Considering that, the study goal was to analyze the psychometric properties of IDEA in a Brazilian sample. This step of analysis is part of a broader study, focusing on investigating the EA phenomenon in a Southern Brazilian sample. The measure may be used as a tool of investigation of EA in Brazil, and as reference to compare the measure factor structure in different countries. To include young individuals from differing SESs, different institutions were selected in the process of recruiting participants: a two technology courses; b three universities; c two courses focused on preparing students from low SES to the university entrance exam; and d two schools that work with young individuals and adults with limited or no previous education e.
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The study questionnaire and instruments were digitalized and applied by two methods: online i. In both cases, the instruments were self-administered. The first step was an independent translation into Portuguese by the first author. The version was reviewed by two bilingual judges, who had no knowledge about the instrument. They compared the original version in English with the version translated into Portuguese, and their suggestions for change were made.
The revised version in Brazilian Portuguese was then back translated into English by a researcher in U. After that, the same version was reviewed and back translated into English by two bilingual judges, both fluent speakers in Brazilian Portuguese and English. The back translated version was similar to the original.
Based on their suggestions, the items "time to prepare yourself for adulthood" and "time of professional decisions" were included. The first item aimed to access in which extent becoming an adult configures a societal expectation in relation to young people.
The second item aimed to consider topics related to profession and career, which are central for young Brazilians. The ANPEPP group suggested a replacement of the translation into Portuguese of the item 13 from the original instrument "time of settling down", translated into Portuguese as " tempo de se estabelecer ". They proposed a translation into " tempo de consolidar projetos de vida ", equivalent in English to "time to consolidate life projects". The new translation would avoid inadequate interpretations considering the term "settling down" does not have an equivalent in Portuguese.
Values of the WRMR below. Because of that, an Exploratory Factor Analysis EFA was performed on the 33 self-report IDEA items 31 original plus the two Brazilian items , considering the importance of evaluating the factorial structure of the measure in the Brazilian sample. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha index Cronbach, The number of factors extracted was based on the following criteria: a instrument theoretical background; b Kaiser criteria the maximum number of factors extracted must have eigenvalues higher than one ; c Scree plot, a graphic showing the eigenvalues on the y-axis and the number of factors on the x-axis in a downward curve.
These eight factors accounted for Communalities of the 33 items presented a range of.
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According to the scree-plot test, eight factors also emerged. The parallel analysis see Figure 1 suggested that a six factor solution was most representative of the data. Built upon the theoretical structure of the original study Reifman et al. However, although the number of factors was equal, they presented a different composition, when compared to the original instrument, especially in relation to Factor 2 Self-focused.
Six items loaded significantly i. There were differences and similarities in relation to the original measure. The items "Separating from parents" item 23 and "Planning for the future" item 25 , loaded on the factor "Self-focused" but not on the Factor "Identity exploration". The items "Optimism" item 10 , "Open choices" item 16 , "Trying out new things" item 21 presented factor loadings lower than. The item "Settling down" item 13 pertained to the factor "Other-focused" in the original scale, and loaded on the factor "Selffocused" in the Brazilian sample.
The Brazilian items added were "Time to prepare yourself to adulthood" item 32 and "Time of professional decisions" item The first one loaded on the "Feeling-in-between", and the second one was removed due to a factor loading lower than. Subsequently, an EFA was reconducted and the item "Planning for the future" item 25 moved back to the Factor "Identity exploration". The original reliability scale Cronbach's alpha was 0. In Brazil, Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the six subscales ranged from.
The full-scale Cronbach's alpha reliability was. The investigation of the factorial structure of IDEA in Brazil brought a significant contribution for researchers interested in studying the process of transition to adulthood in the country. Investigators may use the measure, which was adapted to Brazilian contextual characteristics.
In the Brazilian sample, the item "Separating from parents" item 23 loaded on the Factor Self-focused but not on the Factor Identity exploration, like in the original measure. It is possible to analyze this new structure in two different ways. First, the factor Identity exploration contains items related to psychological self-exploration, such as "Finding out who you are" item 12 , "Defining yourself" item 24 , "Seeking a sense of meaning" item 26 , "Deciding on your own beliefs and values" item 27 , and "Learning to think for yourself" item The item "separating from parents" item 23 differ from this logic, since they may represent self-focused attitudes and are not necessarily associated with psychological self-exploration.
Different from U. This also seems to hold true in Argentina, where young individuals did not consider EA as the age for leaving home Facio et al. North Americans usually leave home to start the university or simply to be independent, and it is expected they move out of home earlier. However, recently the residential status in U. The item "separating from parents" item 23 may also be associated with reaching autonomy and being able to support yourself, emotionally and financially.
However, contextual problems e. The item "Optimism" item 10 presented factor loading lower than. The items "Open choices" item 16 and "Trying out new things" item 21 did not load significantly in the Brazilian sample, which may reflect contextual specificities. It may reflect two aspects: a a problem of translation of the item because there is not an equivalent term in Brazilian Portuguese; b that the process of settling down does not explicitly relate to commitments to other people. Defining personal plans may be a decision made alone, despite the fact that it possibly includes commitment to others e.
It is also possible to consider Self-focused and Other-focused dimensions as a unit of opposites in Brazil. For instance, a young man could be investing on professional training in order to get a better job position and, consequently be able to provide his family better conditions of living.
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In this case, a Self-focused would relate to an Other-focused goal. In Turkey, authors removed the dimension Other-focused because items presented factor loadings lower than. The first one loaded on the Factor Feeling-in-between, which converged to EA theory, because the process of preparing yourself to adulthood leads individuals to feel ambivalent Arnett, The second one was removed due to factor loading lower than. Participants may have understood that a professional choice in their personal life happened before in Brazil, and did not associate "Time of professional decisions" with a gradual transition to adulthood.
The results reflected the new IDEA structure in the Southern-Brazilian sample, and the necessity of reviewing the original measure. No matter how their current life is, they always believe they will reach the life they envision Arnett, , , This Factor was originally composed of items "Many possibilities" item 1 , "Exploration" item 2 , "Experimentation" item 4 , "Open choices" item 16 , and "Trying out new things" item In the original instrument, the item "Optimism" item 10 pertained to the category Self-focused. In Brazil, the item "Optimism" presented factor loading lower than.
For future studies, researchers using the IDEA should consider the possibility of maintaining all IDEA's original items, allowing for future comparisons between samples from different countries. And also, that the original IDEA scale dates from Since then, social and economic aspects influenced the process of transition to adulthood in different countries e.
Finally, results found in the Brazilian sample may serve as reference point to improve the measure, when used in different countries and even in other Brazilian regions. Arnett, J. Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55 , Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties.
New York: Oxford University Press. Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for? Child Development Perspectives, 1 , Emerging adulthood s : The cultural psychology of a new life stage. Lene Ed. Oxford, UK: University Press. Atak, H. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 7 , Cervini Eds. Borges, C. Psico, 40 1 , Camarano, A. Trabalho infantil produtivo e desenvolvimento humano [Child productive labor and development]. Psicologia em Estudo, 8 , Costello, A. Best practices in Exploratory Factor Analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis.
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