively forms a new combination of elements by 'hypo-codifying' a term coined by Umberto Eco the texts he or she consulted into a new codification.
This deconstructionist exercise is the result of the dialogistic aspect of speech act cf. Venter Both of these aspects, indicated above, were present during the process of forming a biblical canon. These three levels are those of the history of a separate book, the collection of material, and the socio-historic context in which the process takes place. The final form of the Masoretic Bible is an example of how the collection of material took place.
Each of these books represents a history of its own, ranging from original oral traditions to a final written text. The Dead Sea Scrolls revealed that there were stages in which 'the text of the separate books of scripture was pluriform and still creatively developing, prior to the period of a single text for each book' Ulrich Each of these books is the layered end result of a dialogical cognitive 'process in which each new phase of its literary growth was undertaken in dialogue' Venter with the existing form s of that unit and in dialogue with the context of the people who handed it down.
As will be indicated below the theories of Fishbane and Fisk , are quite helpful in this regard. Secondly, the selection and combination of these books into an eventual fixed and final form can be attributed to the ideological decision of one or other group. It represents their view of what can be deemed as authoritative and what not. This process took place in interaction with other groups that compiled their own final collection and the collections they decided upon. This indicates an aesthetic as well as a polylogic intertextual process of dialogue between different theological opinions found in the traditional texts and the viewpoints of religious peer groups cf.
Venter for this argument. Thirdly, dialogue and intertextuality with the tradition of the books and the decision on the books to be collected, took place in a socio-historical context. The following factors played a very large role in the forming of a specific canon: revision of the tradition, additions to it, omissions of material, compilation of different books and editing the final collection. This happened to comply with a large array of social factors.
Here the aspect of 'polylogic intertextuality' Venter was dominant. These three levels which I indicated as being a 'dialogical composite cognitive process' Venter , an 'ideological choice' Venter and dialogue with the socio-historical context cf. Venter in which both aspects of intertextual aesthetical production and polylogy played a role, can now be applied to the phenomenon of canonicity. The forming of a canon as well as the use of a fixed canon was always a dynamic process. It was acknowledged in the 19th century already that the textual versions of the Septuagint, Targum and Samaritan Pentateuch were translations of one or other form of Hebrew Bible available to the translators.
They did their work within the context of specific social and theological concerns. What is even more, it was acknowledged that the eventual Hebrew Bible itself is the product of reworking cf. Fishbane The text cannot be read on a single level, because it is the layered end result of a long process in which interpretation and exegesis played a role. Fishbane used the terms traditum [ inherited tradition] and traditio [literary transformation] to study this process.
Traditum is used to indicate the end result of this long and varied process of transmission. When this received traditum is interpreted, this process is called traditio cf. Once the traditio was fixed and became a standardised text as traditum, it led to new interpretations again called traditio. This process is inherent to the biblical text itself. As fixed canon it always induces new interpretations. This phenomenon of reworking and supplementing original authoritative texts is found in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Whilst Fishbane focused on the inner-biblical flow from traditum to traditio, Fisk focused on the re-use of the already coagulated traditum in extra-biblical material.
Fisk proposed that there is a substantial and organic continuity between the earlier exegesis already found in the Bible and the later rabbinic strategies of interpreting scripture. This type of exegesis can also be found in the Bible itself, in Samuel-Kings as well as in the work of the Chronicler.
It was continued in extra-biblical material in what Vermez coined 'rewritten Bible', or 'para-biblical writings' Trebolle-Barrera Fisk cf. Fisk developed a model to indicate the relationship between traditum and traditio. He indicated that a large variety of factors contributed to the gravitational pull from traditum to traditio. It could take any of four directions. The focus can fall on either the traditum or the traditio. When dynamic traditio is in the foreground either free use can be made of the traditum or the traditum can be negated.
When a static traditum is in the foreground the traditum can either be explicated or transformed. Within these four quadrants 'we might plot virtually any instance of inner-biblical exegesis, intertextual echo and midrashic reading' Fisk Several external factors also contributed to this dynamic process, such as politics, culture and history.
Fisk refers to 'general patterns of interaction between exegesis and social context. The Book of Jubilees. We can apply these theories to literature that obviously used older materials represented in present-day canons. In that literature the existing materials were dynamically made into new traditio. Wintermute described Jubilees 'as a Midrashic reflection on Exodus '.
It overlaps with the materials in Genesis to Exodus The available text s of Genesis and Exodus were used as basis and complemented with some other contemporary materials. Jubilees has a homiletically character, paying careful attention to the text, and adapted to contemporary circumstances. Different techniques were used, 'such as choosing key points, omission, transformation, halakhic interpolations, addition of material, condensing freely, expurgating, explaining, supplementing and sometimes radically recasting the biblical episodes' Venter ; cf.
In this way a particular understanding of the original document was presented. The author s made several additions to the biblical text where it lacks sufficient detail to serve the author's concern, especially with regard to the sacred calendar cf. Endres Wintermute is of opinion that these additions consisted of 'a considerable amount of traditional material which came to him in either written or oral form. A probable profile of the author s can be drawn when the book is studied on an intertextual level. She or he belonged to a group who served priestly and pedagogical concerns.
The idea of retribution was very prominent amongst the members. An apocalyptic viewpoint is found all through the book. There was some type of crisis, namely: which calendar was to be followed in the cult in her time. Mixed marriages were also of great concern to her. The viewpoint on these was used to formulate what it meant to be holy. This viewpoint existed independently and parallel to other contemporary traditions. Along with these alternative views on calendar and marriage, large influence was exerted on the Essene-Qumran community. The nationalism of the book and the effort to continue the Moses tradition combined with an apocalyptic viewpoint put him or them near the central stream of Judaism.
According to Vermes three types of applied exegesis can be indicated in the Book of Jubilees: 'fulfilment-interpretation,' 'pure exegesis' and application of geographical terms. According to Endres these changes can help to characterise the time in which the book was written. An example of the way in which existing traditum was used to form new traditio in Jubilees can be found in the exceptionally layered text of Jubilees In this chapter the report on Abraham's death in Genesis is used to present a viewpoint on 'the theological meaning of Israel's history between creation and Moses' receiving of the law at Sinai' Venter History is interpreted in terms of a heptadic jubilee system.
In Psalm 90 longevity is understood in terms of declining followed by inclining in human age. It is also interpreted according to the traditional Deuteronomistic retributive scheme of sin-punishment-repentance-salvation. Finally the author superimposed an eschatological-apocalyptic expectation on this intertextual creation. It is expected that in the last days everybody will be obey the law of God.
In the biblical source text the present Gn the narrative of Abraham's marriage to Keturah is directly followed by a report on Abraham's death and his burial Gn Then there follows a list of Ishmael's descendants Gn In the Book of Jubilees the first narrative on Abraham and Keturah and the third story on Ishmael's offspring are left out.
The Genesis text does not give any information on this decline. However, the information in Genesis that Abraham lived a total of years is reflected in Jubilees and Here totally different numbers and units are used: three jubilees and four weeks of years. The Book of Jubilees uses heptadic units of seven week years. Added together this is the equivalent of the years in Genesis text cf. In Jubilees the significant events in Israel's history, outlined in Genesis and Exodus, are calculated according to a year scheme.
This scheme works with the units of 'jubilees', 'week years' and 'years'. This chronological scheme was inter alia 'used to indicate that the past is orderly and calculable because it has been arranged by God' Venter - from this follows that the future can also be calculated. One can therefore know where you fit into the divine plan of history cf. VanderKam Next to re-calculating history with the use of a heptadic scheme, Jubilees used Psalm 90 22 to indicate a decreasing tendency in man's lifespan, followed by a future incline.
At the start of the unit and at the end , reference is made to a long life of 19 jubilees of years years. To solve the problem the author referred to Psalm 'The days of our life are seventy years, or perhaps eighty, if we are strong; even then their span is only toil and trouble. Therefore Abraham shared in the Mitschuld [shared guilt] of his people. There was no way in which he could escape from God's judgement on human sin.
In the heading of Psalm 90 Moses is indicated as the author. According to the Book of Jubilees it is revealed to Moses 23 that God's wrath is manifested in the brevity of life. However, in future people will start to live longer. A slow increase will occur in longevity until it approaches a thousand years Jub again. A parabolic line is formed in longevity cf. This scheme of decline-incline fits in with the next scheme the author used. Jubilees is structured according to a 'Deuteronomistic Patterning' Endres This often-used scheme, found in Deuteronomy especially in Deuteronomy , takes the form of a retributive historical schema.
It consists of the consecutive elements of sin, punishment, penitence and salvation. Jubilees is divided into the following sections: sin , punishment , penitence , and salvation This scheme is imposed upon the events between creation and new creation described in the book. The heptadic history is also interpreted in terms of the covenantal stipulations of retribution. This scheme enables the author to end off on an eschatological note when redemption will take place.
Jubilees presents an eschatological perspective. In the final stage, the 'end time' people will start to obey the law. Their days will begin to increase and they will live longer Jub , even approaching a thousand years Jub The eschatological poem in Jubilees , probably inserted in the prose section of Jubilees by a redactor cf. Davenport , uses typical eschatological ideas to sketch a wonderful time when all suffering will be replaced by peace.
The author presented an eschatological vision for the community of his time in which he:. We can no longer identify all the sources used by the author s. Neither can we any longer indicate correctly which form of the scriptures she or he used.
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Something can be seen by the techniques he used and the purpose s he had in mind. Only 'general patterns of interaction between exegesis and social context' Fisk can be indicated. One of the primary goals of Jubilees was 'to make the ancient text speaks [ sic] more directly to contemporary concerns' VanderKam Living in a time of crisis and in conflict with the established priestly corps, she or he interpreted the traditum s available to analyse the contemporary situation.
A heptadic-retributional-eschatologic heuristic scheme is used to help the hearers to survive in a time of infliction.