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This information is critical to evaluating the effectiveness of current and future public health interventions, which could be used in the event that a like virus reemerges. The knowledge from this work may also shed light on the pathogenesis of contemporary human influenza viruses with pandemic potential.

The natural emergence of another pandemic virus is considered highly likely by many experts, and therefore insights into pathogenic mechanisms could contribute to the development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions needed to control pandemic viruses. The influenza pandemic of killed an estimated 20 to 50 million people worldwide, many more than the subsequent pandemics of the 20th century. The biological properties that confer virulence to pandemic influenza viruses were poorly understood. Research to better understand how the individual genes of the pandemic influenza virus contribute to the disease process could provide important insights into the basis of virulence.

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This kind of information will enable us to devise appropriate strategies for early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, should a similar pandemic virus emerge. Additionally, such research will provide us with general principles with which we can better design antiviral drugs and other interventions against all influenza viruses with enhanced virulence. Work with the reconstructed virus was conducted at and supported by CDC. The U. CDC studies of the influenza virus were begun in with the initiation of testing of viruses containing subsets of the eight genes of the virus. Previous articles describing the properties of such viruses were published before Reconstruction of the entire virus was begun in August Top of Page.

It is impossible to predict with certainly, but the probability of the virus re-emerging from a natural source appears to be remote.

Reconstruction of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Virus

Influenza experts believe that a pandemic is most likely to be caused by an influenza subtype to which there is little, or no, preexisting immunity in the human population. There is evidence that some residual immunity to the virus, or a similar virus, is present in at least a portion of the human population. Since contemporary H1N1 viruses circulate widely and the current annual influenza vaccines contain an H1N1 component, a like H1N1 virus would not fit the current criteria for a new pandemic strain.

Two types of antiviral drugs, rimantadine Flumadine and oseltamivir Tamiflu , have been shown to be effective against influenza viruses similar to the virus. Vaccines containing the HA or other subtype H1 HA proteins were effective in protecting mice against the virus. In fact, the current influenza vaccine provided some level of protection against the virus in mice.

The reconstruction of the virus will enable CDC to pursue development of a vaccine candidate reference virus that would provide optimal protection against this or similar viruses. The work described in this report was done using stringent biosafety and biosecurity precautions that are designed to protect workers and the public from possible exposure to this virus for example, from accidental release of the virus into the environment.

Following this recommendation, CDC amended its regulations and designated all reconstructed replication competent forms of the pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segments reconstructed Influenza virus as a select agent. Biosafety Level 3 or Animal Biosafety Level 3 practices, procedures and facilities, plus enhancements that include special procedures discussed in the next question below , are recommended for work with the strain. There are four biosafety levels that correspond to the degree of risk posed by the research and involve graded levels of protection for personnel, the environment, and the community.

Biosafety Level 4 provides the most stringent containment conditions, Biosafety Level 1 the least stringent. These biosafety levels consist of a combination of laboratory practices and techniques, safety equipment, and laboratory facilities that are appropriate for the operations being performed. A Biosafety Level 3 facility with specific enhancements includes primary safety cabinets, isolation chambers, gloves and gowns and secondary facility construction, HEPA filtration treatment of exhaust air barriers to protect laboratory workers and the public from accidental exposure.

Highly trained laboratorians can work with the influenza virus strain safely using BSLenhanced containment. Researchers at CDC have specialized training and go through a rigorous biosafety and security clearance process. A BSL-3 facility with specific enhancements includes primary safety cabinets, isolation cabinets, gloves, gowns and secondary facility construction barriers to protect laboratory workers and the public from accidental exposure. Specific enhancements include change-of-clothing and shower-out requirements, and the use of a powered air purifying respirator PAPR; half body suits.

The primary and secondary barriers plus additional personal safety practices provide appropriate containment for conducting such influenza research. CDC evaluated the specific studies to be conducted as well as the highly experienced scientific team conducting the research and concluded that this work could proceed under BSL-3 containment with enhancements.

Prior to reconstruction of the virus, CDC carefully evaluated the specific studies to be conducted and concluded that this research could safely and securely be done under BSLenhanced containment.

Japan’s Resurrection from the Ruins of the War – Salon Syria

Designed by the Moscow architect Alexei Denisov, the new cathedral was built in The new structure lacks the highly ornamented porches, although it has chapels attached to the north and south facades. Some preservationists objected to the larger scale of the new structure and the lack of particular stylistic features of the 17 th -century cathedral. The interior, under the general design of Andrei Fekhner , has a large iconostasis with icons by Yaroslavl icon painter Yulia Belova. A free-standing bell tower is also planned, but at present there is a simple bell mount seen in my photograph.

In the early 20th century the Russian photographer Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky devised a complex process for color photography. Between and he traveled through the Russian Empire and took over 2, photographs with the process, which involved three exposures on a glass plate.


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In August , he left Russia and ultimately resettled in France with a large part of his collection of glass negatives. After his death in Paris in , his heirs sold the collection to the Library of Congress. In the early 21st century the Library digitized the Prokudin-Gorsky Collection and made it freely available to the global public. A number of Russian websites now have versions of the collection. In the architectural historian and photographer William Brumfield organized the first exhibit of Prokudin-Gorsky photographs at the Library of Congress. Over a period of work in Russia beginning in , Brumfield has photographed most of the sites visited by Prokudin-Gorsky.

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  • This website uses cookies. Click here to find out more. Dec 21 Cathedral of the Dormition of the Virgin. Southwest view. William Brumfield. Northwest view. Summer Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky. West view. Apse, southeast view. Cathedral of the Dormition, north view. Right: Cathedral bell tower. Temporary bell mount. North facade with wall paintings. Interior, view east toward icon screen.

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