Show Less Restricted access. Modern states — and novel multinational polities such as the European Union — have to contend with greater degrees, and more complex forms, of diversity. What are the ties that bind people together in a world where they cannot rely on the safety of established national identifications if they ever could? This collection of essays by leading political scientists, philosophers and legal academics from Canada and Europe provides a transatlantic dialogue on the ways in which complex states such as Canada and non-states the EU may broach the modes of difference and diversity that confront them.
Buy Print Book. Currency depends on your shipping address. Political Belonging in Post-national Europe — Sophie Heine : National versus postnational ou communautarisme versus cosmopolitisme? A Canadian Perspective — Keith G. Banting : Le contre-exemple canadien.
Multiculturalisme, reconnaissance et redistribution. The issue of disclosure exists in a much broader context. The Bayh-Dole Act of gave universities the right to patent or license their inventions that were created with federal money. Since then, academia has chosen to pursue vigorously its new-found freedom. The ties between academics and industry--faculty members are allowed a percentage of royalties--have grown.
Benefits to society are widely acknowledged: new drugs to cure disease or electronics that lead to faster computers. Scholarly journals are deciding how to cope with the increasing number of scientists who have a financial stake in their research. But the potential downside--the loss of the perhaps mythic notion of the university as a bastion of disinterested knowledge--has become the focus of increasingly intensive debate.
In , hearings by a subcommittee of the U. Committee on Government Operations resulted in guidelines for the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. The issue took on a higher profile in when both the U.
Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation issued guidelines to prevent financial conflicts of interest in federal grant applications. Fraud is not necessarily the foremost concern, although one that certainly cannot be discounted. Perhaps the most pressing issue is whether involvement with a small biotechnology firm, for instance, can lead researchers to downplay relevant data--perhaps a potentially troubling side effect.
Reviewers of a publication then need to know about ties with industry, as it may bear directly on the evaluation of research.
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Editors of a journal need to choose unbiased reviewers. The need for openness suggests that the nature of scientific publishing must change.
Ties That Bind
It must serve as a medium beyond just reporting research methods and evaluation of results to other scientists. In this respect, the media, as a pipeline to the general public, needs to be apprised of financial ties. And financial analysts may want to weigh information about the background of a researcher in making recommendations to shareholders. Not everyone agrees that such disclosures are necessary, or even desirable. The difficulty with these arguments is that, in the absence of demonstrated wrongdoing, they are largely ones of perception.
The Ties that Bind (the Igh Locus).
Such perceptions are important because they relate to how the public perceives--and supports--science. On a fundamental level, however, it is difficult to quantify how any weakness of the peer review process might compromise the integrity of scientific investigations. In fact, the journal Nature , which is owned by the same corporate parent as Scientific American , published an editorial in its February 6th issue that responded to Krimsky's study by warning against what it called "financial correctness. The measurements and conclusions are in principle unaffected, as is the requirement that uncertainties be made clear.
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Rothman, a professor at Boston University School of Public Health, who sees a focus on financial conflicts as a distraction from, or even an impediment to, a journal's primary task--judging research on its intrinsic scientific merit. Krimsky disagrees. Researchers' financial interest should be made known to editors, reviewers and readers, he argues: "I think that Nature is being quite naive in thinking that science operates outside of a social context.
Krimsky points to a recent example of a situation that has raised eyebrows. A study published last fall in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed that ingesting zinc lozenges shortened the length of a cold.
THE TIES THAT BIND | LaRaytheartist-Maryland
One of the study's authors, Michael L. Macknin from the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, had reportedly bought stock in the company that made the lozenges before the article was published. Journal editors knew of the investment; readers did not.