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The fourteen children had been selected out of one hundred due to the different measurements of their heads. According to Binet,.

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By examining these 14 physiognomies, the reader will realise the kind of individual differences that I have found in my subjects. I invite the reader to guess who are, in the group, the most intelligent subjects. This judgement will benefit from the comparison with other physiognomies, while it will encounter more difficulties due to the immobility of the heads and their conventional expression — the living being always more evocative than the photographic portrait.

This paragraph is the only reference to the photograph in the whole article, which went on to discuss calculations on seriation and the average of each of the measurements. The photograph, however, compared children to children. The image was not about measurements, but about sizes. The reader could only perceive whose head was bigger, and whose was smaller. This visual exercise was not intended to display the measurements of body parts, but to demonstrate how difficult it was to evaluate the intelligence of children through photographic documents.

Free of copyright. As head of the Psychology laboratory at the Sorbonne, Binet favoured normal psychology. The two images, which were included to support the conclusions of the research, were compared to the traces of nasal breathing taken by a pneumograph visible in the photograph.

The images did not play any role in the experiment itself or intervene in the results, but only attested to the fact that the experiment had been performed. Firstly, they showed students in a normal environment not the clinic , focusing again on the normal aspects of psychology. In the case of experiments, this was particularly important, as photographs made the readers participants in the interpretation of the results. Revue had been founded by Ribot, considered the father of experimental psychology in France, and proponent of the use of the pathological method.

It almost never published photographs. The effects of the faradisation did not last for too long, and were available only to those who observed the experiment. Photography froze the expressions achieved by faradisation, allowing viewers to interpret those expressions, and therefore understanding the role of specific muscles and nerves in producing them. By making these photographs available in the press, the results of the experiment were open for discussion.

Reprinted in Dumas, La Vie Affective. Nouvelle and Revue , therefore, integrated photographs into their arguments because they believed readers could interpret visual evidence for their own purposes. Once again, visualising the body was key in these journals. Reading the signs of the body was not only a concern in medical journals. The popular press, and in particular the journals specialising in theatre, also sought to provide readers the means to interpret the inner life of the people portrayed in them.

Photographing actors onstage had remained a challenge until the development of the magnesium flash in the late s. Firstly, it produced a continuous source of light, which allowed actors to get used to the light before the shutter was released. Secondly, several lamps could be linked to each other, so the light covered large stages. Acte 1. Dubose , Miranday M. Bibliotheque Nationale de France. La Nature , a popular science periodical founded by Gaston Tissandier, often disseminated the latest photographic procedures, such as colour and instantaneous photography.

The innovations in this field were duly reported by La Nature , which took a great interest in the scientific explanations of artificial lighting. As usual in this journal, the photograph was reproduced as a facsimile of an engraving.

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As Belknap has argued, the fact that the image was consumed by the public as an engraving did not dismiss its authority, as it had been reproduced from a photograph. The engraving fulfilled the aims of the article. Popular and scientific journals tackled the application of artificial lighting to photography in the s in different but complementary ways.

While the scientific press was more concerned about the technological procedures that made the photography of actors possible, the popular press was interested in the resulting images. These two aspects of the same problem were very rarely addressed in the same space. An exception to this rule is Photo-Journal , a specialised photographic journal which combined theatrical reviews, discussions of technical aspects of photography including artificial lighting and good quality images, reproduced through the photo-mechanical process.

Contributors to La Nature also hoped that this new procedure would be able to make good images of theatrical representations, and the photographers writing in Bulletin also congratulated Boyer for his work in achieving this aim. While their approaches differed, scientific, popular and photographic journals shared the same concerns regarding the use of photography as a means to understanding the external signs of the body. In this regard, the discussions on artificial lighting and the images of theatrical representations were not very different from the debates in the medical press previously examined.

Besides artificial lighting, the other photographic technology widely discussed in the French press was instantaneous photography, and particularly chronophotography. First invented by Eadweard Muybridge in , chronophotography was the taking of several instantaneous images at regular short intervals of time to capture a subject in movement. Around , Londe took several chronophotographs intended to help artists to represent nature and the human body in an accurate way.

Among these images, Londe portrayed an acrobat kneeling on the trapeze. In this regard, the conversation around chronophotography was similar to the discussions on artificial lighting previously examined.

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In the case of Nouvelle , the link with chronophotography was evident. However, the visualisation of movement followed different principles in each case: while Marey intended to measure the direction and speed of movement, Londe wanted to reveal the external changes in the muscles produced by movement. Marey constructed a single lens camera that analysed movement by capturing a succession of photographic images, and synthesised it through its filmic projection.

The figures were recorded on the same plate, which often produced overlaps. In contrast, Londe was interested in the external shape of the body. While the direction of the movement was important in cases of pathological locomotion, in the studies of normal physiology the focus was on the visible changes experienced by the muscles.

To this end, Londe built a camera with twelve shutters that were shot successively on the same plate. Unlike Marey, Londe sought to highlight the body of the subject, and photographed the subjects naked against a grey background. Even if Richer's project was on physiology and not pathology, this method followed the principles of the anatomo-clinical medicine.

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The only outlet that frequently published works by both authors was La Nature , which took a broad approach to science and never identified with a single school of thought. Journals, therefore, became a privileged site not only to discuss the technical details and potential uses of chronophotography, but also the different disciplinary approaches to the visualisation of the body in movement.

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She was awarded the Turner Prize Martha Kirszenbaum was born in Vitry-sur-Seine France in She is a curator and writer based in Paris and Los Angeles.