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Until comparatively recent years its operation afforded an excellent comparison of State revenue from year to year, hut successive changes in system have largely destroyed the comparability of the figures. This applies particularly to the last few years, in which certain amounts previously shown as credits in reduction of expenditure have been treated as receipts.

This change in the mode of presentation of the public accounts was not brought into full operation until —47, but the figures for —46 and previous years shown in Section 24A have been adjusted to bring them into line with present practice. The next table contains a summary of payments from the Consolidated Fund for the financial years —48 and — Taxation credited up to the year —46 to the War Expenses Account was in later years paid to the Consolidated Fund, and, per contra , certain expenditure previously charged to the War Expenses Account was met from the Consolidated Fund.

Taxation pp. Taxation receipts of the Consolidated Fund were augmented during —47 and later years by the crediting to that Fund of receipts formerly included under the heading of war taxation and credited to the War Expenses Account. A summary showing the amounts received from direct taxes on income and from all sources during the last ten years is now given.

Stale Indebtedness pp. The following table shows for each of the ten years ended 31st March, , the amount of debt outstanding according to country of domicile. Information concerning the various benefits under the Social Security Act, , is contained in Section 25 of this Year-Book. The increases granted during and effective from the 1st June of that year have been incorporated in the text.

A summary showing particulars of the various social security benefits and war pensions in force at the end of March, , together with total payments during the financial year —49 is as follows:—. Retail Prices pp. A description of this index number, together with figures for previous periods, is given in Appendix e of this Year-Book.

Details for the quarter ended 30th September, , are given below together with the indices for the June, quarter. Wholesale Prices pp. Share Prices pp. Employment p. Statistics of employment in industry are now compiled by the Department of Labour and Employment.

In the following table the distribution of employees in the main industrial groups in April, , is shown. The figures cover units in which at least two persons including working proprietors are engaged. The following notes on the composition of various groups are necessary towards an understanding of the coverage of the figures. In this connection it is of interest to record that the number of persons engaged on farms, including occupiers, on 31st January, , was: males, ,; females, 12,; total, , Wage-rates pp.

Effective Weekly Wage-rates. It is obvious that this factor is of considerable importance, for a rise in wage-rates may be offset by a fall in the purchasing-power of the monetary unit, while, on the other hand, a fall in money wages may be offset by a rise in the purchasing-power of money. The following table compares nominal and effective weekly wage-rates of adult male and female workers in each of the years — The year is incomplete, but the first three quarters are shown. In considering these figures it should not be overlooked that the index number of effective wage-rates in common, of course, with that of nominal wage-rates applies only to full-time employment at award rates of pay.

The index does not take into account overtime, short time, unemployment, alterations in the standard hours constituting a week's work, or wages-tax. Particulars of the taxes imposed on wages are given on page Industrial Disputes. Figures for earlier years are shown on pages — of this Year-Book. Industrial Accidents. The distribution of industrial accidents in according to the source of information accidents to Printing and Stationery Department employees being included in the Factory group is indicated in the following table.

The next table gives accident severity statistics for the calendar years and Shipping and Cargo Handled pp. Statistics of shipping movement and cargo handled at New Zealand ports in and are given below. In the following table the country of registry of inwards overseas shipping in is shown. Of the total net tonnage of inwards overseas vessels in 1,, tons , ships on the United Kingdom registry accounted for 1,, tons— Railway Transport pp. Road Transport pp. Civil Aviation pp. The number of ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen demobilized from the Forces, as recorded by the Rehabilitation Department, up to the end of March, , was ,, of whom , had returned from overseas service and 65, had served with the home Forces.

The following tables give. These loans, which are not repayable so long as the ex-serviceman or his dependants continue in occupation of the property, are granted to bridge the gap between present-day costs and normal values, and each case is considered on its merits. In addition to loans for specific purposes, ex-servicemen may receive financial assistance in certain circumstances by way of special grants or rehabilitation allowances.

The following table shows the number of scholars and students receiving instruction in the educational institutions of New Zealand during the years and Registered private schools are included. Radio Licences p. Commercial Failures pp. Corresponding figures for the calendar year were: bankruptcies, 74; deeds of assignment, Horse-racing pp. Land Transfers pp. Particulars of transfers registered during each of the three years in the period which ended March, , are now given. Mortgages pp. For several years during the war period the value of mortgages released exceeded the amount represented by mortgages registered, but from —47 onwards this trend was reversed despite the fact that discharges were on a heavier scale than previously.

The substantial increase in registrations has been, no doubt, due to transactions connected with the rehabilitation of ex-servicemen. Page 2, Descriptive :—. The year quoted in the fourth line from the bottom of the page should be Page 8, Descriptive :—. Page , Statistics of Principal Industries :—. The figures in the table relating to woollen-mills for the year —47 should be amended for certain items as follows:—.

With South America some 6, miles distant to the east and the Antarctic Continent 1, miles distant to the south, the Islands are, for their size, among the world's most isolated. For statistical purposes, the following classification of the administrative area is the most convenient:—. Islands forming New Zealand proper total area, , square miles :—.

In all further references in this volume, unless the context indicates the contrary, Chatham Islands and Stewart Island are included with the South Island. Outlying islands total area, square miles included within the geographical boundaries of New Zealand as proclaimed in —. At present a meteorological station is maintained on Campbell Island; otherwise none of the outlying islands is regularly inhabited,. Islands total area, square miles annexed to New Zealand:—. Kermadec Islands, annexed in area, 13 square miles.

The total area of the foregoing groups is , square miles. Elsewhere in this issue viz. The latter area does not include the Cook and other Pacific Islands annexed in or the Tokelau Islands. As well as exercising jurisdiction over the areas already mentioned, New Zealand also administers the Ross Dependency and Western Samoa. The administrative appointments for Nauru are made by the Australian Government, but New Zealand appoints a representative to the British Phosphates Commission, which controls the working of the phosphate deposits.

This Minister is charged with the administration of the government of any territory out of New Zealand which may at any time be a dependency or trust territory of New Zealand, or otherwise be under the jurisdiction of the Government or Parliament of New Zealand. The relevant Proclamations, defining from time to time the administrative area of New Zealand, are briefly referred to in the following paragraphs. These limits excluded small portions of the extreme north of the North Island and of the extreme south of Stewart Island. By Proclamation bearing date the 21st July, , the Kermadec Islands, lying between the 29th and 32nd degrees of south latitude and the th and th degrees of west longitude, were declared to be annexed to and to become part of the then colony of New Zealand.

By Proclamation of the 10th June, , the Cook Group of islands, and all the other islands and territories situate within the boundary-lines mentioned in the following schedule, were included as from the 11th June, —. A line commencing at a point at the intersection of the 23rd degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich, and proceeding duo north to the point of intersection of the 8th degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence duo west to the point of intersection of the 8th degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence duo south to the point of intersection of the 17th degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due west to the point of intersection of the 17th degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich; thence due south to the point of intersection of the 23rd degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich; and thence due east to the point of intersection of the 23rd degree of south latitude and the th degree of longitude west of Greenwich.

The territory of Western Samoa was formerly administered pursuant to a mandate conferred upon His Britannic Majesty, to be administered on his behalf by the Government of New Zealand, and confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations on 17th December, This draft agreement replaced the original mandate and thus brought the Territory within the framework of the international trusteeship system established under the United Nations Charter. Under the new agreement the New Zealand Government assumed direct responsibility for the administration of Western Samoa. The agreement was approved by the General Assembly on 13th December, By Imperial Order in Council of the 30th July, , the coasts of the ROSS Sea in the Antarctic regions , with the adjacent islands and territories between the th degree of east longitude and the th degree of west longitude, and south of the 60th degree of south latitude, were declared a British settlement within the meaning of the British Settlements Act, This region was named the Ross Dependency, and placed under the administration of the Governor-General of New Zealand.

The dependency is uninhabited. By Imperial Orders in Council of the 4th November, , the Tokelau Islands consisting of the islands of Fakaofo, Nukunono, and Atafu, and the small islands, islets, rocks, and reefs depending on them, a total area of only four square miles were excluded from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, and placed under the administration of the Governor-General of New Zealand.

In accordance with a provision of the second of these Orders in Council, the Governor-General's authority and power in connection with the administration of the islands were, by New Zealand Order in Council of the 8th March, , delegated to the Administrator of Western Samoa. With the exception of the low-lying North Auckland peninsula, the New Zealand land-mass lies along a south-westerly and north-easterly axis, parallel to the direction of its mountain-chains.

By reason of the latter fact the coast-line is, on the whole, not greatly indented; and, as a consequence, New Zealand is not well endowed with natural harbours. In the North Island, Auckland and Wellington are the only two safe natural harbours of which the fullest commercial use can be made. On the east coast of the North Auckland peninsula several deep and sheltered harbours exist, but as the surrounding country is comparatively undeveloped and the area somewhat remote they are of little economic consequence at present. In the South Island the Marlborough Sounds and the West Coast Sounds form perfect land-locked harbours, but owing to their situations and to the rugged nature of the terrain they have—with the exception of Queen Charlotte Sound—little or no commercial utility.

In this manner efficient ports, capable of accommodating overseas vessels, have been formed in Lyttelton, Otago, and Bluff harbours. On the west coast of both Islands the strong ocean-drifts and high seas cause shoaling at river-mouths and harbour-entrances, while on the cast coast of the South Island similar circumstances prevail, due to the largo quantities of shingle brought down by the rivers being spread along the coast by ocean currents. The mountainous nature of the country makes the haulage of goods to and from the better-equipped natural harbours both costly and difficult, and the construction and maintenance of further ports at various points along the coasts of both Islands has been necessary, either by dredging river-mouths or by harbour-construction work.

In the North Island the higher mountains occupy approximately one-tenth of the surface; but, with the exception of the four volcanic peaks of Egmont 8, ft. Of these four volcanoes only the first-named can be classed as extinct. While Ruapehu was particularly active from March, , to the end of that year, being responsible for considerable deposits of volcanic ash over a very wide area, more recent and spectacular activity has been exhibited by Ngauruhoe, commencing in February, In both cases violent eruptions alternated with quieter periods.

Other volcanoes include Mount Tarawera and White Island, each of which has, upon one occasion within historical times, erupted with disastrous consequences. Closely connected with the volcanic system are the multitudinous hot springs and geysers. The South Island is much more mountainous than the North, but shows fewer manifestations of recent volcanic activity.

Along almost the entire length of the Island runs the massive chain known as the Southern Alps, which attains its greatest height in Mount Cook 12, ft. As might be expected, the higher mountains of the South Island have exerted a greater influence on the economic development of the country than those of the North Island. For many years the Southern Alps were an effective barrier to communication by land between the east and west coasts, while their climatic effects on the Canterbury plains and Otago plateaux determined the types of cultivation undertaken.

Moreover, the existence of much elevated open country led to the development of pastoral holdings on a large scale. While the mountains in the North Island are not as high nor as extensive as those of the South Island, in the early days they effectively isolated various portions of the coastal plains and valleys. Their effect on climatic conditions, however, is considerably less, the rainfall being more evenly distributed.

Owing to this more even distribution of the rainfall, and to the existence of considerable areas of lower relief, the foothills of the mountain systems were heavily wooded, and so proved a hindrance to agrarian development. In the issue of the Year-Book a list was given, not claimed as exhaustive, of named peaks of 7, ft. Below is a list of the peaks restricted to the three largest volcanic cones in the North Island and to mountains of a minimum height of 9, ft. The list has been compiled from various sources, and does not purport to be free from omissions.

Of the glaciers the largest is the Tasman, which, with others of comparable size, rises in the more elevated area surrounding Mount Cook. On the western slope of the range, owing to the greater snow precipitation, the glaciers are more numerous and descend to lower levels, while the steeper slope gives them a more rapid rate of flow. As will be realized, these glaciers are an important tourist attraction, and as such have definite economic significance. Moreover, those glaciers on the eastern slopes which feed rivers utilized for irrigation and hydro-electric purposes are Valuable in that they help to ensure a steady volume of water throughout the year.

Moreover, owing to the high relief of the country, they are mostly swift-flowing, while, as mentioned previously, nearly all are obstructed at their mouths by bars. For the purpose of internal communication, therefore, they are of little economic utility, and only in two or three isolated instances have they been thus consistently used. With improved roading conditions, however, their traffic has become negligible even in these cases. As sources of hydro-electric power, New Zealand rivers are of considerable importance, since their rapid rate of flow and dependable volume of ice-free water make them eminently suitable for this purpose.

At the present time the Waikato and the Mangahao in the North Island and the Waitaki and Waipori in the South are used for major hydro-electric schemes and a further major development is now being undertaken on the Clutha. The characteristics just mentioned are also important for purposes of irrigation, but, owing to the country's reliable rainfall, there are few areas other than in Canterbury and Otago where the rivers are so utilized.

In the Year-Book appears an account of the rivers of New Zealand, but space in this issue is, however, available only for a list of the more important ones, with their approximate lengths. The discovery in that the beds of numerous rivers in the South Island contained extensive deposits of alluvial gold was of considerable importance in the economic development of the country. Not only did it lead to an increase in population and in wealth, but, through the following of the numerous streams to their sources, it also led to the rapid exploration of largo tracts of remote country. The exploitation of these deposits has been carried on with varying degrees of success up to the present time by both manual and mechanical means.

A further factor in connection with the rivers is that, owing to the very successful acclimatization of fresh-water fish, notably trout, many of them now provide exceptionally fine fishing. Surrounded by extremely rugged country the larger lakes of the South Island are distinguished by the grandeur of their alpine settings, while those of the North Island, situated on a volcanic plateau, are of interest by reason of the neighbouring thermal activity. Owing to the excellence of their fishing the North Island lakes possess an added tourist attraction.

In both Islands the lakes are situated at high altitudes, and their consequent remoteness renders them unsuitable as a means of communication. In their functions as reservoirs the lakes of both Islands are of vital importance for the maintenance of the streams draining them and as a means of flood-prevention. More especially is this the case where hydro-electric schemes are involved, Lakes Waikaremoana and Taupo in the North Island, and Lakes Coleridge, Pukaki, and Tekapo in the South Island, being of particular significance in this respect.

An article on the lakes of New Zealand will be found in the Year-Book. Some particulars of the more important are given in the following table. Henderson, M. The information given below has been supplied by Mr. Hayes, Acting-Director of the Dominion Observatory. Seismicity and Earthquake Distribution. However, this is due to the occurrence of a large number of earthquakes of the semi-destructive type R. During the period —47, 72 destructive earthquakes are known to have occurred in New Zealand, 52 of which were of the semi-destructive type not exceeding intensity R.

Of the remainder, 14 were of intensity 9, and 6 of intensity The total number of earthquakes of all intensities, and the maximum intensity, reported felt in New Zealand in each of the years to were as follows:—. The abnormally large number of earthquakes reported in the year was due to the swarm of local shocks in the Taupo region in the latter half of that year.

Abnormally large numbers of shocks also occurred in —30, due to aftershocks of the Buller earthquake of 17th June, Summary of Seismic Activity in New Zealand in Numerous shocks originated off the northeast coast of the North Island, a strong one on 26th March being followed by seismic sea-waves which caused damage on parts of the Gisborne coast.

The earthquake itself did no damage. Another shock in the same region on 17th May was followed by sea-waves of smaller intensity. Other strong shocks occurred in this region on 13th, 23rd, and 28th August. A shock near Tolaga Bay on 16th June reached intensity M. VII R. During April seismic activity was unusually widespread, shocks occurring frequently at various points between Morrinsville and the Bluff.

The strongest shock during the year occurred in the Jackson's Bay region on 13th October. It reached intensity M. Other groups of minor activity occurred in the Taupo area, the Lake Coleridge area, and south of Puysegur point. In all, shocks were reported felt during the year, of which were felt in the North Island and 89 in the South Island. Six were felt in both Islands.

The maximum intensities reported were M. Regional Distribution. By combining early earthquake records with the more precise data of recent years it is possible to divide the country roughly into four seismic regions. These regions are classified below, in order of seismicity. All areas of the North Island east and south of an approximate line from the vicinity of Whakatane in the Bay of Plenty to the vicinity of Hawera in South Taranaki, and all areas of the South Island north of an approximate line from the vicinity of Hokitika on the west coast, through the region of Lake Coleridge, to Bunks Peninsula:.

Areas of the South Island, south of the boundary of region I:. The following table shows the average frequency of earthquakes in each of the four regions defined above. The boundaries between the seismic regions are not well defined, since one region generally merges more or less imperceptibly into another.

Further, seismic frequency is not uniform. This leads to the number of shocks being considerably above the average in some years and below it in others. The normal irregularity is increased by the occasional occurrence of earthquake swarms in certain regions. Probably the most notable swarm in New Zealand was that which occurred in the Taupo region in the latter half of The number of minor local shocks in this swarm was so great that only the stronger ones, or those affecting the adjacent region, were used in determining the average frequency of region I, Major earthquakes occur chiefly in the eastern and southern parts of region I.

Deaths due to Earthquakes. Of these, were due to the Hawkes Bay earthquake of 3rd February, Barnett, O. The following table, however, suffices to give some information on the chief climatological elements. Average values, based on records for varying periods, are included for a selection of climatological stations. More detailed climatological statistics are available in the Meteorological Observations published annually by the Meteorological Office.

Publication of the Meteorological Observations has been resumed after being suspended during the war years. A cool autumn was followed by a cold though relatively dry winter. Early spring growth was good, but was not maintained due to the very cold weather of October. The coldest December on record further hindered agricultural work. From Hawkes Bay to East Cape the annual rainfall was only about 70 per cent. Elsewhere the rainfall was above normal, the excess being greater than 50 per cent.

The duration of bright sunshine was a little above normal over the Auckland and Hawkes Bay provincial districts, in Blenheim, and on the Canterbury Plains. Totals elsewhere were below normal, deficiencies of over hours being recorded in parts of Otago and Westland.

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Seasonal Notes. Growth was very abundant, but crops suffered from lack of sunshine. The autumn was a cool one. Westerly conditions in both March and April gave low rainfalls to the east coast, but much wet weather elsewhere. In May this rainfall distribution was reversed, and its coldness proved hard on stock. June and July were cold and frosty, with light rainfalls. Canterbury experienced a severe snowstorm in the latter month.

A mild August eased the position for stock, although it was cloudy and rather wet. September was also dull, but not very abnormal otherwise. Growth which promised well in August, did not continue strongly. The season was further hindered by an exceptionally cold October, and, although this was followed by a mild November, very dry conditions prevented much improvement. Summary of Meteorological Observations. New Zealand civil time— i. For the mean sea-level pressure values in millibars at The country recovered well following good autumn rains and a mild winter.

July was particularly mild, and spring growth got away to a good start. Persistently cold and unsettled weather soon caused the season to become very backward, and by the end of the year farming activities were well behind schedule.

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For the greater part of the country the annual rainfall was fairly close to the normal. Over the Auckland Peninsula it was a wet year, especially in the eastern portion, where some places had an excess of 50 per cent. Moderate excesses occurred in northern Wairarapa and the Canterbury Plains.

Over the year mean temperatures were slightly above average in the North Island, except in the Wairarapa. In the latter district, and in the South Island there were small negative departures. Sunshine over the North Island was better than average except in portions of the Bay of Plenty, Taranaki, and Wairarapa districts. Invercargill, Blenheim, and Westport also enjoyed a little more sunshine than usual, but over the remainder of the South Island totals were deficient. Rainfall in Hawkes Bay and Auckland was negligible in amount, and dairy-production suffered severely.

In these areas the five-monthly period from October, , was the driest for over thirty years. Scrub and forest fires were widespread over the North Island. Beneficial rains fell over the drier areas in the middle of March and were followed by substantial rainfall in April. Pastures and supplementary crops recovered well after the summer drought. Over the North Island the next month was the mildest of any May since Winds from an easterly quarter predominated during May and June and rain was frequent in eastern districts, especially in Auckland and Hawkes Bay.

Following very heavy rains in the north during the first week of July, the easterly type of situation which had dominated the weather for several weeks gave way to the westerly type. It was the mildest July since Windy westerly weather continued in August, when many places in the west and north had rain every day. Changeable weather during September further delayed agricultural activities. A wintry spell late in the month caused serious losses among young lambs in Otago and Canterbury.

Orchards also suffered some damage. Growth war, slow during the cool changeable weather of October. Temperatures were even colder in November, which was the coldest on record. Fruit and vegetable crops suffered because of frosts and hail. December weather was dull and cool, and the season remained very backward. Two violent southerly storms affected southern districts of the North Island, the first in February and the second in June. After a very wet June, the spell of mild dry weather which followed provided ideal conditions for farming.

Lambing percentages and milk-yields were very good. A long spell of warm settled weather followed a dull, wet October, and pastures were rapidly drying up towards the end of the year.

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Over the greater part of the South Island the annual rainfall was about 20 per cent. The distribution in the North Island was rather irregular, although the departures from normal were not great. In general, the districts with deficient rainfall were in South Auckland and from Taranaki across to Hawkes Bay. Most places had more sunshine than usual, particularly in Westland and Manawatu. Napier's total was the equivalent of half an hour a day below normal, while small negative departures occurred in New Plymouth, Nelson, Gore, and from Auckland to Tauranga.

It became more settled later in the month, enabling farmers to make some progress with their delayed shearing and harvesting. A violent southerly storm in mid-February caused considerable damage in the southern part of the North Island. Hawkes Bay orchards suffered badly, and there were stock losses due to floods and exposure in the Wairarapa.

With the above exception, the weather in February and March was predominantly fine, and a number of new sunshine records were established. Favourable weather continued during the remainder of the autumn. Conditions were very disturbed in June. In parts of the Wellington district it was the wettest month in the last fifty years. Towards the end of the month the southern part of the North Island experienced another severe southerly storm, and stock losses were heavy in South Wairarapa.

During July it was wet in the far north, but very dry in the South Island. Mild sunny weather during the next two months was very beneficial for stock and for early spring growth. Substantial rainfall in October provided a good reserve of moisture to offset the effect of the warm, dry weather in November and December. Nevertheless, towards the end of the year pastures were rapidly drying up, and milk-production was on the decline.

New Zealand standard time. New Zealand standard time were: Auckland, Oliver, D. Laing and E. Blackwell, ed. Cheeseman, ed. Cockayne and E. Dobbie, ed. Cockayne, ed. Martin, ed. Wall and H. During mid Militia troops fought the Kokoda Track campaign , and the New Guinea campaign came to occupy the attention of most of the Australian armed forces until Upon the outbreak of the Second World War, the New Guinea Volunteer Rifles were organized as a militia unit of white expatriates in the New Guinea territory, while the bulk of the Australian military was deployed in the Mediterranean.

Japanese forces invaded beginning in January with the Battle of Rabaul ; in the following months Japan occupied most of the Territory of New Guinea. The campaign resulted in heavy losses for Japan. Disease and starvation claimed more Japanese lives than combat. Allied forces effectively besieged enemy garrisons, cutting them off from food and medical supplies. During the war, civil administration in both territories ceased and the whole area was placed under martial law.

Only a single battalion, the Papuan Infantry Battalion , was ever recruited from the native Papuan population. Many other people were recruited to bring supplies up to the front and carry injured Australian troops: the so-called Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels. Civil government was restored after the war, and in the two territories were united as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. See also Pacific Islands.

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See this article's section on Germany in general, and its subsection on Austria in particular. It is widely believed that the Duke and Duchess sympathised with fascism before and during the war, and were moved to the Bahamas to minimise their opportunities to act on those feelings. The Canadian garrison left Nassau in [23]. See also Caribbean Islands. The Sheikh of Bahrain declared war on Germany on September 10, On October 19, , four Italian planes bombed Bahrain to destroy oil refineries supplying the Allies. See India. Belgium declared its intention to remain neutral in the event of war in the lead up to the conflict.

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In May , Germany launched a surprise attack during its wider invasion of France, and although Belgian forces resisted the German invasion for 18 days, on 28 May , the Belgian army and its commander, King Leopold III , officially surrendered. The King, and much of his army, were incarcerated and remained imprisoned for the rest of the war. The elected government left for France, and then England, where it established a government in exile based in London and Free Belgian army.

The country itself was placed under German military occupation , opposed by the resistance , which lasted until its liberation after September During the course of the occupation, around 25, Belgian Jews were killed. The Congo played an important role as an economic asset, producing large amounts of raw materials for the Allies, notably gold and uranium. Congolese troops also fought as the Force Publique , which saw combat against Italian forces in the East African Campaign. The colonial government's demands on the Congolese population provoked strikes, riots and other forms of resistance.

These were repressed, often violently, by the colonial authorities. The Congo's comparative prosperity during the conflict led to a wave of post-war immigration from Belgium, bringing the white population to , by , as well as a period of industrialisation and urbanisation that continued throughout the s. Belgium's mandate of Ruanda-Urundi consisted of the modern nations of Rwanda and Burundi. There, the war years were marked by the Ruzagayura famine. Though initially caused by a drought, the famine's effects were made worse by the Belgian war effort as authorities tried to send agricultural produce to the Congo to support the Allies.

The famine killed between a fifth and a third of the colony's population and displaced many thousands more. See French West Africa. Although Bhutan was under British suzerainty , it remained independent; and under the reign of Jigme Wangchuck the kingdom continued to maintain almost complete isolation from the outside world with only limited relations with the British Raj in India. Despite his policy of neutrality, upon the outbreak of the war the king sent the government of India a gift of , rupees as a gesture of friendship.

Bolivia was one of many Latin American countries to declare war on Germany later on in the war, joining the Allies on 7 April It was one of the two countries to declare war in , the other being Colombia. The new ruler, Gualberto Villarroel , had fascist and anti-Semitic leanings, but foreign pressure [ clarification needed ] compelled him to remain at peace and to suppress his more extreme pro-Nazi supporters. Bolivian mines supplied needed tin to the Allies [ citation needed ] , but with no coastline, the landlocked country did not send troops or warplanes overseas.

See Yugoslavia. The United States built several airfields on Brazilian soil with the understanding that shortly after the war ended, they would be turned over to Brazil. In retaliation, Germany and Italy extended their submarine warfare against them. In the first half of Axis submarines sank Brazilian merchant ships, and Brazilian naval forces chased and attacked these submarines. When seven merchant ships were sunk by the German Submarine U , Vargas decided to make official the state of war against Germany and Italy. Northeastern Brazil hosted at Natal the largest single American air base outside of its own territory, and at Recife , the U.

In , Allied naval forces sunk most of the Axis submarines which were active in the West of the South Atlantic, the U among them. After this intense campaign, the South Atlantic became a lost battle to Germany. After two years of preparation, a complete infantry Division about 25, troops, called the Brazilian Expeditionary Force BEF was sent in July to fight in the Italian campaign. They fought in the last two stages of the Italian campaign: the slow breakdown of the Gothic Line and the final Allied offensive in that front.

Borneo was divided into five territories: four in the north under the British — Sarawak , Brunei , Labuan island, and British North Borneo now Sabah ; and the remainder and bulk of the island to the south under the jurisdiction of the Dutch East Indies now Indonesia. The Japanese invasion plan called for the British territories to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Army and the southern Dutch territory to be taken and held by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

At dawn on 16 December, two Japanese landing units secured Miri and Seria with little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured. Bulgaria gave up neutrality and became a German ally, signing the Tripartite Pact on 1 March Their main contribution was transit rights for German units involved against Yugoslavia and Greece. Bulgaria occupied portions of Greece and Yugoslavia to recreate the 19th-century boundaries of Greater Bulgaria , but it did not participate in the Invasion of the Soviet Union.

Bulgarian armies attacked the German positions in Yugoslavia. An armistice was signed with the Allies in Moscow on 28 October Burma was separated from British India in as a Crown Colony with a constitutional government. The colony was important for sending supplies to China via the Burma Road , which was completed in Nevertheless, it was left lightly defended at the outbreak of World War II: the British considered it a backwater and unlikely target of attack. Japan held most of the country by April and ceded the Shan states to its ally Thailand.

Many Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent. Japan declared the colony independent as the State of Burma on 1 August A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. However, many Burmese began to believe the Japanese had no intention of giving them real independence. Allied forces launched offensives into Burma beginning in late Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence. Under Japanese occupation, , to , civilians died. See Ruanda-Urundi.

See Indochina. See French Equatorial Africa. On 10 September , Canada likewise declared war on Germany, the country's first independent declaration of war [40] and the beginning of Canada's participation in the largest combined national effort in its history. Canada's military was active mainly in Italy , [41] Northwestern Europe, [42] and the North Atlantic.

Over the course of the war, 1. Of these more than 45, lost their lives and another 54, were wounded. Canadians also served in the militaries of various Allied countries. Canadian forces deployed to the United Kingdom in One corps fought in the Italian campaign while the other fought in Northwest Europe beginning with the Normandy landings on 6 June The 1st Canadian Army ended the war on German soil with five Canadian divisions and a host of allied formations under direct command. During the war, Canada was subject to direct attack in the Battle of the St. Lawrence , and in the shelling of a lighthouse at Estevan Point in British Columbia.

The war had significant cultural, political and economic effects on Canada, including the conscription crisis. However, the war effort not only strengthened the Canadian economy but further established Canada as a major actor on the world stage. It involved the loan of American destroyers in return for leasing, rent free for ninety-nine years, eleven naval and air bases on British territory, including the Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, St. The eastern Caribbean became the forward edge of American defense strategy, formalized in the Panama Declaration of American strategists called the West Indies as "the bulwark that we watch.

More than 50 percent of the supplies sent to Europe and Africa from the United States were shipped from ports in the Gulf of Mexico and passed through the Caribbean. One year after the Pearl Harbor attack , the United States Caribbean Defense Command reached a total of , personnel, half of them stationed in Panama to protect the canal from an anticipated Japanese attack. Meanwhile the German Kriegsmarine inflicted massive damage on shipping in the Caribbean in By the end of that year, U-boats operating in the Caribbean had sunk ships, at least half of which were oil tankers.

Parts of the Caribbean had been colonized by countries that now came under Axis occupation. Both islands were subjected to German attacks in Operation Neuland. In they were transferred to the United States, which had also occupied Surinam in to secure its bauxite mines. Ceylon now known as Sri Lanka , was a British colony and a major Allied naval base.

On 5 April , over aircraft from Japanese carriers bombed the island. Winston Churchill called it "the most dangerous moment" of World War II, because the Japanese wished to replicate a grander success of the attack at Pearl Harbor. British ships, however, were moved to Addu Atoll , Maldives Islands. Nevertheless, the British lost an aircraft carrier , two cruisers , and two destroyers , while the Royal Air Force squadrons on Ceylon suffered severe losses. However, the regiment mutinied on the night of 8 May , intending to hand the islands over to the Japanese.

The mutiny was suppressed and three of the Ceylonese soldiers were executed. The defences of Sri Lanka were beefed up to three Allied army divisions because the island was strategically important, as a producer of rubber. They never actually saw action. Initially, Chile chose to remain neutral in the war, having close trading links with Germany. Later in the war, however, Chile distanced itself from the Axis powers, and the Chilean government took steps to dismiss pro-German military officers.

An attempted Nazi-backed coup in September turned most of the Chilean population against the German community within Chile. Relations with Axis countries were broken and war was declared in From to , the Chilean prison camp of Pisagua became the site of wartime internment for citizens of enemy nations when Chile entered World War II on the Allied side. However, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek still managed to send troops to Britain's aid in Burma , in early More than 1. At the start of the war, the Chinese army had 2. The war cooled China's formerly warm relations with Germany see Sino-German cooperation , and following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, China formally joined the Allies and declared war on Germany on 9 December Many of China's urban centers, industrial resources, and coastal regions were occupied by Japan for most of the war.

China suffered a large death toll from the war, both military and civilian. The Chinese Nationalist army suffered some 3. Although the Nationalists and Communists had cooperated to oppose the Japanese, once the war was over the Chinese Civil War erupted once again. The Nationalist government was defeated by the Communists in and retreated to Taiwan , while the communist People's Republic of China was established on the mainland.

454 Squadron, RAAF 1941-1945

After the attack on Pearl Harbor , Colombia broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers. Colombia provided the Allies with petroleum products. The German ambassador left the country, and measures of control were implemented, including the internment of German citizens in designated areas. The only notable engagement occurred in the destroyer ARC Caldas attacked the German submarine U , which faked its own destruction in order to escape. See History of the Comoros Colonial rule.

Costa Rica joined the Allies on 8 December , declaring war on Japan the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor , and on Germany and Italy shortly afterwards. Targets included Germans, Italians, and Spaniards, the last of whom were viewed as franquistas sympathetic to fascism. See this article's section on Yugoslavia in general, and its subsection on Croatia in particular. Cuba joined the Allies on 8 December , when it declared war on Japan. On 11 December, it also declared war on Germany and Italy. Cuba began to plan a conscription program in order to contribute troops, but this had not materialized by the end of the war.

It was mostly volunteers from the Greek and Turkish Cypriot inhabitants of Cyprus, but also included other Commonwealth nationalities. About 30, Cypriots served in the Regiment. Cypriot mule drivers were the first colonial troops sent to the Western Front. They served in France, Ethiopia and Italy carrying equipment to areas inaccessible to vehicles. In the post war years and prior to its disbandment, the regiment served in Cyprus and the Middle East, including Palestine in — The Regiment was disbanded on 31 March See Czechoslovakia. Part of southern Slovakia, and Ruthenia were annexed by Hungary.

Zaolzie was annexed by Poland, and annexed by the Germans 11 months later. The newly founded Slovak Republic — , led by Jozef Tiso was proclaimed in March 14, , allying with Nazi Germany and its armed forces participated in war against Poland and Soviet Union. Slovakia adopted Nazi antisemitic policy and paid Germany for deportation of its Jews. Part of southern Slovakia and all of Ruthenia the former eastern end of Czechoslovakia was annexed by Hungary.

Zaolzie was annexed by Poland, snatched from them by the Germans 11 months later, and returned to Czechoslovakia in by the Soviet Union. The Slovak National Uprising, commenced in August , was suppressed by German forces at the end of October; partisans, however, continued fighting in the mountains until the war's end.

The Free City of Danzig , a semi-autonomous city-state under League of Nations protection, was predominantly German and had a Nazi government by The city-state aided Nazi Germany during the invasion. The Nazis subjected Danzig's Jewish and Polish minorities to the violence of the Holocaust and the Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. The Red Army occupied Danzig on 30 March and expelled its Germans ; an estimated , had fled or been expelled from the city by See Belgian Congo.

Denmark officially remained neutral from the outbreak of the war. Iceland, which was later transferred from British to American control, declared independence in The Danish government remained in office in Copenhagen until and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. On 29 August , the government resigned and dissolved, as a response to German demands for more concessions. Denmark was now under German military occupation. Civil affairs were handled by SS-general Werner Best. On 4 May , German forces in Denmark surrendered to the British army.

Since the German commander of Bornholm refused to surrender to the Soviet Union, two local towns were bombed and the garrison forced to surrender. Bornholm remained under Soviet control until It did not directly contribute with troops, aircraft, or ships, however Dominicans were integrated into the U. In addition, 27 Dominicans were killed when German submarines sank four Dominican-manned ships in the Caribbean.

The rich oil resources of the Dutch East Indies were arguably a prime objective of the Japanese military in its attack on the Allies from 7 December Some Dutch personnel and ships escaped to Australia, where they continued to fight the Japanese. The Dutch East Indies was occupied by the Japanese for the remainder of the war. See Portuguese Timor. Ecuador was one of several South American nations to join the Allies late in the war joined against Germany on 2 February , allowing the United States use of Baltra Island as a naval base.

Britain had unilaterally recognized the independence of Egypt in , but continued to occupy the country militarily, and to dominate it. By the Anglo—Egyptian Treaty of , the British occupation was limited to the Suez Canal Zone , but it allowed British troops to re-occupy the rest of the country in time of war. Anti-British sentiment grew. Egypt was of vital strategic importance because of the Suez Canal and Egypt's central geographical location. The Egyptian government engaged in secret negotiations with Germany about the prospect of Egypt's joining the Axis should the British be defeated in the Western Desert Campaign.

Many Egyptian politicians and army officers sought Axis support for removing the occupying British forces from the country. A series of German victories brought Axis forces within kilometres 99 miles of Cairo , creating great expectation among Egyptian nationalists. Nonetheless, King Farouk still resisted British pressure to declare war on Germany until Nonetheless, the dictator declared war on both Japan 8 December and Germany 12 December shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, due to El Salvador's strong economic ties with the United States.

See Italian East Africa. The Soviet Union threatened Estonia with war if Estonia did not agree with the mutual assistance pact, which required allowing the Soviet Union to build military bases into Estonia. The Estonian government convinced that winning a war against the Soviet Union was impossible, agreed on 28 September The new government took office and the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on 2 July The puppet state was formally accepted into the Soviet Union on 6 August.

Estonia was occupied by Germany in after war broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union. With the return of the Soviet Armed Forces , 70, Estonians joined or were conscripted by the German side to fight the Soviets. The National Committee failed to restore the national government in September due to the Soviet reoccupation. At the end of the war, the subsequent Forest Brothers armed insurrection against the Soviet authorities started, which lasted in the Baltic states until the mids. Estonia remained a de facto part of the USSR until At the outbreak of the war, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was in exile in England trying in vain to obtain Allied support for his nation's cause.

The Arbegnoch movement had begun its guerrilla war against the occupying Italian forces the day Addis Ababa fell in May Upon the emperor's flight into exile, remnants of Ethiopia's disbanded imperial army had transformed into guerrilla units. Urban city residents throughout the country formed underground movements to aid the Patriots as the overall population led a passive resistance campaign aimed at stifling Mussolini's economic agenda for the region.

As a result, the Italians were never able to successfully occupy and secure the entire country including the emperor's relocated capital at Gore in the southwest. Throughout the occupation and into the beginning of the Second World War, the constant harassment of Italian columns and communication and supply lines reduced their fighting capabilities and their morale.

A state of paranoia among Italian troops and civilians alike had sunk in as they became increasingly isolated from Rome. Fascist retaliation to Patriot attacks was brutal and often targeted the civilian population, which only further filled the ranks of the Patriots creating a cycle that led to the eventual demise of Mussolini's Italian East Africa. Britain's declaration of war against Italy reinvigorated the Patriot movement and paved the way for the final ousting of the Italians in Ethiopia and in the Horn of Africa.

The Allied liberation campaign of Ethiopia began in the winter of Emperor Haile Selassie , with the support and cooperation of the British, was transported to the Sudan to work alongside Major Orde Wingate to organize and lead the main Ethiopian Patriot divisions that had fled fascist-controlled Ethiopia upon news of Britain's declaration of war. Within months, the liberation of Ethiopia was achieved, and on 5 May , five years to the day that the Emperor fled his capital, Haile Selassie was restored to his throne.

The defeat of fascists in Ethiopia marked the first victory for the Allies in the Second World War and allowed for the remaining forces to be quickly moved up to Egypt to confront the Axis advance towards Cairo. Fiji also constructed many facilities such as airfields for Allied bombing runs, barracks and training grounds. After the war, Finland unsuccessfully sought protection from the United Kingdom and from Sweden to counter the continuing Soviet pressure, before turning to improving relations with Nazi Germany.

The UK declared war on Finland on 6 December To secure military support needed to stop the Vyborg—Petrozavodsk Offensive coordinated with D-Day , the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement was signed on 26 June , in which Finnish and Nazi German relations became closest to an alliance. An armistice was signed after the Soviet offensive was fought to a standstill , and the Wehrmacht was retreating from the Baltic states. France was one of the original guarantors of Polish security and as such was one of the first countries to declare war on Germany.

On May 10, , Germany began its attack on France. After six weeks of intense battling, the French government signed the Armistice of 22 June After the armistace, France was split into two parts, an occupied sector and an unoccupied sector. Citizens were subjected to the Service du travail obligatoire , a program of forced labor in Germany. Jews and Roma faced the persecution of the Holocaust in France. An active Resistance fought against the occupying forces throughout the war. In opposition, Charles de Gaulle led Free France , a government-in-exile in London with control over France's unoccupied overseas territories and forces fighting on the Allied side.

Allied forces achieved the Liberation of Paris in August. De Gaulle established the Provisional Government of the French Republic , and the entire country returned to the Allies. Further fighting occurred in France during the advance to the Rhine of — It remained officially neutral during the conflict but collaborated with Germany.

As a result of Vichy North Africa violating the terms of the armistice by calling a cease-fire following Operation Torch , the Germans occupied all of continental France in the fall of but allowed the Vichy government to continue operating. After Darlan was assassinated, de Gaulle took power alongside Henri Giraud. Laval was executed for high treason after the war. Together with the French Resistance , they played a part in the Mediterranean Theatre and the liberation of western Europe , including France in By , free France had a vast land but no war industry, it remained dependent on US aid.

It regrouped with the Vichy authority that joined it and the interior resistance into fighting France. In , the FFF soldiers were about , In , more than 1,, The Resistance forces of the interior , according to D. Eisenhower, played a role equal to 15 fighting divisions. Afterward, the federation became the strategic centre of Free French activities in Africa, with the city of Brazzaville serving as the capital of Free France from — The resulting Brazzaville Declaration represented an attempt to redefine the relationship between France and its African colonies.

French West Africa was not the scene of major fighting. Only one large-scale action took place there: the Battle of Dakar 23—25 September The region remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France 25 June and until the Allied invasion of North Africa 8—16 November Unlike in metropolitan France, the French Colonial Troops in West Africa were not reduced after the armistice and the region was little interfered with by the Axis powers , providing a valuable addition to the forces of Free France after it had been liberated.

The Gambia Colony and Protectorate was ruled by Britain. In its military, the Gambia Company, was expanded into the Gambia Regiment , with a strength of two battalions from It fought in the Burma Campaign. The colony also formed an Auxiliary Police, who, among other things, helped to enforce blackouts in Bathurst. Roosevelt stopped overnight in Bathurst en route to and from the Casablanca Conference. This marked the first visit to the African continent by a sitting US President. German forces instigated the war in September by invading Poland.

Poland was divided with the Soviet Union. Attempts to subdue the United Kingdom by air in the summer of failed and a planned invasion was called off. In the summer of Germany turned its forces east by invading the Soviet Union. The Eastern Front became the main theatre of war for the Germans. The Afrika Korps was similarly dispatched to the Western Desert to assist struggling Italian forces there, and German forces grew to an entire army group. Major defeats at Stalingrad in February and the destruction of Axis forces in North Africa shortly after are commonly thought to be the war's turning points.

German forces fought on Sicily, and when Italy switched sides, German forces seized power, fighting a successful withdrawal and diverting Allied forces from Northwest Europe. Severe losses at Kursk in the summer of and during the Soviet summer offensives of shattered German fighting power, and Allied landings in Normandy and Southern France forced the Germans to fight on several fronts simultaneously.

The surrender of the German forces between 4 May and 8 May , signaled the end of the war in Europe. German forces were very active at sea, primarily through its submarine force. The German air force provided effective tactical and logistical support until Allied air superiority was achieved by the middle of Strategic use of airpower failed and despite heavy aerial bombardment and later, the V-1 and V-2 rockets of the United Kingdom, failed to achieve lasting results. Hitler's war aims included the destruction of the Jews of Europe, and at the Wannsee Conference in early , a system of extermination was finalized which led to the Holocaust.

Austria became a full part of Nazi Germany in among popular acclaim during the Anschluss. About 1. After the defeat of the Axis Powers, the Allies occupied Austria in four occupation zones set up at the end of World War II until , when the country again became a fully independent republic under the condition that it remained neutral. The four occupations zones were French, American, British, and Soviet, with Vienna also divided among the four powers. This paralleled the situation in post-war Germany. The British overseas territory of Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over years.

Operation Tracer , a top-secret mission in which six men were to be concealed inside a secret bunker inside the Rock of Gibraltar so that they could monitor enemy movements if the Rock was captured. Colonial troops from the Gold Coast Colony played an important role in the East African Campaign , particularly in attacking Italian-controlled Ethiopia.

Accra , the capital, hosted Allied aircraft as they flew between the United States , Europe and the Pacific. The Gold Coast also benefited financially from the war. By , increased British government spending and the introduction of an income tax led to an expansion of local revenue. The war changed the demographics of the colony, concentrating workers in a few large towns and cities. The colonial government launched a program to deal with a housing shortage by constructing inexpensive but sturdy local building material an earthquake in had badly damaged infrastructure in many towns.

Greece initially resisted the Italian invasion of 28 October and pushed Mussolini's forces back into Albania. Hitler reluctantly sent forces to bail out his ally and subdue Greece Operation Marita. The government and the King fled the country to Egypt, from where they continued the fight. The occupation forces installed a series of puppet governments , which commanded little allegiance.

Throughout , the guerrillas liberated much of the country's mountainous interior, establishing a free zone called " Free Greece ". After the Italian capitulation in September , the Germans took over the Italian zone, often accompanied by bloodshed, as the Italians tried to resist both them and the Allies trying to occupy Italian-held areas the Dodecanese Campaign. As Liberation approached, the Resistance became divided along political lines, and a mini civil war ensued. An agreement establishing a national unity government was reached in the May Lebanon conference , which eased tension somewhat.

With the advance of the Red Army through Eastern Europe in summer , the German forces withdrew from the Greek mainland in October—November , although many island garrisons were left behind and surrendered after the unconditional surrender on 8 May The returning government in exile, backed by British forces, soon clashed with EAM forces in Athens, beginning the Greek Civil War ; a conflict that would last until and leave a divisive legacy.

This pronouncement was reinforced five days later with another declaration. Ubico implemented strong prohibitions on Nazi propaganda in Guatemala, which had one of Latin America's largest German immigrant populations. Later, Guatemala moved into the Allied camp—on 9 December , it declared war on Japan, and three days later, it declared war on Germany and Italy.

Lescot was deposed the year after the war ended. Honduras was initially neutral in the war but joined the Allied side after the attack on Pearl Harbor. It declared war on Japan on 8 December , and on Germany and Italy five days later. It contributed food and raw materials to the Allied war effort and did send troops in which of them died. German submarines also sank 3 Honduran ships throughout the war.

Hong Kong was under the jurisdiction of the British but came under the control of the Japanese after the gruelling Battle of Hong Kong drew to a close on Christmas Day of The Japanese turned many healthcare facilities into field hospitals to help injured soldiers returning from the Pacific theater.

By the end of the war Hong Kong's population had fallen from 1,, to a mere , The territory was liberated in Hungary was a significant German ally. It signed the Tripartite Pact on 20 November , and joined in the invasion of the Soviet Union the next year. Iceland was a free state at the outbreak of war in personal union with the King of Denmark acting as head of state. After the German invasion of Denmark , Iceland lost all contact with the King.

British forces invaded Iceland on 10 May , to secure bases for themselves and to deny Germany the same option. A small armed force was present, but obeyed orders not to resist the British. The British proceeded to arrest a number of German nationals, including the German consul , Werner Gerlach , and seize radio and telephone services.

Iceland's government formally protested the occupation, but provided the British with de facto cooperation. The U. Iceland experienced an economic boom during the occupation, since many Icelanders took jobs working for the foreigners, and some say that bretavinnan roughly, the British Jobs provided some of the successes of the post-war Icelandic economy.

Military history

On 17 June , with American encouragement, Iceland became a permanently independent republic, and it cut all ties with Denmark. Despite being occupied, Iceland remained officially neutral throughout the duration of the Second World War. With its small population, Iceland was in no position to raise any armed forces.

The Indian Empire consisted of the present-day territory of India , Pakistan , and Bangladesh ; Burma had become a separate colony in As part of the British Empire, India was covered by Britain's declaration of war. Around 87, Indian members of the armed forces were killed in action, [82] and another 64, were wounded. The labour of millions more Indians contributed to the Allied war effort.

Poor working conditions and accidents such as the Bombay explosion claimed many lives. Cities on India's eastern coast were menaced by Japanese air raids; [84] Calcutta , for instance, was bombed several times. The Province of Bengal suffered the Bengal famine of An estimated 2. Historians have frequently characterized the famine as "man-made", asserting that wartime colonial policies created and then exacerbated the crisis. Many women were forced out of traditionally male-dominated industries after the war, however. Of these, 9, were killed in the war against Germany and Italy and 17, in the war against Japan.

Prisoners of war held by the Japanese made up nearly half of Australia's deaths in the Pacific. In the months after the war, Australian authorities were responsible for administering all of Borneo and the NEI east of Lombok until the British and Dutch colonial governments were re-established. While British and Indian forces in the west of the NEI became caught up in the Indonesian National Revolution , the Australians were able to avoid clashes with local nationalists.

The Australian military was rapidly demobilised after the Japanese surrender. Demobilisation planning had begun at the end of with the final scheme being approved by the Government in March General demobilisation started on 1 October and was completed in February The process generally ran smoothly, though there were protests over delays at Morotai and Bougainville. Personnel were provided with training while they waited to be demobilised and the government provided post-demobilisation assistance with employment, loans, education and other benefits.

Economically, the war accelerated the development of Australia's manufacturing industry and led to a large fall in unemployment. The war also resulted in a greater maturity in Australia's approach to international affairs, as demonstrated by the development of a more independent foreign policy and the encouragement of mass immigration after the war.

Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. Main article: Axis naval activity in Australian waters. Main article: North Western Area Campaign. See "Australian War Casualties". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 4 April Australia's War — Government of Australia. Retrieved 12 December Retrieved 15 March RAAF Museum.

Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 9 July Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 25 January Retrieved 26 January Remembering the War in New Guinea. Australia-Japan Research Project. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 2 March Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 13 July Air Power Development Centre. Retrieved 3 June Royal Australian Navy. Archived from the original on 21 November Retrieved 13 March Retrieved 1 January Allies in adversity. Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 2 December Canberra: Australian War Memorial.

Retrieved 17 August Retrieved 22 March National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 4 January Australian War Memorial Encyclopedia. Australian War Memorial Online Encyclopedia. Adam-Smith, Patsy Australian Women at War. Melbourne: Thomas Nelson Australia. Beaumont, Joan In Beaumont, Joan. Australia's War, — Beaumont, Joan a. Australian Defence: Sources and Statistics. The Australian Centenary History of Defence. Volume VI. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Bullard, Steven translator Butlin, S.

War Economy, — Australia in the War of — Clark, Chris Retrieved 22 December Canberra: The Australian War Memorial. Coates, John An Atlas of Australia's Wars. Cooper, Alastair Remembering Retrieved 19 September Coulthard-Clark, Chris The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles. Darian-Smith, Kate Day, David New York: Oxford University Press. John Curtin. A life. Sydney: HarperCollins Publishers. The Politics of War. Frame, Tom No Pleasure Cruise. The Story of the Royal Australian Navy. Gill, G. Hermon Royal Australian Navy — Gin, Ooi Keat Retrieved 4 June Grey, Jeffrey A Military History of Australia Second ed.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Australian Army. The Australian centenary history of defence First ed. A Military History of Australia Third ed. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. Haig-Muir, Marine; Hay, Roy Hasluck, Paul reprint. The Government and the People — Hasluck, Paul Herington, John Air Power Over Europe, — Horner, David High Command. Australia and Allied strategy — Horner, David May Command Papers. James, Karl Johnston, Mark Martin Windrow consultant editor.

Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Kuring, Ian Red Coats to Cams. A History of Australian Infantry to Sydney: Australian Military History Publications. Lodge, A. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Long, Gavin reprint. To Benghazi. Long, Gavin Greece, Crete and Syria. The Final Campaigns. The Six Years War. A Concise History of Australia in the — War.

Macintyre, Stuart The Oxford History of Australia. Volume 4: — The Succeeding Age. A Concise History of Australia. McKernan, Michael All In! Australia During the Second World War. The Strength of a Nation. Mellor, D. The Role of Science and Industry. Nash, Greg; Stevens, David Australia's Navy in the Gulf.

From Countenance to Catalyst, — Sydney: Topmill. Nelmes, Michael V Tocumwal to Tarakan. Australians and the B Liberator. Canberra: Banner Books. Nichols, Robert Odgers, George reprint. Air War Against Japan — Odgers, George Melbourne: Ken Fin Books. Palazzo, Albert