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To experience it up close, therefore, can often become a great adventure. Founded in as a museum for fine and applied arts, Kunstmuseum Moritzburg Halle Saale is able to look back on an eventful history. The museum, which is housed in the former residence of the archbishops of Magdeburg dating from the early 16th century, focuses on art in Germany in the 20th century. Divided into five sections, the permanent exhibition Paths of Modernism shows the differing aspects of art in times of the Empire, the Weimar Republic, Third Reich and the Soviet Sec-.

This also encompasses works from artists who understood their work in the tradition of Modernism as well as from representatives of an art style demanded and promoted by the cultural politics of the respective states. It neither. Continuing this tradition in , Kunstmuseum Moritzburg Halle Saale remains a highly esteemed destination for existing and future lovers of art: The Silence in the Noise of Time exhibits works of important expressionists such as Franz Marc or August Macke from the well-known Ziegler Collection.

Friends of Bauhaus, meanwhile, may look forward to Bauhaus Masters Modernism, an exhibition that makes outstanding masterpieces of Modernism and Bauhaus from international collections available to a wider public. Jahrhundert untergebracht ist, liegt auf der Kunst in Deutschland im Foto: Klaus E. The monumental tetralogy will be performed in its entirety throughout the forthcoming seasons from now until A challenge the Staatstheater Kassel is more than confident it will conquer, just like it did before. The Staatstheater Kassel is a multidisciplinary venue, which continuously merges contemporary art with tradition.

Since , the Staatstheater Kassel has already performed the Ring four times in its entirety, which is extraordinary in the German theatre scene. It hence has an international reputation when it comes to Wagner. Francesco Angelico, general director of music at Staatstheater Kassel since , is responsible for the musical directing.

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Angelico is well known internationally and has worked at the Bayerische Staatsoper and at the New National Theatre Tokyo, to name but a few. The Rhinegold premiered in September and had the audience on their feet. The second part, The Valkyrie premiers on 9 March The following parts, Siegfried and Twilight of the Gods, will be performed during the next two seasons.

The entire tetralogy will then be shown as a cycle in May and June Die Geschichte des Theaters geht bis ins Wenn es um Richard Wagner geht, hat das Haus einen internationalen Ruf. Die musikalische Leitung liegt bei Francesco Angelico,. April und Education for the future Our lives are becoming more globalised every day. Being able to adapt to different cultures and speaking multiple languages can be seen as key skills, not just for us, but for the next generation in particular.

In the following theme, we present the best international schools in Germany. Almost the whole world united in one boarding school The Berlin Brandenburg International Boarding School focuses its core mission on bringing students from all over the world together. The innovative non-profit school offers young people an opportunity to grow and learn in a culturally diverse and respectful environment. Here, the students are not only encouraged to discover their own individual identity, but their journey is also shaped by the wealth and beauty of the different cultures and traditions our world has to offer.

If you are looking for an uplifting outlook into the future, BBIS may be just right for you. The boarding school of the Berlin Brandenburg International School BBIS, for short does not just promote a culturally diverse philosophy, but truly lives it every single day. The list of different nationalities that live and study together under the roof of the boarding school is an impressive one.

Currently, over 60 students live at the boarding school, and they come from over 25 different countries. Whitney Sterling, is originally from the US, but made Germany his chosen home a long. It is located just outside Berlin, conveniently close to the airports yet far enough from the distracting hustle and bustle of the city. Due to the generous. Various after-school clubs and weekend excursions ensure that there is always an exciting activity to join in on. The boarding facility has been recently refurbished and is now close to hotel standard. Each room has its own modern bathroom and students can either share a room or apply to have a room to themselves.

As Mr. Helping the students to adopt a healthy lifestyle includes good nutrition, overall well-being and exercise. The kitchens on each of the five levels are open to use for students wanting to explore their own cooking skills and the boarding school has its own modern fitness room as well. Of course, another key aspect for the boarding school staff is to help the students develop their full academic potential. It incorporates three two-week internships at different companies and allows students who are more practically orientated to explore their individual potential as well. Whenever there is a problem, a question or anything else to share, the students have someone to turn to.

Preparations are already in full swing. During those nights we enjoy authentic food, listen to music from that particular culture and learn about local traditions. With around 80 to 90 people attending, these are big events and we genuinely look forward to each and every one of them. They are a lot of fun! Intercultural competence, collaborative and inspiring learning, respect, social responsibility and tolerance characterise the spirit of this accredited IB World School.

MacBooks, science and technology laboratories, art and design studios, sports halls, theatre spaces, an auditorium and an extensive extra-curricular programme. English is the language of instruction, while German language classes are offered beginning in grade one for all levels of proficiency. Mother-tongue learning is currently offered in 17 languages. Pupils and parents alike regard the multitude of extracurricular activities on offer as an exceptional feature of BIS.

In all of these activities, social engagement, interdisciplinary collaboration and exploring new horizons play a particularly important role, according to Dr. The IB Diploma is recognised by the best universities in the world more than universities in about 70 countries including Germany. PTO welcomes new families and helps them to settle in. The Newcomers Centre offers students arriving with little prior knowledge of English, intensive language support in a safe and supportive environment.

These services make BIS a vital factor for the economy of Greater Munich, serving as both an instrument for business promotion and location marketing. Future through innovation Development, innovation and the future, all drive the curriculum and teaching at the BIS campus in Haimhausen, to the north of the Bavarian capital: and to this end, the management team of the Bavarian International School has set the goal of building. BIS has launched a special fundraising and sponsorship programme to realise this major project; as well as to recruit and promote excellent teaching staff; and to create a scholarship programme to enable highly talented students that are in need of financial assistance.

Chrissie Sorenson. The portability of the IB curriculum is a key factor for international families who relocate often. For globally mobile expat specialists and executives who relocate on average every three years, the smooth transition of their children from school to school is an absolute priority.

On spring fever and happiness What a joy! The warm days of spring are coming up, and soon, you will not be able to stop yourself from smiling when you go out for lunch without a jacket for the first time this year. Many of us long for these heartwarming rays of sunshine and suddenly, before you know it, the parks will have started to fill up with people rejoicing at the temperature and the first white crocuses pushing their way through the ground.

Spring is arriving and the whole country breathes a sigh of relief: but there must be more to it than what we all think. Discover Germany searched for the biological reasons behind spring fever and the best ways to fall under it — even if the sky is still grey where you are. The seasonal changes of emotions have only really been in the focus of science since very recently, whereas poets have described the restlessness, the deep desire for a new beginning and the passion, which arise in many humans in the months of March, April and May, for centuries.

The psychiatrist, public speaker and bestselling author, Dr. Norman Rosenthal,. As days are longer in spring, many people tend to wake up earlier and stay out longer at night - thanks to the internal clock in the human brain which helps to measure the length of a day. Melatonin, dubbed the sleep hormone, is only released in darkness, so with an increase of sunlight less Melatonin is discharged; with the consequence that many people feel more energetic in spring.

It is not surprising that many of us feel the need to arrange the house and the garden, buy new clothes or start to feel more alive again. Does spring fever, as Tennyson indicated, really stimulate the human sex drive? The lowest testosterone levels occurred in months with the highest temperatures and longest hours of daylight, whereas the menopause more frequently sets in during winter than during spring.

So, according to those studies, we can deduce that there is no real biological evidence of a higher sex drive in spring season. Instead, we can probably conclude that the higher energy level, and with that the resulting good mood, might well be more responsible for our passion in spring. After a friend introduced him to One Art by Elizabeth Bishop, he felt a mood change in himself and suspected that a similar change might occur within his patients — and with great success, it turned out. Now, he provides a blog to let people share their own experiences of the healing effects of poems.

Finally, what does happiness mean for Dr. So, the next time you experience a sunny day, for example, make the most of it — even if it is just to take the opportunity to enjoy a short walk after lunch. To learn more about Dr. What to do to get in the mood But what if it has been raining cats and dogs for the last few weeks? How can we hope to feel spring fever? Poems can help you to feel better, too. People are gathering on deck seven outside, and starting their day. They do that by praising the Lord and singing worship songs. The African day-crew have their own way of worshipping. They have drums and dance.

There is rhythm, there is movement, and there is joy. A devotion follows and the chief engineer talks about the Sermon on the Mount and what it means for the task of running a 16, GT hospital ship. In the background, some fishing boats pass by, giving their own contribution to the soundscape. Flynn is not as strong of a believer as other volunteers on the hospital ship. We are in Conakry, the capital of Guinea, West Africa.

And the ritual above is the beginning of a Thursday, when the deck and engine room departments start their working day together. Amongst the workers is Flynn, from a small town near Hamburg. Cologne based Sina, one of the receptionists of the vessel, finds herself fortunate and perhaps blessed because she grew up in Germany in safe circumstances in a stable and loving family.

I never had to deal with existential worries. Therefore, I joined Mercy Ships in Congo about five years ago for the first time. That is why she returned to the ship. The fascinating thing about serving with Mercy Ships lies in the sustainability. MCB Medical Capacity Building — what the vessel leaves behind after leaving a country does all the magic, according to the two Germans.

In Conakry, for example, where it is the fourth time that one of the Mercy Ships is doing a field service, it has been mainly cleft lips and palatal surgeries that the volunteer doctors from all over the world have been doing in previous years. While bringing medical aid to the people of Guinea, the surgeons, nurses and other personnel always educate local doctors and nurses to be able to do the job once the vessel has left. So, when coming to Guinea in August last year, they were happy to see. Angelique is one of the many that spend their holidays on board to help people.

As a nurse dealing with orthopaedic surgeries, she has seen one of the local surgeons doing cleft lips also being trained to combat another big problem in West Africa: curved legs. Asked about the possible highlights of their stay, the answers are as different as the people. For Angelique, it is the fact that Don Stephens, the founder of Mercy Ships, visited the Africa Mercy during her four weeks on board and she had the chance to meet him.

For Sina, one of the reasons why she came back to the ship, was that she is able to live and work together with about people with of 42 nationalities. Everything should be absolutely perfect on your holiday: and so we have a whole new recommendation for you. Gerade im Urlaub, wenn der Alltag weit entfernt ist, sollte alles stimmen. Wir haben einen Vorschlag. Newly opened Chalet zum Steinbock in the picturesque Tyrolean Alps leaves nothing to be desired.

Self-contained Chalet zum Steinbock is a real gem that includes everything up to a bread roll delivery service. As well as Chalet zum Steinbock, Michaela and Christian own an organic farm where children are welcome to marvel at sheep, cats, chicken and a Bernese mountain dog called Diana. Welcome to Chalet zum Steinbock! Willkommen im Chalet zum Steinbock!

Modern charm, relaxed luxury and an unrivaled location. The Hotel Altstadt Vienna is a model example of unique hospitality which simultaneously features contemporary amenities, world-class art and architecture, and thoughtfully designed rooms and suites. Located in the heart of the city on Spittelberg, in Vienna's fashionable 'Boboville' — the 7th district, this hotel first opened its doors in It features 61 rooms and suites designed and furbished by various artists, architects, designers and celebrities.

Another characteristic is the considerable collection of contemporary art. Mitten im Herzen der Stadt gelegen, am Spittelberg im angesagten 7. The award-winning hotel is designed to meet the needs of individual travellers, tourists, and business executives. Hotel or museum? Both, actually! Hotel oder Museum? It is a museum, a monastery, a journey through time, and a hotel with a difference. The year-old structure was renovated and turned into a hotel, featuring eclectically designed rooms, maisonettes, tower suites and serviced apartments with kitchenettes for long-stay guests.

Es ist ein Museum, ein Kloster, eine Zeitreise, ein etwas anderes Hotel. Mit seiner klassizistischen Fassade war das ehemalige Stadthaus aus dem Heute hat es eine neue Bestimmung gefunden. City break or longer business project? The De Medici is a unique gem in Dusseldorf, suitable for either. In the lobby, the atrium and throughout the premises, guests will encounter European art dating back to the 15th century. Living Hotels are not just located in Dusseldorf, however.

Two typical features connect all 17 hotels, however: a central location and a passionate personal hour service. A luxurious piece of home abroad. Jahrhundert reicht. The outdoors is calling us. The perfect location in which to completely relax and really indulge in the blossoming nature around us. Especially during spring, the awakening nature attracts visitors to the resort area Salzkammergut. For those who prefer it a little more comfortable, yet want to see the landscape, the carriage ride is a great option.

At the authentic herb kitchen, exclusive bath essences are being handmade from herbal distillates, as well as soaps and creams. The elegant four-star Superior Romantik and Wellness Hotel in Tyrol looks back over a colourful year legacy and is managed by fourth-generation hoteliers who know how to spoil their guests.

The elegant, comfortable and inviting hotel is located in the idyllic village of Pertisau. And in early July 3 July , the hotel hosts its annual Wiesenhof golf tournament. Guests can soak-in the blissful atmosphere by taking advantage of the numerous wellness offerings. In the evenings, creative chefs spoil guests with their takes on modern classics and culinary delights. Wandern, Radfahren und das Wiesenhof Golfturnier am 3. Ihr Alltag war noch nie so weit weg! Pack your bags Wondering where to head this year, which city to explore or which new things to try on your next holiday?

Discover Germany takes a look at which travel trends to know in , to get you inspired for your next destination. Pack your bags and you are good to go! If you have not already made holiday plans for this year, it is about time you do so. To get you inspired, we have done some research and have collected some of the most popular travel trends of for you.

Solo travel Already a hot topic in , solo travel and solo holidays are becoming ever more popular this year. When travelling alone, one can meet like-minded travelers, make new friends and see exactly what you want to see without making compromises, while learning more things about oneself. Surprise travel Sick of planning so much before a holiday? Does searching for the perfect hotel bring a general downer on your holiday plans?

Well then, we suggest trying surprise travel. Companies like srprs. They then do the rest and send you on a surprise trip. You only learn the destination when you arrive at the airport, but you will get a packing list the week before, so you will be prepared for the weather and local conditions. Exciting, right? Rio de Janeiro! Online searches have been up by per cent on Pinterest and who does not like the look of long beaches, Brazilian joie de vivre and the glistening sun shining in the sky almost every day? Sustainable tourism More and more people try to opt for conscious and sustainable tourism.

What does that mean? A third of travellers are currently looking for travel companies and activities that are deemed sustainable. This could be sustainable whale-watching tours, finding a zero-waste hotel or helping a local incentive. After all, the world needs more travellers to be ethical, sustainable and reduce their carbon footprint on the planet. Urlauber, die Ruhe, Entspannung und kulturelle Erlebnisse suchen, sind hier genauso gut aufgehoben, wie partybegeisterte Wochenendurlauber und Pauschaltouristen. Discovering the world from high on horseback Getting away from your daily life and making new friends: holidays on horseback are more often than not holidays in which you will be among like-minded people.

Even the most remote areas can be explored by horse. More suitable for inexperienced riders, however, are holidays in Portugal: 60 kilometres from Lisbon and a few kilometres from the beach, lies the horse ranch with Lusitanos horses. Next to riding lessons, here, holidaymakers will find a vineyard, tennis court and outside pool, so that even fellow travellers not so interested in a riding experience will be able to enjoy the holiday. Many of the most beautiful African wildlife and nature reserves can be found in Botswana, among others the Okavangodelta, a unique biotope with rich flora and fauna.

Experienced riders can get very close to nature and an-. All our team members are riders and with great enthusiasm, knowledge and joy, they make sure. One thing in particular applies to equestrian tours: whoever travels by horse, gets into close contact with the land and people.

A drink or a meal together will often follow that first chat. After all, there is nothing better after a long day on horseback than letting your day come to a close with some local food and a good glass of wine. Auch die entlegensten Gegenden lassen sich zu Pferd erkunden. Erfahrene Reiter kommen Landschaft und Tieren hier ganz nahe, begleiten Zebra- und Gnuherden oder galoppieren mit Giraffen durch die weite Landschaft.

With his indepth knowledge and a team of 15 travel experts, Caspar Venter, a South African himself, offers individual, tailormade tours or group travels in 13 African countries. For three days, guests can explore the area with all-terrain safari vehicles and solar-powered boats. The journey continues with a small aircraft to Savute, an extraordinary place to spot animals, and then onwards to the fascinating Okavango Delta. Southern and east African countries are the favourites amongst tourists travelling to Africa.

Elephants and buffalos, lions and hippos roam the landscape of the Chobe National. Since its foundation 15 years ago, Venter Tours has focused on sustainability and nature conservation. Botswana is a frontrunner when it comes to nature protection in Africa. Instead of mass tourism, the focus instead lies on individual encounters with animals and people. Whoever has the opportunity to experience one of these very special moments, will always want come back to this wonderful continent. Ohnehin ist Botswana ein Vorreiter auf dem Gebiet Naturschutz. Massentourismus gibt es hier nicht, stattdessen individuelle Begegnungen mit Mensch und Tier.

Now, it is possible to spend your holidays on two islands where you can experience this fascination up close like never before. Watch the unique sunsets on the west side of the main island, formed of red sandstone. Our guests are always taken with a visit to the dune where each year between November and February, grey seals give birth to their pups. We are particularly proud that our. A stay on Heligoland relaxes its guests and puts them in touch with themselves and with nature. Heligoland can also be reached by plane, but the sea passage prepares them best for what to expect. Once on the boat, as they take a deep breath of the clear sea air or listen to the splashing waves, they start to forget about their everyday lives.

Seating areas and sofas invite guests to relax or have a chat. From here, guests can also reach the Wohnzimmer, a day bar with a fireplace and library. The rooms have been furnished with great taste too, and impress with modern furniture combined with warm colours and wood. All rooms are air-conditioned and either have a balcony or a terrace, and therefore a view of the surrounding golf courses and park-like landscape.

The hole East Course, for example, offers incredible views of the surrounding landscape, while the nine-hole Academy Course is designed for athletic variety and, among. The hole Old Course still reflects the aesthetic of a park landscape with a great variety of trees as a back-drop. All three courses lie in a European bird reserve, which makes playing golf here a truly unique experience. People searching for relaxation after a long day on the golf course can find it in the more than 5,square-metre spa with its four themed areas, spacious indoor pool, infinity outdoor pool and a typical Japanese Onsen bath.

A highlight here is the square-metre gym — an activityplayground for adults with training areas both indoors and outdoors. Sitzgruppen und Sofas. It is an injury-free workout alternative which is a form of exercise that is slower than jogging and perhaps even slower than the average walking speed too! Unlike during conventional jogging, one has to consciously run slowly. Jogging: many people have tried and tested this endurance sport but not everybody has been entranced by it on a lasting basis. And sports physicians agree with them: people that have to fight with chronic problems of the ankle, knee and hip joints should actually not go jogging.

But there is a new way for us all to keep fit: a healthy alternative for young and old has recently been introduced — Slow Jogging. Who invented it? Slow Jogging was developed from the renowned Japanese exercise physiologist Prof. Hiroaki Tanaka, at the University of Fukuoka, and has been extensively studied over decades. The small, wiry man practises this running style himself, too. Since , the German Wellness Association has also supported the qualified dissemination of Slow Jogging.

Through this method, even people who would call themselves unathletic will get the chance to burn calories, to lose weight and to also do something for their mental fitness. The small, flat steps can also be mastered by heavier or older people. On the flip side, going or walking is less effective in counteracting these developments. It is hard to believe but studies have proven that Slow Jogging burns twice as many calories as walking and just as many calories as quick running would do across the same distance.

At six kilometres per hour, it is far more pleasant to run slowly than to walk quickly. Slow Jogging trains the gluteal muscles and the large, frontal. If you are interested in trying this new wellness trend, you should get some proper footwear first. To support the right running technique, running shoes that can be easily bent in the area of the ball of the foot should be chosen.

Speaking of technique: the right way of doing Slow Jogging also needs to be learnt. You could. Or, if you prefer some real coaches, certified Slow Jogging coaches are already taking care of teaching the right technique in some territories. Slow Jogging facts: - Invented by Prof. Customised printing solutions for individual requirements Medium-sized businesses, organisations and big companies have very particular demands when it comes to printing solutions. The right answers, however, are often just around the corner. Established in and based in Wiesbaden, Germany, DTM Print today has more than 40 employees who work with more than regional partners and whose services reach way beyond the European boarders.

Next to automated duplicators and printers for optical media CD, DVD, BD the wide product portfolio of DTM Print also comprises printers, finishers and applicators for labels and cassette and slide printers for medical laboratories. This, however, does not mean that we give our clients only ready-made solutions. All in all, we can look back on more than 32 years of working experience in developing individual printing solutions. We and our partners therefore have the know-how needed to reach our selfset goal, i.

Plus, we give a 24 month guarantee on nearly all our printing systems. And our service specialists are available via chat if help is needed urgently. We also want to expand our volume of projects and help even more enterprises to integrate individual printing systems into their production and selling processes. Oft liegen die Antworten ganz nah. Straight from the airport to the meeting, to the hotel and back again.

A business trip often means we do not get to explore our destination — and that is particularly unfortunate in Vienna. In order to change exactly that, the experts of the event agency Himbeere developed special concepts so that visitors can experience the fabulous capital: for example, with modern tablet rallies or retro riddle rallies with Polaroid cameras. Mario Stoiber founded the successful event agency Himbeere 15 years ago and his concept, Vienna Riddle Rally, made him a true pioneer for city tourism and leisure.

What started with just a road book and map has turned into a large portfolio of rallies and games. Was damals mit Roadbook und Karte begann, ist heute zu einem breiten Portfolio gewachsen. The innovative riddle rallies focusing on team building, incentive and sightseeing are particularly popular in the B2B-sector. The smart rallies also incorporate interactive elements such as videos and photos, so there are plenty of digital souvenirs to take home. If the weather turns, the new indoor tablet games are a perfect alternative. Neugierig geworden? Local estate agents with a wider view Professional handling, honesty, discretion and a wider perspective are mandatory for the trustful handling of real estate projects.

Discover Germany talks to the professionals. Amongst the three of us, we share nearly 20 years of professional experience in the real estate market and, as locals, are very well connected. Our sound knowledge of the neighbourhood has many advantages for our clients. Aurum offers property in all sizes or categories. Small garconnieres as well as luxurious residences, and large property developments as well as investment properties. Interested parties who wanted more than sound advice have found the right partner in Aurum Property. We do not simply sell them property, we want our clients to feel truly at home in their new dwelling.

We therefore give them insider tips about, for example, the best restaurants, shops or ski slopes. We are working on some very exciting new cooperations, which will be hugely beneficial for our clients and which shall help us to advise our clients even better than before. We are really looking forward to it! Was sagen die Profis dazu? Diese fundierte Kenntnis der Umgebung kommt unseren Kunden zugute.

Interessenten, die mehr wollen, als nur exzellente Beratung, sind bei Aurum Immobilien genau an der richtigen Stelle. Bei uns kaufen sie nicht einfach nur eine Immobilie. Daher geben wir ihnen gerne Insidertipps, wo sie beispielsweise gut essen und am besten einIhr Aufstieg nach oben: Gaisberg Residenzen, der exclusive Neubau in Kirchberg, Tirol. Wir freuen uns darauf! Immobilienmakler mit Weitblick. Das Team von Aurum Immobilien v. The top three reasons why companies need to invest in design Design and business success are inextricably linked.

Matthis Hamann, co-founder of Munichbased design and innovation agency FLUID, notes that the majority of companies do not yet understand design as a business growth factor, missing out on incredible opportunities as a result. Generally speaking, there are three main reasons why successful companies invest in design to gain competitive advantages. First of all, focusing on user needs at any stage of a product or service development opens up tremendous opportunities for innovation.

Secondly, companies who iterate and conduct user testing continually during the development process are able to change course at any stage. This minimises risks and reduces costs. It also provides certainty as the company gains a real understanding. The third reason is that products and services are always more than just that — they are a user experience.

Understanding this means consistently involving all departments in shaping that experience to its best across all touchpoints. According to Matthis Hamann, implementing design in this way is highly complex and takes years of leadership commitment to establish: but it is definitely worthwhile.

The biggest plus, however, is the internal database. The name Lux Design Living LXD reflects the overall approach: interior designer Astrid Gorella creates luxurious living spaces, combined with smart furnishing and intelligent design. Looking into the future, LXD develops co-living and co-working solutions. Clients often have their own ideas, but need someone to show them their options and develop their plans.

One of her recent clients, for example, is a passionate coffee connoisseur and owns a professional espresso machine that needs 20 minutes of warm-up time. It switches on the coffee machine in the kitchen. Great accuracy when choosing colours determines a good interior designer. Treffsicherheit bei der Kombination von Farben macht daher einen guten Interior Designer aus. LXD has made it its mission to develop concepts for better use of scarce inner-city living space.

After years of planning, the team will finally realise the first co-working and co-living projects, and is currently looking for investors. Eclectic approaches and the long-lived language of forms Modern architecture has the power to surprise. We take a closer look at one of the top designers in the field.

Founded in by Professor Hans Rollmann, award-winning architectural office RollmannArchitects is widely known for the high quality of their exceptional designs. Ranging from unique family homes to inspired office spaces, designs by RollmannArchitects are thoroughly in tune with modern times and the demands they put on the residents in particular. At the same time, we are also specialists with a view of the bigger picture: Our designs are not limited to the outside, but also include the interior if the clients so wish.

This makes our designs holistic and functioning as a whole. Discover Germany takes a look at which buildings should be seen on your next visit. There are many reasons to visit Switzerland, including great museums, the natural surroundings, enchanting old towns, bustling city centres, exciting exhibitions or the wonderful food think chocolate, cheese, wine. However, what many visitors overlook is the wealth of impressive architecture from past and present. After all, in addition to many medieval buildings, the country has a vast range of contemporary architecture on offer.

Let us take a look at some of these. Built by the famous pair of architects. The star architects replaced two of the older halls with an extension that stacks three new ten-metre-high halls on top of each other. The brushed aluminium clads make this extension a real eye-catcher not to be missed. Monte Rosa hut.

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Not only looking impressive, the Monte Rosa hut also has a stainless-steel foundation, an aluminium outer shell and a computercontrolled energy-management system. In other words — it combines cutting-edge architecture with sustainable technology. It needs to be seen to be believed! Sustainable urban development with architecture that uses the space Employees are the most valuable assets for the Zurich architectural office Dachtler Partner AG. The six board members are all recruited from the employee base and the wide age span — from 34 to 64 years — unites experience and innovation.

For more than 15 years, sustainable architecture has played an important role for the company. In once neglected areas, new urban quarters are established. Urban development and spatial planning are important factors that architecture has to take into consideration, says Pelizzari. ROY in Winterthur umgesetzt. Die Rasterfassade ist zwar schlicht im Design, zeitgleich aber ausdrucksstark. Die modulare Anordnung erlaubt eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Wohnungstypen. Natur und Architektur bilden hier eine Einheit. Nach der Finanzkrise von sei das Thema etwas in Vergessenheit geraten.

New life for former industrial quarters Dachtler Partner architects have implemented this principle, alongside many other times, between and , when building the living and commercial space ROY in Winterthur. The modular set-up allows for a great variety of flat types. In Zurich, the architectural office enlivened an unused area at the Sihlbogen as well. Next to the buildings, the architects created a generous square that is used for different markets and cultural events.

A court building alleviated the cramped gate situation which existed beforehand, and marks the entrance to the Leimbach village. The two apartment buildings, on the other hand, disrupt the linear lines created by the tramway and offer glimpses and insights into the landscape zone. Nature and architecture form an entity. Nature and sustainability in focus, the site as a source of inspiration The Sihlbogen is additionally a flagship project for the Watt-Society, where environmental impact and sustainability play an essential role.

After the financial crisis of , the topic fell into oblivion a bit. There has to be a change in the way people think. The three interwoven buildings interlock beautifully with the green space. Similar to the project in Horgen, the apartment building. The architecture should be substantial, understated and timeless, if possible. Tivoli Garden, in the new centre of Spreitenbach, is certainly the most complex and challenging one: next to a DIY shop, retail and service space and about flats, it contains a station for the new Limmattalbahn in its base.

Die unterschiedlichen Nutzungen sind hier aufeinander gestapelt, was sich in der leicht versetzten Metallfassade spiegelt. Zurzeit bearbeiten Dachtler Partner Architekten rund 20 Projekte. The overall aim for most of us is a good quality of life. Our built environment — no matter whether city, building or interior — is mainly responsible for this. The team at Dost Architektur GmbH reduces what is at first glance a very broad range of relevant aspects to its absolute basics, and puts the resulting formula at the centre of its work. Personality, location, time and value — no planning task can be successfully mastered when these points are not made clear.

Who is the developer, what are their dreams and where are they coming from? No matter if a single person, a cooperative or a community, it is necessary to learn and understand their ideas. Even if they are completely different, there are always common overlaps. Multiplied with the location, this creates the first part of the formula: considering the location is the stage which shapes and determines the design.

Selbst wenn diese unterschiedlich sind, gibt es immer Schnittstellen. It also covers the lifespan — considering the interior of a shop is planned for five years, while the planning of the city has still to be relevant after years. Clarifying all these aspects is the base of every cooperation. Formulating them allows developers and planners to interact at eye level and is therefore the cornerstone of a trustworthy and honest collaboration. Einen weiteren Faktor bildet die Zeit.

Their specific approach of dialogical designing gives rise to an architectural quality that generates a strong identity and uniqueness in every project. Luca Deon in The company puts special emphasis on designing and developing high-quality architecture that complies with the latest technical findings. DEON plans and realises architectural and urban development projects in building construction and civil engineering and creates various structures as general planner and contractor.

That is why it is no wonder that the architectural office has realised numerous award-winning residential projects, has come up with various industry and trade project ideas and has implemented innovative infra-. New living environments. New construction of green residential tower, Rotkreuz, Switzerland — , socialisation in the vertical city. Comprising 15 floors, this impressive metre-high project was completed in. While the lower four floors house retail, commercial and office spaces, the top nine floors were reserved for 26 flats.

A receding access marks the main entrance on the ground floor, while a wider office wing was visually connected to the surrounding development. A stilted living space and the attic, with utility rooms, complete the unit.

Global Dynamics in Transnational Lands

The design thereby meets architectonic and aesthetic, as well as technical and economical standards and reflects the understanding of a building as a complex system. On its ground floor, a spacious lobby with reception, bar and lounge was proposed, while the gastronomy finds space in the western corner. The overlying office floors can be easily organised and the living floors are characterised by classic and contemporary floor plans with high degrees of variability.

The project impresses with its orthogonal, open structure, while the outer appearance seeks to show a contemporary residential building with highquality housing technology. An example: the new headquarters for the Nolax AG in Sempach Station, which reflect an interdisciplinary symbiosis of architecture, support structure and building technology. Completed in January , the project impresses with its unique design approach that contradicts every image of a typical office building.

The outcome was a transparent working world with short distances and with open, transparent rooms. This means that the building and room structures foster internal communication. Furthermore, the modular structure enables conversion and expansion possibilities for technical flexibility, while concrete columns and solid wooden beams dominate the interior.

Another example of impressive work environment architecture are the headquarters for the Foundation Marburger Medien in Marburg an der Lahn. Completed in , the media house fosters random encounters in the workflow and impresses with innovative energy efficiency.

In park-like surroundings, the building impresses with a sophisticated, energetic and technical concept and with contemporary aesthetics. The large windows enable a maximum utilisation of the sunlight whereby geothermal probes guarantee heating or cooling depending on the season, while the needed energy for the geothermal probes is made available by a photovoltaic system on the roof. Thanks to its central positioning right next to the paper factory, transportation kilometres for deliveries can be saved, which is good for the environment and overall costs.

As a modern power plant, the. It produces energy for around 38, households through the incineration of waste and delivers the heat that is needed for the round-the-clock paper production next door. Another new incinerator that turns waste into energy was planned in the middle of a residential quarter in Freeport, New York. Even though the choice of location might seem odd at first, it makes sense when you take a closer look: it is a logistically intelligent choice when thinking about the fact that the waste is burned where it accrues, and that energy is produced where it is needed.

But how does a huge industrial building with dimensions of x metres and a height of 70 metres fit into a suburban area? Inspired by the linear crystallisation of Bismuth metal, steppings with different functions cover the entire building structure. This three-dimensional accessible surface covers the entire plant and has many technical functions like ventilation openings, as well. Like this, DEON turns a seemingly unattractive object like an incinerator into a magic place for work, sport and relaxation. Besides designing impressive architecture, DEON is committed to teaching, as well as vocational and continuing education inside and outside their architectural office.

That is why Luca Deon has had a professorship at the Lucerne School of Engineering and Architecture for 15 years, for example. New construction of media house — headquarters of Marburger Medien, Marburg a. Lahn, Germany — We offer spaces for others to adopt. Philipp Husistein, who stems from a family of craftsmen, understands the connection between creativity and the base of solid craftwork on which it can thrive.

He has always been interested in the reproductive element within a larger sphere. This has led him towards planning. Having worked in building and planning for 30 years now, he says that every day there is still something new to discover. Light is no standard product Licht ist kein Standardprodukt Light is at the centre of our daily lives, and Bartenbach GmbH strives to demonstrate just how comprehensive the subject of light actually is.

Based on modern research, the company develops complex lighting designs in powerful conjunction with architecture. In a nutshell: Bartenbach turns lighting into an experience.

Abenteuer Frachtsegler - die nordstory - NDR

So entwickelt sie auf Grundlage der neuesten Lichtforschung komplexe Lichtplanung im intensiven Zusammenspiel mit Architektur. Kurz: Bartenbach macht Licht erlebbar. Lighting design has a major influence on our quality of life. Christian Bartenbach already knew this a few decades ago and founded a company for individual lighting solutions in Today, the well-known enterprise is a global player and employs a team of approximately 90 architects, physicists, psychologists and designers. Regardless of whether for private buildings, modern offices and infrastructure projects, energetic modernisation projects, museums, shopping centres or lighting designs for the healthcare sector: the undisputed impact light has on humans remains at the core of Bartenbach.

Egal ob Privatbauten, topmoderne Verwaltungs- und Infrastrukturprojekte, energetische Sanierungsprojekte oder Lichtplanungen aus den Bereichen Gesundheitswesen, Museumsbauten und Shoppingcenter: die unumstrittene Wirkung des Lichts auf den Menschen ist und bleibt das Kernthema. Creative Director Ralph Kellenberger explains what is behind this concept.

Their success proves them right. Storytelling designs Rich in modernist architectural tradition, Althaus Architekten today lies in the hands of the third generation. The office aims towards a conscientious approach, with an emphasis on the interplay between space, structure and light.

Althaus projects are marked by an impartial search for specific answers to each and every task. Their designs take the uniqueness of a site, with all its aspects, as well as the individual demands of the builder and programme, into account. Longstanding co-worker Michael Zwygart became partner in and, as of this year, Nicolaj Bechtel has also joined the management team.

The compact team of ten allows the office to take on challenging conversions of historically significant and listed buildings. Furthermore, unique new family and holiday homes, as well as projects for the public and clerical sectors, form recurring tasks. Althaus Architekten clients appreciate a powerful yet sensitive design, adapting well to both the environment and their personal needs, while being executed conscientiously to the last detail.

Scharnachtal family home This former holiday home, designed by office founder Willi Althaus in , shows an impressive, simplistic and modernist levity, transforming the traditional theme of the mountainside chalet. It has now been refurbished to meet modern standards for year-round habitation, assisted by a north-facing expansion. Modern, large-format windows provide an expanded view of the valley and the high mountains.

The well-organised layout was only slightly adjusted. Im Anschluss einige Beispiele. Einfamilienhaus Scharnachtal Das ehemalige Ferienhaus, entworfen von Willi Althaus, zeichnet sich durch eine beeindruckend einfache, moderne Leichtigkeit aus, welche das traditionelle Thema des Bergchalets weiterentwickelt. A subterranean expansion houses the guest rooms and an atrium at the front rotunda, as well as a sunken courtyard to the back, allow access to the gardens from the adjoining rooms, creating spectacular lighting moods. State-of-the-art ventilation and sealing techniques, as well as outstanding craftsmanship on all levels, unify the spatial diversity of the building.

Seidenweg Studios, Bern Cut into an old, nondescript carpentry workshop, the new architecture and photo studios are subject to an exciting lighting structure, leading from the calm, dark environment of the basement to an illuminated space with light streaming in from various directions.

Without disturbing the overall quiet atmosphere, the old and raw building parts stand opposite the new, precisely detailed elements and depict the history of the building, thereby allowing for a direct emotional access. The constantly changing lighting situations throughout the day are a much discussed subject for both users and visitors.

Nicolaj Bechtel, who joined the office as of this year, sums up the value of the new-. Various floor-overlapping spatial references were created, and the double-story dining area becomes the new central point of family life. The original flooring was kept or newly revealed, while damaged parts were filled with cement. Walls and ceilings, including fractured areas, were painted white, resulting in a calm, unified surface. The original structure remains visible through the changeover of materials, the demolition scars, as well as the new support structure of steel beams.

The doubly radical handling of the existing structure, uncompromising in both demolition and conservation, honours the house in its original power and makes it fit for a new life. Althaus Architekten Bern is currently in the process of a new development and, with the office being in the hands of the third generation now, they aim to make their work even more accessible to the outside world. Der auf zwei Arten radikale Umgang mit. More than just planting trees… The Swiss landscape architects from Westpol go beyond your average landscape design and create clever visual highlights using elements from the world of plants.

He quickly realised that this was where he needed to be. But we are also interested in superordinate projects such as defining the edges of residential areas or integrating infrastructures into our landscape. Working with evolving natural materials and various layers of vegetation, it often takes many decades until a project has reached its final look. A fascinating process, which is very different to, for example, designing a building. Leutschenpark, Zurich. Top and middle image: Private garden, Basel region. The area Leutschenbach was going through an urban transformation, from industrial use to residential and service quarters.

In order to create a new iden-. Part of the park is a small hill with a little forest. But due to its former use as a bullet trap of the shooting facility Leutschenbach, the soil was massively polluted by projectiles. The second option was to deny access to the public.

We integrated the latter approach into our design. The result is a large tree pot, which encloses the hill and its trees. The location of a former bonded warehouse was opened to the public. During those early days, it was all about temporary installations and ensuring that all safety requirements were met.

Later on, the city of Basel launched the project competition of the School of Art and Design, which would tie this important institution and around 1, students and lecturers to this unique location. Within this new context, it was possible to realise various additional building projects. They work successfully with private building owners as well as with the public sectors. No matter the project, the team always tries to get the feeling of any given location.

They research morphological properties, history and local stories, topography, function and use, as well as what emotions a certain place triggers. Building this comprehensive bigger picture is the first step for the development of all designs. Taking location and specific requirements into account, the creative heads of Westpol have designed a colourful range of unique projects over the past two decades, and there is certainly a lot more to come.

No project is too big or too small There are so many other unique projects worth mentioning that it becomes hard to pick just a few to highlight. Westpol designs speak for themselves. As the interior designers and architects. The task at hand, the central points of what their client tries to achieve, as well as the timescale and the economy of the new building, further form the design, posing the question: how will the future inhabitant experience their living environment? Rene Arndt and Thomas Geiger were founders as well as pioneers.

A studio set in an old window. Nowadays, a team of 30 works here with the help of state-of-the-art computer equipment: everything is being created and drawn in three dimensions. Many of them are locked into inescapable family relationships defined by the dialectic of domination and servitude e. Alternatively the discipline demanded by art turns its practitioners into performing machines indistinguishable from circus animals, as in the Salzburg plays Der Ignorant und der Wahnsinnige and Die Macht der Gewohnheit In setting all his novels in remote parts of rural Austria Bernhard challenges like several contemporary Austrian novelists the strong tradition of the Heimatroman as represented by e.

Stifter, Rosegger and Waggerl, inverting its values to create black idylls. He often models his figures on real persons, making the connection more or less explicit e. Gesammelte Gedichte appeared in His prose is spare and pointed, conveying static situations without dramatic conflict. The eight Kindergeschichten A-Z 27 are not only for children; the strange but harmless obsessions of the aged eccentrics who populate them are portrayed with sympathy, while a few stories, in which the withdrawal to a private world leads to the invention of a private language, recall the inspired nonsense of Lear and Carroll.

Bichsel has attacked Swiss conservatism in combative newspaper articles, essays and speeches collected in Geschichten zur falschen Zeit and Schulmeistereien Der Busant marks a return to the short story, which forms the subject of the Frankfurt lecture Der Leser.

Zur Stadt Paris contains forty-eight miniature stories. Bonifaz oder Der Matrose in der Flasche recounts the picaresque adventures on land and sea of the title-figure. The original version of Maria Morzeck oder Das Kaninchen bin ich was produced and filmed in the GDR; however, neither book nor film reached the public and Bieler left the GDR for Prague in , eventually settling in Munich in Bieler is also the author of numerous radio plays, some of which are collected in Drei Rosen aus Papier , Still wie die Nacht. Bienek, Horst —90 Born in Silesia, Bienek had contacts with Brecht and the Berliner Ensemble until, after taking part in an anti-Stalinist protest in West Berlin, he was deported to the Soviet Union, where he spent the following four years in the Gulag.

He subsequently lived in the West, mainly in Munich and its environs. Each of volumes I—III focuses on one day in the lives of the Piontek family and their friends: 31 August , 4 September , Good Friday , while in volume IV the action is divided between the occupation of Gleiwitz by the Russians and the destruction of Dresden in February , an episode into which Bienek introduces the unnamed but clearly identifiable figure of Gerhart Hauptmann. Together the novels throw much light on everyday life during the Third Reich and in particular on German-Polish-Jewish relations in a frontier area plagued by communal strife.

Childhood and growing up in Silesia are also the subject of Beschreibung einer Provinz. Aufzeichnungen, Materialien, Dokumente and Reise in die Kindheit , and his other volumes of poetry Gleiwitzer Kindheit and Die Zeit danach are autobiographically based. Poems: Wer antwortet wem Prinz Kuckuck. His works for the stage, and further novels, were not so successful. The Gesammelte Werke ten volumes appeared between and Biermann, Wolf — Poet, singer, composer and guitar virtuoso, Biermann, whose communist father was murdered in Auschwitz in , was born into a working-class family in Hamburg.

From until September he was forbidden to perform in the GDR and all his publications and records appeared only in the West Die Drahtharfe , Mit Marx- und Engelszungen , Deutschland. Having been given permission to take part in a concert tour of the Federal Republic he was deprived of his citizenship on 16 November after performing with spectacular success in Cologne.

He belongs both to an international line of poetmusicians incl. Despite the difficulties of maintaining his role in the West and the occasional signs of resignation e. A journey to Hamburg in inspired the stanzas of Deutschland. Yet even birthday poems for his children are given a political dimension in the context of the nuclear threat.

Klappe zu. Billinger, Richard — Born in Upper Austria, from peasant stock, Billinger trained for the priesthood but later turned to writing. His novels deal with the interaction of the sacred and the profane, generally in a rural setting: Die Asche des Fegefeuers established his reputation. Das Schutzengelhaus deals with the experiences of Philomela Spielhahn, a town-dweller, during a holiday in the country, a situation somewhat akin to that of Cold Comfort Farm.

Perchtenspiel , first performed at the Salzburg Festival mixes natural and supernatural, modern and mystical, in an uncomfortable manner; Rauhnacht and Spiel vom Knecht anticipate the theatre of Franz Xaver Kroetz. The Gesammelte Werke twelve volumes appeared between and Binding, Rudolf — An author known primarily through his Novellen and war diary, Rudolf Binding was a late developer as a writer and did not publish until he was over forty. The Gesammelte Werke two volumes appeared in , with Die Briefe in The Nazis forbade him to write because of his expressionist poetry; he died almost completely blind.

Blei, Franz — Blei, a versatile critic, essayist and writer, was most influential in the literary life at the turn of the century, founding various journals, of which Hyperion was the most famous. Blei also wrote poetry and plays, some conventional Der dunkle Weg and Logik des Herzens , but Die Welle, produced by Hugo Ball in the Munich Kammerspiele , with Blei himself acting in it, demonstrated his links with more experimental theatre.

He died in Westbury, Long Island. Six volumes of Vermischte Schriften were published from to ; the Schriften in Auswahl, with an essay by A. A-Z 33 Blunck, Hans — A writer of prose, poetry and plays, Hans Blunck born in Altona became identified with Blut und Boden literature and the cult of North-German earnestness, mission and superiority. From to Blunck was president of the newlyformed Reichsschrifttumskammer; relations between him and Joseph Goebbels became strained, and Hanns Johst replaced him. A ten-volume edition of his writings appeared in he received the Goethe medal in the same year.

Blunck was pronounced a Nazi sympathizer and collaborator by the Denazification Tribunal in he insisted that the verdict was unjust. The Gesammelte Werke in Einzelausgaben fifteen vols appeared from to ; Dramen und Lustspiele two vols , also in ; Das Gesamtwerk four vols between and Bobrowski, Johannes —65 Bobrowski was born in Tilsit and grew up in Memel, and all his poetry and much of his prose result from the effort to reconstruct through memory the landscape and childhood experiences of this frontier area, in which Poles, Lithuanians, Russians and Jews had lived in close proximity for generations.

Bobrowski was both conservative in his debt to poets such as Klopstock mainly ignored in the twentieth century and, in the context of GDR writing, in his Christian commitment, and modernist in his development of free verse and of a fragmentary prose form which allows several voices and perspectives to emerge. Along with Peter Huchel he is a master of the humanized landscape.

Despite his circumscribed themes his influence is present in the work of several writers, incl. Bobrowski wrote his earliest poems as a soldier in Russia, some of which appeared in the periodical Das innere Reich before the end of the war, but the majority of his poems can be dated to the years — The award in the latter year of the prize of Gruppe 47 after his second reading before the group and the publication of his first collection Sarmatische Zeit made him known in the West.

Ganz neue Xenien , the last a series of satirical epigrams on figures in the contemporary German literary landscape. Haufe, appeared from The attitudes which find consistent expression in both his fiction and his public writings e. All present the senselessness of war by adopting the perspective of the ordinary soldier whose only escape from the horrors of combat, the total subordination to his superiors and the souldestroying boredom of military routine is the memory or fantasy of private happiness.

In Und sagte kein einziges Wort the predicament of the soldier come home, forced by inadequate housing to meet his wife in hotel rooms, is exacerbated by the unsympathetic attitude of the better off and contrasted with ecclesiastical pomp and tasteless advertising. Their accounts, in throwing light on the separate stages of her biography, add up to a panorama of the period to , placing Gruppenbild firmly in the tradition of the Zeitroman. Acts of terrorism by the Rote Armee Faktion better known as the Baader-Meinhof group forced the authorities in the Federal Republic to mobilize state power to an extent unprecedented in its history in order to arrest, try and convict them.

While the anti-terrorist campaign undoubtedly had the support of public A companion to twentieth-century german literature 36 opinion, it occasionally led to excesses which undermined rights guaranteed by the constitution as those suspected of sympathizing with or sheltering terrorists were subjected to police surveillance and vilified by sections of the press.

For all his faults, parochialism, sentimentality, black-and-white characterization, he demonstrated that the novel is still able to show how people relate to one another as members of a family, a community and a nation. A collected edition, Werke, in ten volumes, appeared in Bonsels, Waldemar — Traveller, publisher and writer of popular novels and stories, Bonsels made his reputation with Die Biene Maja und ihre Abenteuer , a charming account of a queen bee and the adventures that befall it. A year before his death he republished, under the title Das vergessene Licht, an earlier pseudo-Christian novel.

Borchardt, Rudolf — An author remembered for his essays and translations, Borchardt was one of a group of writers R. The neo-romantic aspects of his earlier poetry Jugendgedichte increasingly gave way to classical forms. Borchardt was an accomplished linguist and translated from Greek, English and Italian: his Dante Deutsch —30 is an acknowledged masterpiece. Borchardt was a close associate of Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Vermischte Gedichte appeared in The novel Vereinigung durch den Feind hindurch was published in Vienna: the title refers to an essay on military tactics.

Borchardt, who was partly Jewish, was arrested by the Gestapo, but later released; he died in the Tyrol at the end of the war. He also wrote numerous poems, only a few of which were eventually published. Die traurigen Geranien made available further unpublished material. His first novel Der zweite Tag , in which the impressions received on a train journey are registered in minute detail, bare of symbol and metaphor, can be associated with the Cologne school of realism including Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner.

The poems, eventually collected in Gedichte — , show the influence of the Americans W. Politics, reflection on the function of poetry and moments of satisfaction and hope contrasted with fear of the impersonal forces of the state are further topics in the later poems. In taking up a Third World theme, it marks a significant departure from what was in danger of becoming a new provincialism and can be compared with similar works by Uwe Timm and F. The play Rotter concerns the self-imposed conformity of an underprivileged figure determined to prove himself in both the Third Reich and the early years of reconstruction.

Liebe macht Tod is a variation of Romeo and Juliet. Braun, Felix — A fervent literary disciple of Hofmannsthal, Felix Braun was a minor writer associated with the Viennese cultural scene at the turn of the century his autobiography Das Licht der Welt. Geschichte eines Versuches, als Dichter zu leben gives a sympathetic and informative account of meetings with Hofmannsthal, Rilke, Wildgans, Ginzkey, Mell, Stefan Zweig, Werfel and others.

He travelled widely, living in Italy and also in exile in England. His verse dramas betray much sensitivity but little dramatic talent: themes are derived from classical antiquity Tantalos , Aktaion and Der Tod des Aischylos and from the history of the house of Habsburg Kaiser Karl V and Rudolf der Stifter. The collections Wir und nicht sie , Gedichte , extended and Gegen die symmetrische Welt are marked by mastery of numerous short forms and a critical dialogue with earlier German poets.

The dialectic of past and present, of Utopian hope and reality is treated in manifold variations, culminating in the last volume in fragmentary forms which appear to reflect a fear of stagnation. Bodenloser Satz presents the decline of the GDR through an account of environmental pollution. Texte in zeitlicher Folge appeared in eight volumes between and Brecht, Bertolt — Brecht was one of a group of young dramatists who emerged during the early years of the Weimar Republic and whose works frequently awarded the Kleist prize created theatrical scandals by their fearless outspokenness and reluctance to conform to accepted standards.

Through collaboration with Feuchtwanger and others Brecht, with cunning and undeniable talent, kept abreast of the modern techniques of a man like Piscator. It was after the enormous success of this work, a work that the audience seemed bent on enjoying at all costs, that Brecht tended to the extremes of dogmatism which he felt were necessary to convey his social message: the need for a new society, free from exploitation and privilege.

What makes Mann ist Mann , the Dreigroschenoper and Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny — 9 such good entertainment is the plenitude of ebullient characters, rooted in a fantastic Victorian, Anglo-American or Anglo-Indian world never found in reality but culled from the legends of the roaring twenties, or the heyday of the British Raj; Brecht never ceased to admire the world of boxers, lumberjacks, colonial soldiers and gangsters, which he may, in part, have derived from the expressionist cult of vital, atavistic forces.

Brecht needed also the stimulus of collaboration, which stemmed from a sincere desire to discuss and learn rather than from paucity of invention, as the critic Alfred Kerr claimed, who sought constantly to detect plagiarism. Brecht wrote closely with Klabund, who would later give Brecht the idea for Der kaukasische Kreidekreis. After the burning of the Reichstag Brecht fled to Vienna; he attended the meeting at Sanary-sur-mer of exiled writers, and thence moved to Denmark, to the province of Svendborg, where he watched events in Germany most closely.

A-Z 43 The view that Brecht, deprived of a theatre, turned his attention to formulating a Marxist aesthetic of drama, a theoretically determined system, is erroneous: the subsequent theorizing was an attempt to explain to himself as well as to others how it happened that this or that particular work had been written and produced in a particular way. His theoretical writings reflect the way in which he meditated upon his own work: there is nothing rigid nor inflexibly ideological about his speculation. The tone is light, frequently wryly humorous, often curious, but always allowing for movement and renewal; a rare intelligence is at work which questions, worries, retreats, adapts and restates.

The Messingkauf dialogues, a four-handed conversation piece, relate more directly to theatrical problems, and stress above all the need for lightness of touch, Spiel, and a kind of elegance in acting which contains sobriety within it. The rapier thrust is preferred to the sabre blow, the elliptical precision of Chinese art to Germanic ponderousness and an athletic form of acting to the pretentiously histrionic.

This was to be the play with which the Berliner Ensemble opened in ; it has remained in the repertoire ever since and has been staged by the leading theatres throughout the world. Every scene, and there are twelve of them, is supposed to stand as a self-contained unit indeed, in theory they should be virtually interchangeable , but a cumulative effect is undeniable, and there are moments that are conventionally dramatic, which enthral, rather than alienate, the audience.

Brecht did not approve of the reactions of the audience after the first performance: in notes to the play he added certain modifications which were intended to emphasize the more negative qualities of the central character. He had been forced, he A companion to twentieth-century german literature 44 claimed, to overstate the differences between the conventional theatre and his own in order that certain abuses be rectified: there was nothing sacrosanct or dogmatic about his suggestions.

As early as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny he had, in fact, stressed that an overschematic differentiation between dramatic and epic was unsuitable: it was simply a matter of emphasis.

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In he had written a conventional play—admittedly not one of his best—on Aristotelian lines, Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar, which provided opportunity for splendid acting on the part of the heroine. Brecht turned on the critics and admonished them to look at his plays as plays, without preconceived ideas or theories. His initial concern was to show Galileo as a man determined to live, whose cunning recantation enables the truth to be heard despite the strictures of the Church. The issues are intellectual, but the play provides magnificent theatre, especially in the scene of the dressing of the Pope, the transformation of man to institution as each layer of clothing is added.

The Soviet purges sickened him, as did the American situation: the work on the film Hangmen Also Die with Fritz Lang made him entirely disillusioned with the American film industry. The theme of goodness occupied him once again, but the basic theme concerns the rightness of giving the child or the disputed land to those best able to tend or cultivate it.

The play is most successful in the portrayal of the judge Azdak, a figure compounded of the vitality and amoral zest of Baal, of Puntila and, to a lesser extent, of Galileo himself. Brecht returned to Europe at the end of The setting up of his own Theater am Schiffbauerdamm brought little comfort: the Berliner Ensemble was boycotted by the orthodox critics, the workers made up only a small percentage of the audience, and government pressure was brought to bear at every point.

It is perhaps significant that Brecht wrote nothing of original merit for the theatre after his return to East Berlin; he adapted, produced and modified, turning his attention, amongst other things, to Waiting for Godot and Pineapple Poll. He withdrew again into poetry and wrote, in the Buckower Elegien, some of his finest.

With economy, grace and sobriety he evoked a world of trees and water, silence and serenity, far from the turmoil of Berlin. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 46 Brinkmann, Rolf Dieter —75 Brinkmann, whose early death in a road accident on a visit to London put an end to a career which may or may not have been in the doldrums, began in association with the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner, etc. Never political, he combined crude vitalism, linguistic virtuosity and an obsession with the surface detail of everyday life; only the last of these features, however, was taken up and developed by others e.

While his poetry already seems dated and undisciplined, his final major prose work Rom. Blicke may prove to be a seminal work in its combination of verbal and photographic commentary, besides maintaining the strong German tradition of literature portraying the metropolis.

Britting, Georg — Poet, playwright and writer of narrative prose, Britting started to write after the First World War he was badly wounded in He collaborated on many expressionist journals Die rote Erde, Der Sturmreiter, Der silberne Spiegel and edited his own, Die Sichel, with Josef Achmann, who contributed the graphic designs. Britting greatly admired Georg Heym; he also wrote grotesque versions of biblical themes Hiob, Kain, Jor auf der Flucht, etc. During the Second World War Britting turned increasingly to nature poetry, leaving behind the excesses of expressionism and the parodistic elements of Hamlet.

Lob des Weines, a collection of twenty poems, appeared in more were added after the war Britting turned to traditional themes and structures, although his imagery remained fresh and striking. Broch insisted upon an intellectualization of the novel, on working out, by sheer intellectual effort, the troubles of the world. Theoretical essays alternated with works of imagination: philosophical, mass-psychological and socio-economic investigations return ultimately to a religious realization of the fallenness of man; the inability to love is the root cause, for Broch, of human unhappiness.

Both Broch and Musil embarked upon vast novels that would encompass the problems of the age, combining rationalism and mysticism. The Schlafwander trilogy —2 , encyclopedic and polyhistorical novels, have as their concern the disintegration of values and the decay of European civilization in the period — The first, Pasenow oder die Romantik, has been compared with Fontane, but the secure ground of the nineteenth century has been left far behind: the age seems bent on radical solutions, and the symbol of the uniform seems an apt one. The second, Esch oder die Anarchie, portrays the insubstantiality of the existence of the small book-keeper Esch, who is able neither to escape from Europe nor to come to terms with it; the third, Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit, portrays violence and anarchic forces which destroy the narcissistic world of the heroine.

The realization of the helplessness of the word when faced by the unspeakable will be a concern of many writers in the twentieth century, especially in German-speaking countries. The fourth novel, Die Schuldlosen , treats twentieth-century themes and uses certain dates , and as points of reference: the dangers of solipsism are analysed with considerable sensitivity.

The novel is uncomfortably suspended between political allegory and romantic myth. The character of Mutter Gisson with her Demeterlike qualities fails to convince, the symbolism being forced and obtrusive, but the description of mass psychology is masterful. The speculative study on A companion to twentieth-century german literature 48 Massenpsychologie stands comparison with the essay Masse und Macht by Elias Canetti as one of the most perceptive analyses of the relationship between the individual self and the corporate whole.

Broch, of Jewish parentage, was arrested when the Nazis invaded Austria, but was released on the intervention of writers like James Joyce. He settled in America and wrote his last novels there. The Gesammelte Schriften ten vols appeared between and reprinted ; the Kommentierte Werkausgabe 13—17 vols appeared from to His early story Tod den Toten! As a Jew, Brod became a Zionist in , and he became especially interested in the more conservative faith of his co-religionists from the eastern provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Brod emigrated to Tel Aviv in and died there in In that year his autobiography Streitbares Leben appeared, which contains enlightening references to Kafka and also to Franz Werfel, of whose conversion to Christianity see Das Lied von Bernadette Brod did not approve.

He produced three volumes of war poetry, Aus meiner Kriegszeit. Gedichte , Kamerad, als wir marschierten. Kriegsgedichte and Soldaten der Erde. Neue Kriegsgedichte A war novel, Bunker Geschichte einer Kameradschaft , was widely read it was translated into English as Pillbox Gesamtausgabe der Gedichte in Eine Auswahl der Gedichte appeared in Bronnen, Arnolt originally Bronner, — Dramatist and novelist, Bronnen was one of the most extreme of the young talented writers who made the opening years of the Weimar Republic a fascinating and often disturbing experience.

His play Vatermord written in , performed in Berlin in was the first of many scandals that surrounded his name; the portrayal of brutal violence and uninhibited sexuality outraged the audience. Die Geburt der Jugend is a chaotic description of anarchic youth; the older generation is annihilated by sexually demented adolescents.

In his comedy Die Exzesse the erotic desires of the woman, Hildegarde, find satisfaction in contemplation of intercourse with a goat. Katalaunische Schlacht looks back to the war as a time of frenzied and erotic ecstasy. Rheinische Rebellen is an overtly nationalist play; Ostpolzug , a monodrama, fuses ancient and modern in its portrayal of Alexander the Great. The novel O. Bronnen worked for the film industry in the s, also the Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft.

His relations with the Nazis were, however, strained. His autobiography Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll appeared in ; Tage mit Brecht posthumously in Bruckner, Ferdinand pseudonym of Theodor Tagger, — Primarily a dramatist, Bruckner achieved fame in with his play Krankheit der Jugend, a crass and naturalistic portrayal of adolescent sexuality, much indebted to Freud.

Bruckner used techniques made famous by Erwin Piscator; his greatest success was Elisabeth von England , where the stage is again split between the two realms, Catholic Madrid and Protestant London, with both antagonists praying to the same god for victory. Bruckner also turned his attention, with less success, to classical themes Timon and Pyrrhus und Andromache perf.

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  8. A very successful play was Die Rassen , one which exploits the generation conflict and also the tension between Jew and Aryan. Bruckner emigrated to America in and returned to Europe in , spending the last years of his life in Berlin. Dramatische Werke and Schauspiele nach historischen Studien were both published in An edition of Dramen appeared in Brust was helped by Kurt Wolff; he lived in isolation in Memel and moved to Cranz after the Lithuanian occupation.

    Brust shares with many expressionists a predilection for crass and often shocking climaxes. Brust turned towards a portrayal of pseudoreligious experiences in a series of other plays Cordatus. He died in obscurity, isolation and poverty at the age of forty-three; the Nazis initially tolerated his writing, believing him to be an acceptable poet of East Prussian life, although later his work was condemned as degenerate.

    The Dramen — ed. Horst Denkler appeared in Since then he has written stories Ein schwarzer, abgrundtiefer See , extended and Babylon and novels which concentrate on human foibles and idiosyncrasies in domestic and professional contexts, although social and political pressures, implicitly criticized, are present in various forms. Essays Kritiken Glossen Unpolitische Betrachtungen zu Literatur und Politik demonstrate individual interests Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and more general concerns of his generation ecology, post-history, apocalypse , the latter present also in Bericht aus dem Innern der Unruhe.

    Gorlebener Tagebuch , on demonstrations against nuclear power. Central to the rest of his work is his relationship to the American continent and in particular Haiti, which he visited for the first time in and where he has ancestral links. In the reportages Aus der neuen Welt. Afro-amerikanische Impressionen An informative document on Burckhardt is the Festschrift which appeared on his seventieth birthday, Dauer im Wechsel Burger, Hermann —89 Burger studied in Zurich, wrote dissertations on Paul Celan and contemporary Swiss literature and taught for a while at the Federal Technical University in Zurich.

    His chief works, Schilten. Burger shares with the Austrian Thomas Bernhard and with other contemporary Swiss writers e. Meyer the theme of death as the ultimate threat to personal identity, which he treats with an even greater degree of linguistic virtuosity and reflective intensity. He committed suicide in Brunsloben and Menzenmang volume I and volume II, chapters 1—7 of the planned tetralogy Brenner on the scion of a cigar manufacturing dynasty in search of his childhood appeared in and Der unsichtbare Held, a Nibelungen drama, appeared in the same year.

    A companion to twentieth-century german literature 54 Burte published poems in Alemannic dialect Madlee ; a further anthology appeared in Die Seele des Maien. Burte received much acclaim for his work, the Kleist prize for Wildfeber and other distinctions during the Third Reich. The sinologist Peter Kien, obsessed by his own private library, and retreating ever further into a state of solipsism, is ultimately destroyed by fire, ancient symbol of transformation. The other characters, Pfaff, Theresa Krumbholz and Fischerle, are also utterly self-centred and convinced of their own importance.

    The idea for the novel came to Canetti in when he witnessed the burning of the Palace of Justice by a mob in Vienna.

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    Canetti moved to Paris in and to London in the following year. In he published Masse und Macht, a sociological, anthropological study of crowds and power: here fire is interpreted as a symbol for the crowd. A collection of aphorisms made between and , Aufzeichnungen, appeared in Das Geheimnis der Uhr. Aufzeichnungen — appeared in In Canetti was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 56 Carossa, Hans — Son of a doctor, Hans Carossa studied medicine in Munich and Leipzig, then settled as a medical practitioner in Bavaria.

    Verwandlungen einer Jugend is a less successful sequel. The novel Geheimnisse des reifen Lebens uses the diary form to explore human relationships. After the war Carossa attempted to explain his situation at that time in Ungleiche Welten Further autobiographical details of his life appeared in Aufzeichnungen aus Italien ; a scattering of short stories appeared in the s.

    In his work Carossa eschews modernist experimentation; he appealed to the educated middle-class German reader with his cultivation of humanistic values derived from Goethe. Unlike his parents Celan escaped deportation when his home was occupied by the Nazis, but awareness of the Holocaust is at the centre of his work, his approach to the problems of language and communication in general long a preoccupation of writers from the linguistic melting-pot of Central Europe and the Balkans being linked to the impossibility of conveying the extreme physical and existential exposure of the persecuted.

    These, together with translations of twentyone sonnets by Shakespeare and poems by Char, Supervielle, Michaux, Yessenin, Mandelstam, Block and others, were assembled in the provisional Gesammelte Werke in five volumes. Despite the increasing number of exegeses see the Celan-Jahrbuch: — there is still uncertainty on the question whether his work may be interpreted by reference to the Bible and the esoteric Judaism in which he was partly educated, or whether it represents an ever more private exploration and probing of language and its elements on the edge of silence.

    He was a man of mystical tendency whose experience of the Holocaust placed obstacles in the way to religious enlightenment; the distortion and reversal of normal syntactical relationships which are a marked feature of his work are related to this central paradox. However, he remained attached to Jewish culture, as is evident especially in late poems set in Jerusalem. Gesammelte Werke five volumes appeared in Chotjewitz, Peter O. His defence of members of the Baader-Meinhof group during the seventies influenced along with Kafka the fragmentary novel Die Herren des Morgengrauens He has also produced works which owe their origin to experiences in Italy Malavita.

    Mafia zwischen A companion to twentieth-century german literature 58 gestern und morgen and Briganten , a play on Mayakovsky Weltmeisterschaft im Klassenkampf and radio plays. Csokor, Franz Theodor — Csokor is known primarily as an Austrian expressionist dramatist. After Csokor fled into eastern Europe; he was finally arrested in Yugoslavia, and interned. A selection of his works, Du bist gemeint, with a foreword by Erhard Buschbeck, appeared in The Zeuge einer Zeit.

    Ein paar Schaufeln Erde. Czechowski, Heinz — Czechowski witnessed the destruction of Dresden, which became the subject of several poems and autobiographical sketches. His melancholy free verse belongs to a tradition of nature poetry which originates in the eighteenth century and is imbued with an awareness of how his predecessors have responded to the same mainly Saxon landscapes and the effects on them of industrial development. In all these one can detect a movement from a positive depiction of everyday life in the GDR and a straightforward autobiographical approach to the expression of a more complex subjectivity, sceptical of conventional views of progress.

    Nachtspur consists of poems and prose from to His vast epic Das Nordlicht, which took him twelve years to write, was published in some thirty thousand lines long, it is a vast cosmogony, characterized by frequently bizarre neologisms. The works that follow Das Nordlicht, particularly the collection of sketches Mit silberner Sichel , contain much talented writing: monstrous hyperbole gives way to an unsuspected delicacy. Dichtungen und Schriften appeared in , and Gedichte in In the following year his best-known work appeared, Ultra Violett.

    He travelled extensively; a collection of Novellen again, greatly influenced by Jugendstil topoi appeared in Die acht Gesichter am Biwasee. Japanische Liebesgeschichten it was reprinted in and was extremely popular. In the same year his second novel, Raubmenschen, was published: the descriptions of Mexico and other countries are little more than travelogues. Dauthendey responded sensitively to the Orient and popularized the culture of the Far East: he was interned in Java during the First World War and died there.

    Erlebnisse aus Java and Letzte Reise appeared posthumously. His Gesammelte Werke six vols appeared in Degenhardt, Franz Josef — Degenhardt became known in the s as author, composer and performer to his own guitar accompaniment of protest songs, of which there have been numerous recordings and publications, incl. As a novelist he is associated with the realists published by the Autoren-Edition incl.

    Fuchs, Timm , who aim to raise political consciousness in a wide readership by showing how political forces impinge on the lives of ordinary people. Dehmel, Richard — A student of the natural sciences, philosophy and economy, Dehmel took up writing in the Berlin of the s and reflected in his poetry the main preoccupations of the following two decades: Nietzscheanism, naturalism, impressionism, Jugendstil and a latent expressionism.

    His poetry is marked by a powerful sensuality, compassion and a keen intellect. Dehmel stresses in many poems the joy to be found in sexual love, together with hope for true emancipation in the future. His work is at its best in the portrayal of sensuous love and in its sincere, humanitarian beliefs.

    Although exempt from enlistment due to injuries received at school after a fall from a horizontal bar , Dehmel joined the army in he was over 50 at the time : his experiences are described in Zwischen Volk und Menschheit Dehmel was in close contact with the major writers of his day; he contributed to the leading literary journals. Gesammelte Werke ten vols appeared from to a three-volume selection in A posthumous autobiography, Mein Leben, was published in In appeared Dichtungen, Briefe, Dokumente. His awareness of the forces at work in contemporary society and of how their interaction affects individual lives underlies all his novels.

    In Adenauerplatz a security guard employed to watch over a shopping and business complex in an anonymous German city is forced to confront the contradictions of his position as a refugee from Chile after the fall of Allende when he is drawn into collusion with a plot by friends to burgle an international wheeler-dealer with a stake in the political status quo in South America; having become aware of the ramifications of Third World exploitation he decides to abandon his job and return to Chile.

    Mogadischu Fensterplatz is a fictional treatment from the perspective of an ordinary passenger of the hijack carried out by members of the Baader-Meinhof group in Somalia in and reflects a deepening concern with Third World topics evident also in the work of Born and Timm. Die Birnen von Ribbeck , a story consisting of a single sentence seventy pages long, describes the impact of the opening of the Wall on a farm in provincial GDR made famous by a ballad of Fontane.

    The publication of Part One met with little interest, the exception being Karl Wolfskehl, who looked back on it with great pleasure during his New Zealand exile. Das Werk six volumes was published in The first of these was much acclaimed and widely read; in crudely sensational terms it describes the poisoning of the blood of a German woman, Johanna, through once having had intercourse with a Jew. The child born to Johanna and her husband Hermann, both blond and Germanic, is dark and of Jewish appearance. Hermann kills the Jew and returns to find that his wife has killed the child and has committed suicide.

    A collection of Novellen appeared in , bearing the title of the first story, Die Ermordung einer Butterblume, an account of mental disturbance and, in fact, little more than a catalogue of neuroses. Wallenstein two vols , which appeared in , deals with the historical figures of the Thirty Years War but also hints at wider issues—the role of the individual during a time of massive upheaval.

    Comparisons have been made with Manhattan Transfer and Ulysses Hans Henny Jahnn and others referred in their reviews to the Irish novelist : interior monologue, collage and montage convey the density as well as the fragmentary and elusive quality of life. Biberkopf sinks from one stage of degradation to another: obstinate, gullible, and at times violent, he is crushed beneath a force stronger than he. Babylonische Wandrung curses the sin of pride and portrays with grotesque humour the passage of the hero through the Babylon of Western civilization in a journey of selfexploration and expiation.

    The work appears formless a fusion of mythology, history, modern events, statistical facts and popular songs , but an inexhaustible richness cannot be denied. In he became a convert to Roman Catholicism and after the war he returned to Paris, working in the cultural department of the French military government his son Wolfgang had been killed in the war, fighting as a French soldier. Questions are asked concerning the possibility of responsible action and the ultimate meaning of human existence.

    Doderer, Heimito von — Born near Vienna, Doderer enlisted in the Austrian army as a young man and became a Russian prisoner of war in his novel Die Geheimnisse des Reichs , an account of the Russian civil war, is obviously based on his experiences he returned to Austria in Doderer studied history at Vienna University, received his doctorate in and dedicated himself to creating an epic description of the city he knew so well. He had published a book of poems, Gassen und Landschaften, in , also a short novel, Die Bresche, in , but Doderer felt that he needed the breadth of the full-scale novel to do his subject Vienna justice.

    Other novels, Ein Mord, den jeder begeht , Der Umweg and Die erleuchteten Fenster , are best regarded as sophisticated detective stories and thrillers, meant for a wide readership. The hero is one Melzer, former imperial officer, now senior official in the new republic. The years —11 and —5 are compared and contrasted. The book is felt to lack social awareness, despite the rich clutter A-Z 67 of its scenario. A certain pretentiousness cannot be denied here, also much implausibility the worker Leonhard Kakabsa, for example, who experiences Latin as an almost mystical illumination. This novel is meant to be part of a cycle bearing the title Roman Nr.

    Der Grenzwald, a fragmentary part of this cycle, appeared posthumously in She made her final return to Germany in , since when she has lived in Heidelberg. She has also produced autobiographical writings, Von der Natur nicht vorgesehen , Aber die Hoffnung. Roman in Segmenten , revised version Her editorial work includes the anthology Nachkrieg und Unfrieden and Doppelinterpretationen , in which brief essays by readers and authors on poems by the latter are juxtaposed.

    The A companion to twentieth-century german literature 68 poetological reflections present in the introductions and epilogues to these volumes are continued in the Frankfurt lectures Das Gedicht als Augenblick der Freiheit Dorst, Tankred — Dorst served in the army at the end of the Second World War, was a POW until , then studied German literature, art and drama in Munich, where he has continued to live.

    His plays since the early s are the result of a close working partnership with his wife Ursula Ehler. He then collaborated with the director Peter Zadek on the television film Rotmord , based on this play, and on the revue Kleiner Mann— was nun? The film scenario Sand , radio play , which explores the motives for a political murder in , was followed by A-Z 69 Eiszeit , on an old man who can be identified as the unrepentant Nazi sympathizer Knut Hamsun; with his stubborn will to live he is contrasted with his would-be assassin who commits suicide.

    The late s were occupied with the Merz cycle, an extensive chronicle in various media of a middle-class family between the late s and the present consisting of Auf dem Chimborazo , play, radio play and television film , Dorothea Merz , novel and television film , Klaras Mutter , story and television film , Die Villa , play , Mosch , film , Fragment einer Reise nach Stettin , radio play , Die Reise nach Stettin , scenario and Heinrich oder die Schmerzen der Phantasie , play and radio play , which together form a vivid panorama of German history.

    Karlos first performed is a version of the material made famous by Schiller in Don Carlos. Fernando Krapp hat mir diesen Brief geschrieben presents a woman between two constrasting men, Herr Paul , first performed a conflict between progress and stasis with surreal effects, as a young entrepreneur attempts to dislodge an old couple Paul and his sister from his new business premises.

    Wie Dilldapp nach dem Riesen ging is another play. A Werkausgabe has been in progress since He returned to Vienna in and again took up legal practice. His prose works include the autobiographical Z. Drach can thus be associated with Lind, Hilsenrath and Tabori as an advocate of black humour in order to expose persecution in general and that of the Jews in particular. Oktoberlicht portrays a day in the life of a middle-aged woman who visits her scattered family after a stay in hospital; in Wer verteidigt Katrin Lambert?

    Eingeschlossen , in which Jesus and Prometheus confront one another as a social worker and an atomic physicist who have become the inmates of a mental hospital, represents a significant departure from the naturalism of her previous work. For A-Z 71 many years he, together with Frisch, represented contemporary drama in German to the rest of the world.

    Early influences consisted of the theology absorbed at home—he was, especially in his early years, exercised by theological problems in what he recognized as a post-religious age and therefore approaches existentialism—and the plays of Thornton Wilder and Brecht. In the context of the breakdown of ideological confrontation in the late s, the play appears unwittingly prophetic.

    His other writings include two volumes of Theaterschriften und Reden , , Der Mitmacher. A Werkausgabe in thirty volumes appeared in , Gesammelte Werke eight volumes in and Das dramatische Werk seventeen volumes in A Werkausgabe in seven volumes appeared in E Edschmid, Kasimir pseudonym of Eduard Schmid, — Edschmid studied Romance languages in Munich, Geneva, Paris and Strasbourg; he rapidly associated himself with the young writers of expressionism and became a tireless propagator and theoretician of that movement.

    Er sieht nicht, er schaut. Er schildert nicht, er erlebt. Er gibt nicht wieder, er gestaltet. Er nimmt nicht, er sucht. Nun gibt es die Vision davon. In later life he wrote on expressionism again Lebendiger Expressionismus ; his diary Tagebuch —60 also contains reminiscences. Ehrenstein, Albert — Born in Vienna, son of Hungarian Jewish parents, Ehrenstein was discovered by Karl Kraus, who published his poems and grotesque prose sketches in Die kackel. Ehrenstein went to Switzerland during the First World War; he led a restless life afterwards, travelling through Europe and Asia in an attempt to find and cherish the finest manifestations of human civilization.

    Ehrenstein fled to New York, where he died in a hospital for the poor in Gedichte und Prosa ed. Eich also achieved prominence in the s as the principal contributor, along with Ilse Aichinger, whom he married in , Ingeborg Bachmann and Wolfgang Weyrauch, to the renaissance of radio drama, composing some fifteen plays within the decade. In his treatise Negerplastik appeared, containing illustrations of African masks and statues. Einstein pleaded for a new three-dimensionality, finding in African carvings a sense of spatial structure similar to that created by cubism.

    Jahrhunderts sought to combine the assessment of primitivism with social awareness. Einstein identified with the anarchists in the Spanish Civil War and fought with them; he returned to France, but was interned when the German armies invaded. Unable to return to Spain because of his previous involvement he committed suicide at Gave de Pau. Gesammelte Werke ed.

    A companion to twentieth-century german literature 76 Eisenreich, Herbert —86 Eisenreich lived in Vienna and Upper Austria, except for a period of war service, four years as a writer for the newspaper Die Zeit and the radio in the Federal Republic and a stay in France. These and his novels show him to have been the last representative of a tradition of Austrian social fiction which reached its zenith in the work of Joseph Roth and Heimito von Doderer.

    Die abgelegte Zeit is the surviving fragment of a novel which originally had the title Sieger und Besiegte and presents from the standpoint of the efforts of a number of characters to adapt to the situation after the Second World War in the spirit advocated by a resigned and conciliatory Austrian general in the theory of retreat he devises in the last weeks of the war. Elsner, Gisela —92 Elsner achieved fame and notoriety at a stroke with the award of the Formentor Prize for her first novel Die Riesenzwerge The gruesome, grotesque effects conveyed here by mainly concentrating on the meal rituals of the petty bourgeois family can be related to the distanced distortions evident in the work of Grass, Jakov Lind and the early Peter Weiss rather than to the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Born with whom she was initially associated.

    They are less manifest in her later novels, but she remained primarily a satirist of contemporary social and domestic mores in the Federal Republic, viewed from the committed standpoint of a member of the West German Communist Party. In Der Nachwuchs the narrator is a repulsive child treated as a pet by its parents and forced to make a late discovery of the world beyond the confines of the stuffy family house; narrator, family and neighbours appear, as in Die Riesenzwerge, in the same jaundiced light.

    Das Windei covers forty years in the lives of a couple determined to maintain an affluence they have been brought up to take for granted by means of a shady construction business which ends in bankruptcy. Ende, Michael —95 Ende is the most prominent recent author of stories which aim to appeal to children and adults. His international success is based on Momo and Die unendliche Geschichte , both of which have been filmed.

    In the second the framework narrative set in the real world and the core narrative set in the realm of fantasy are indicated and separated by red and green scripts until after the passing of a critical point which reverses the debilitation of fantasy which had threatened the central child figure. With Kneip Engelke became quickly befriended; after enlistment in the outbreak of the war found him writing his novel Don Juan in Denmark Engelke grew closer to Lersch. An enthusiastic proclamation of a higher humanity pulsates throughout much of his work.

    A selection of his poems appeared in a volume entitled Schulter an Schulter Engelke was killed near Cambrai on 13 October ; he is buried close to the spot where Wilfrid Owen was to die two weeks later. Das Gesamtwerk. Rhythmus des neuen Europa appeared in reprinted Engelmann, Bernd — After service at the front Engelmann was confined to Dachau and other camps until He offered an alternative view of German history in the Deutsches Antigeschichtsbuch Wir Untertanen , covering the period from the Middle Ages to , Einig gegen Recht und Freiheit on the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich and Trotz alledem on German radicals during the last two hundred years.

    He has lived as a free-lance writer or as a lecturer in Norway which inspired some bleak nature poems , Rome and the USA. Enzensberger is a polemicist schooled in the dialectic of Hegel, Marx and Adorno, to the last of whom he owes insights developed in the essays collected in Einzelheiten two volumes and , which rigorously analyse the West German media.

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    His journalism has been collected in the volumes Politik und Verbrechen , Politische Kolportagen , Deutschland, Deutschland unter anderem , Palaver , Politische Brosamen , the seven travel reports Ach Europa! The collections of poems Zukunftsmusik and Kiosk continue the process of growing scepticism and distance from earlier certainties, spiced with metaphysical wit.

    Diderots Schatten assembles all the writings on the French sage who has long been admired by Enzensberger. Enzensberger has been a key figure in the intellectual life of the Federal Republic from its foundation and his influence far transcends the reputation he has gained from his contribution to any single genre, even poetry. Occasionally derided as a chameleon figure he has demonstrated by his polemical talent, his wit, his cosmopolitanism, his versatility in several media and his ability to take a broad view of social and political developments and to assess their implications in a pragmatic spirit unusual in the German left, that, as in the days of Heinrich Heine, there is a place for positive subversion.

    A visit to Italy turned his attention to questions of artistry rather than politics: a neo-romantic phase giving way rapidly to neo-classicism. As Dramaturg in Weimar —14 Ernst wrote a series of historical plays including Demetrios , Canossa , Brunhild and Ninon de Lenclos After the patriotic tone in his writing became more pronounced, and his conservative stance more extreme; the basic human problems, Ernst believed, were revealed more clearly in rural, even feudal, society than amongst the urban proletariat.

    The hero of the first, one Hans Werther, rejects social and political pre-occupations and finds fulfilment in marriage and agriculture. His essays including Der Weg zur Form advocate restraint and order in writing and a hierarchical ideal in society. The attempt to rescue the verse-epic Das Kaiserbuch —8 , and Der Heiland was largely unsuccessful. His Gesammelte Werke now largely unread appeared between and in twenty-one volumes.