Einsatzgruppen : SS mobile killing squads responsible for massacres in Eastern Europe of Jews, communist leaders, and Gypsies. Forced-labor camps : Camps where prisoners were used as slave labor. On July 5, , Margot Frank received a notice to report for forced labor in Germany.
Genocide : Deliberate, systematic murder of an entire political, cultural, racial, or religious group. Gestapo : The Secret State Police of the Third Reich, which used terror, arrest, and torture to eliminate political opposition and round up Jews and others. Ghettos: Areas of cities and towns in Eastern Europe in which Jews were forced to live in extreme, overcrowded conditions that included starvation, cold, and disease. Beginning in , ghetto inhabitants were sent to concentration and death camps or massacred.
Gypsies : A term for Roma and Sinti groups persecuted by the Nazis. Judenrein : "Jew-free. Mein Kampf details his plan to make Europe judenrein. Nuremberg Laws : Laws passed in the fall of , stripping Jews of their political rights by making them stateless. Occupation : Control of a country by a foreign military power. The Netherlands was occupied by the Nazi government of Germany. Pogrom : Organized violence against Jews, often with the support of the government. Razzia : A forced round-up of Jews in the Netherlands. SS: Schutzstaffel , black-shirted elite guard of Hitler, later the political police in charge of the concentration and death camps.
Swastika : An ancient religious symbol hooked cross , that became the official symbol of the Nazi Party.
Now banned in Germany, the swastika is still used by neo-Nazis around the world. Underground : A group acting in secrecy to oppose the government and resist the occupying enemy forces. Weimar Republic : German republic from to , a parliamentary democracy established after World War I, with Weimar as its capital city.
Westerbork : Jewish transit camp in northeastern Holland where almost , Jews were deported between and to the Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor, Theresienstadt, and Bergen-Belsen concentration and death camps. Yellow star : This six-pointed Star of David was a Jewish symbol that the Nazis forced Jews above the age of six to wear as a mark of shame and to make Jews visible. In the Netherlands the star carried the Dutch word Jood, meaning "Jew," in the middle. From May until she went into hiding, Anne Frank wore the yellow star, separating her from the rest of the Dutch population.
Born in the waning years of the democratic Weimar Republic, Anne Frank was only four years old when Hitler and the Nazi Party ascended to power. Unemployment, inflation, labor unrest, and rising violence in the streets were all associated in the popular mind with the inablility and inefficiency of the Weimar politicians. Its programs promised to restore honor and greatness to Germany. To accomplish these goals, the Nazis advocated a Germany free of Jews and other groups who endangered the destiny of the Third Reich.
As soon as the Nazis were in power, Jews, a very small minority in Germany, were subjected to arbitrary arrests and attacks in the streets. Humiliation of Jews in their synagogues, an economic boycott of Jewish businesses in April , and the firing of Jewish civil servants further demonstrated the hostile environment. Jews who stayed in Germany witnessed a gradual progression of anti-Semitic measures.
While there was sporadic terror against Jews in , by the Nuremberg Laws determined who the Jews were, legalizing their inferiority and their stateless status. Hundreds of pieces of anti-Semitic legislation became law in the middle and late s, segregating Jews from all aspects of German life. In , as the Third Reich expanded to incorporate Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia, the Nazis escalated their campaign against the Jews.
A world conference at Evian, France, with representatives from thirty-two nations, failed to offer any help or haven for the Jews of Germany and Austria. On November 9 and 10, , a nationwide pogrom, later known as Kristallnacht Night of the Broken Glass resulted in massive destruction of Jewish property and synagogues. Thirty thousand Jewish men and boys were arrested and deported to concentration camps. On the eve of the war Hitler ordered the killing of institutionalized handicapped patients, calling them "useless eaters.
Countries in Eastern and Western Europe were rapidly invaded. By Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France were controlled by the Nazis, who established ghettos, transit camps, and forced-labor camps, in addition to the concentration camps. The German invasion and conquest of the Netherlands began on May 10, , and ended on May 14, after the destruction of Rotterdam.
Throughout most of Nazi-occupied Europe the Nazis now expanded their program to make Europe judenrein, or "Jew-free," an idea that had been introduced in the s. However, during the war years anti-Semitic legislation and physical violence against Jews intensified. In the Netherlands, they were registered, isolated, and removed from public life; their businesses were Aryanized within eighteen months. The year marked a turning point in the course of the war. The German Army invaded the Soviet Union, thereby increasing by 3 million the number of Jews under their domination.
Mobile killing squads called Einsatzgruppen followed the German army throughout the conquered territories, where they rounded up people, forced them to undress in front of mass graves, and shot them en masse. In the summer and fall of , the Nazi hierarchy decided to move to the next stage of their policy regarding Jews. This led to the period of systematic mass murder in death camps, beginning in late , which the Nazis referred to in their code words "The Final Solution of the Jewish Question.
The purpose of the death camps was mainly to kill Jews, but there were many other victims as well. Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau were special cases, having both labor facilities and killing centers. Other camps such as Bergen-Belsen became places of death for thousands of victims through starvation and disease.
In addition to these camps, the Nazis continued to expand the slave-labor-camp system to thousands throughout the Third Reich. Here prisoners were literally worked until they were no long useful to the Nazis, then put to death. There were, however, people throughout the Third Reich who found the courage to help others. Organized resistance to the Nazis was punishable by death, but despite this, there were armed revolts by Jews in the death camps of Treblinka, Sobibor, and Auschwitz.
The Nazis began Razzen, or roundups: Jewish men and boys were grabbed from their homes, beaten, and deported. In June the Dutch people of Amsterdam protested in a two-day strike which Nazi troops quickly put down. In the first months that the Frank family lived in the Secret Annex, the death camps in Poland were operating at full capacity.
Anne sensed the danger for Jews, although she was not aware of the full magnitude of mass murder occurring hundreds of miles to the east. No one is spared. The sick, the elderly, children, babies, and pregnant women—all are marched to their death. Listening to the news of the war on the radio was extremely important to the inhabitants of the Annex. News of events such as the halting of German troops in the Soviet Union in February , as well as the Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy beginning the following July, prompted Anne to write optimistically about the approaching end of the war.
Nevertheless, she was saddened to realize that the declining military situation for Germany did not mitigate the war against the Jews. She especially despaired over the massive arrests and deportation of Hungarian Jews in May and June Although D Day operations elated Anne and the others in the Annex, the war still dragged on, leaving them wondering when it would ever end.
I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness, I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too, I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more. In the meantime, I must hold on to my ideals. The End of the War The arrests of the residents of the Secret Annex on August 4, , and their subsequent deportation from Westerbork to Auschwitz took place during the months that the Germans were facing defeat.
Soviet troops had already entered the Majdanek death camp in Lublin and publicized the horrors they found. As the Allies reached the occupied countries, the Nazis began to cover up the evidence of genocide and forced prisoners to march on foot toward central Germany to prevent their liberation. Many inmates died or were killed if they could not walk. During the final days, in the spring of , conditions at the remaining camps were so inhumane that many more died. Concentration camps such as Bergen-Belsen became a death trap for thousands, including Anne and Margot Frank.
The loss of Jewish lives in the Netherlands alone illustrates the magnitude of mass murder that occurred during the Holocaust. By July the country was virtually judenrein. In approximately , Jews had lived in the Netherlands during the Nazi occupation; , Jews there, three out of every four, perished. By May Nazi Germany collapsed and the war was over in Europe. The SS guards fled the concentration, forced-labor, and death camps. The camps were liberated and the world saw the evidence of the Holocaust. The Aftermath After the war the world tried to grapple with what had happened and to work to prevent its recurrence.
Judges from the Allied Powers, including Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union, heard evidence against twenty-two Nazi criminals for "crimes against peace" and "war crimes," which violated the laws and customs of warfare, and "crimes against humanity. Most of those prosecuted admitted that they were guilty of the crimes of which they were accused. Their defense? That they were simply following orders of a higher established power. He and several of his top aides had committed suicide in the final days of the war. Subsequent trials have continued to this day.
In the United States, where many war criminals escaped, the government deports those who participated in the persecution during the Nazi regime and came to this country illegally. The Nuremberg trials revealed fully what can happen when a state decides to dehumanize its citizens. The hope was to seek justice against those who participated in the murder of millions, including Anne Frank, simply because they were Jewish.
July 31, The Nazis receive January 30, Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany. February Freedom of speech and assembly is suspended by the Nazi government. Dachau, the main concentration camp for political prisoners, is built. April The Nazis declare a boycott of Jewish businesses and medical and legal practices. A law excluding non-Aryans removes Jews from government and teaching positions. May 10 Books by Jews, political enemies of the Nazi state, and other "undesirables" are burned in huge rallies throughout Germany.
July Hitler bans all political parties except for the Nazi Party. January Forced sterilization of the racially "inferior," primarily Gypsies and African-Germans, and the "unfit," the mentally and physically disabled, begins. Fall The Nuremberg Laws are passed defining Jews as noncitizens and making mixed Aryan and Jewish marriage illegal.
March 7, Germans march into the Rhineland, violating the Versailles Treaty. Summer Olympic games are held in Berlin, Germany. The United States participates. March 12, Germany annexes Austria. November , Kristallnacht.
Dancing On One Foot: Growing Up In Nazi Germany, A Memoir | D&R - Kültür, Sanat ve Eğlence Dünyası
State-sponsored pogrom in Germany and Austria, looting and destroying synagogues and Jewish owned-businesses. March 15, Germany occupies Czechoslovakia. September, "Tiergarten 4. December 11, Germany declares war on the United States. March Sobibor, Belzec, and Auschwitz-Birkenau all become fully operational death camps, followed by Treblinka in July. June SS leader Himmler orders the "liquidation" of all the ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union to death camps. June 6, D Day. Allies invade Western Europe. November 26, Himmler orders troops to destroy the crematoria at Auschwitz to hide the Nazi war crimes.
May 7, Germany surrenders, and the war ends in Europe. November The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi war criminals begin. Berenbaum, Michael. Boston: Little, Brown, Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial State: Germany New York: Cambridge University Press, Dawidowicz, Lucy. War Against the Jews: New York: Bantam, Dwork, Deborah. The legs would bend, the hand grabbed the thighs to support the coming convulsion. The cough would start somewhere down in the shins, the eyes would be screwed tight to prevent being jettisoned from the head, the mouth gripped tight to preserve the teeth.
Suddenly from afar comes a rumbling like a hundred Early Victorian Water Closets. Slowly the body would start to tremble and the bones to rattle. The first things to shake were the ankles, then up the shins travelled the shakes, and next the knees would revolve and turn jelliform; from there up the thighs to the stomach it came, now heading for the blackened lungs.
This was the stage when a sound like a three ton garden roller being pulled over corrugated iron was heard approaching the heaving chest. Following this up the convulsed body was a colour pattern, from a delicate green at the ankles to layers of pinks, blue, varicose purple, and sweaty red.
As the cough rose up the inflated throat, the whole six colours were pushed up into the victims face. It had now reached the inner mouth; the last line of defence, the cheeks, were blown out the size of football bladders. The climax was nigh! The whole body was now a purple shuddering mass! After several mammoth attempts to contain the cough, the mouth would finally explode open. Loose teeth would fly out, bits of breakfast, and a terrible rasping noise filled the room, Aweeioussheiough!!!
This atrophied pose held for seconds. Finally, with a dying attempt, fresh air was sucked back into the body, just in time to do it all over again. Bear in mind this was usually performed by some sixty men all at the same time. So to the great run. Hundreds of white shivering things were paraded outside Worthingholm. Officers out of uniform seemed stripped of all authority. Now I, like many others, had no intention of running five miles, oh, no.
We would hang behind fade into the background, find a quiet haystack, wait fen the return and rejoin them. Montgomery had thought of that. So it started. Some, already exhausted having to climb off the lorry, were begging for the coup do grace. Off we went, Leather Suitcase in front: in ten seconds he was trailing at the back. We left him expiring by the road. Many tried to husband their energy by running on one leg. It was too cold to walk, we had to keep moving or hour frost got at the appendages. One by one we arrived back at the billets, behind was a five mile train of broken men.
It took two hours before the last of the stragglers arrived back. As a military disaster, the run was second only to Isandhlawana. It was the end of the line for Leather Suitcase. Our new C. In the months that followed he ran us across two-thirds of Sussex, the whole of the South Coast, over mountains.
If ever we had to retreat we were in tip top condition. In the first week herds of men reported sick with sore feet. There were accidents; forgetful sleepers got up and plunged their feet into boots full of cold urine. What an Army! What a life! But of course, the Russians were advancing on all fronts, the Yanks were coming, and we had our first case of Crabs.
The M. Now blue unction has only one use—to destroy crabs. Knowing this, Sergeant Cusak entered Boots in Piccadilly with a prescription during the rush hour on Friday—it was crowded. It was after lights out that some of the most hysterical moments occurred. Those who had been drinking heavily soon made it known by great asphyxiating farts that rendered their owners unconscious and cleared the beds all round. There were even more gentlemen who performed feats with their unwanted nether winds that not even great Petomane could have eclipsed; simply, they set fire to them.
Using this method I have seen sheets of blue flame up to a foot in length. Old timers, by conserving their fuel, could scorch a Tudor Rose on the wall. With my own ears I heard him send S. On these occasions I, like others, lay in bed crying with laughter. It was done on a very professional basis.
Finally for the National Anthem he made the member stand. Each one had his own unique sound. For sheer noise, Gunner Notts. He vibrated knives, forks and spoons on the other side of the room. Before he went to sleep we secured all the loose objects with weights. Syd Price gave off snores so vibrant, his bed travelled up to six inches a night. Next, the teeth grinders! The gun crew were billeted in a beautiful old inn. The men were given the whole length of the attic.
At one end was the Great Gun Bucket that gunners place in their midst for use in inclement weather. Came the terrible night, when Lieutenant Sebag-Montefiore, sleeping soundly below was awakened by the sound of the ceiling falling through on him, followed by some twenty gallons of wellmatured urine. The ceiling was made good, the Gunners reprimanded, and it all bleu over, all except the smell. For months after if you were down wind you could always tell where Lieutenant Sebag-Montefiore was. They chose the most excruciating moments. This time I was just about to lay my new Axminster when the order came.
It was awful, I had to sell the piano. The moves were always highly secret and came in highly sealed envelopes, the contents of which usually appeared in later editions of the Bexhill Observer Secrecy was impossible, enemy agents had only to follow the trail of illegitimate births. The swearing, the mighty oaths and clangs, told the whole area exactly what was happening.
It was quite normal for a pub to empty out and give a hand pulling the gun. Most kids in Bexhill could dismantle one. The signal section under Sergeant Dawson had to start the lark of laying new lines. This was simple: you went from Point A, the O. Taking a rough bearing, we set off carrying great revolving iron drums of D. We had to cross railway lines, roads, swamps, rivers, with no more than adhesive tape. We borrowed the equipment en route from houses, a ladder here, a pair of pliers there, a bit of string, a few hooks, a three course lunch, etc.
To cross loads we had to climb telegraph poles. Basically lazy, it took some half an hour of arguing and threats to get one of us to go up. We had a new addition to the family, a military ten line telephone exchange. This saved a great amount of cable laying; it also connected up to the G. It was installed in a concrete air-raid shelter at the back of Worthingholm. In I took a sentimental journey back to Bexhill. The shelter was overgrown with brambles; I pushed down the stairs and by the light of a match I saw the original telephone cables still in place on the wall where the exchange used to be.
There was still a label on one. The place was full of ghosts—I had to get out. One of the pleasures of Duty Signaller was listening to officers talking to their females. It was good to have friends. At the new position we were to live under canvas. He was talking about the erection of a marquee. Depot at Reigate in a three-ton truck. We were shown a great piece of rolled canvas, six foot by ten foot by five foot. From it hung numerous lengths of trailing ropes. In picking the thing up it was impossible not to stand on them. We lifted. It must have weighed three to four hundredweight, and it all seemed to be on my side.
It was but a few yards to the truck, but somehow we found it impossible to get there. The lump was moved in much the confused way that ants carry a twig; there was a fair bit of going round in a circle, three paces backward—a little bit sideways then lots of going round and round again.
Straining around the edge were about twenty gunners, while underneath, taking the weight on their heads were ten more. There was frequent swearing, unending strings of instructions, but progress, none. The far side of the lump had started to unfold, so the carriers on that side were lost to sight and carrying blind. The whole thing was becoming absurd. The lump was coming to pieces as we continually trod on trailing ropes. Those on the outside were getting tired, and the lump was getting lower and lower as the men underneath wilted.
Finally it collapsed with seventeen gunners underneath. The second attempt started. This time we just dragged the thing by its trailing edges and forced it into the lorry like stuffing a chicken. The lump now seemed much larger. We crawled on top of it and moved off. On arrival, we dragged what was now a long, uncontrolled canvas mess through the woods to the site.
Sergeant Dawson was waiting. With a lot of twisting and untwirling we finally got it like he wanted. By careful planning we returned in time to finish work for the day. Next morning the nonsense continued. So far, so good. Underneath, the lumps, Gunners Cordon, Balfour and White, made their way to the holes. Two made it, but the third lump stayed still: it was Flash Cordon. We stood idly by as the lump moved hither and thither. We got it up in one go, and had it down the other side on top of us.
It came to the point when the marquee was at least standing upright, but covered in mud with a dozen gaping holes. Now came the tent pegs. The hammering in passed without incident. But something looked wrong. Suddenly it dawned. He hit me. The whole lunatic job started again. By sundown the thing was up. A mile away, in the dark, Cordon on his hands and knees was searching the ground with a candle.
Shaving al fresco in Mill Wood, with the Germans only forty miles away. The cross eyes were the result of a blunt blade Me, line laying. This was taken up by those with a like sense of humour. We called ourselves the Clubbers. We built a club rack outside the marquee and, in time, we fashioned great gnarled clubs from fallen branches. The pride was a magnificent find by Gunner Devine; it was a part of a blasted oak, five feet long, almost a replica of the club of Hercules.
We added to it by driving earthing irons into the head. This exercise was our downfall. We were caught one summer night by the duty officer. We were ordered to destroy the weapons. We had a solemn funeral procession. These turned out to be the disused rubbish tip at the bottom of a gently sloping hill. Rubbish was dumped by trucks via a small gauge railway. Filling the truck with clubs, we soaked them in petrol and set them ablaze. At the very last minute he let out a strangulated castrati scream and hurled himself sideways as the blazing truck buried itself into the mountain of tins with an ear splitting crash.
It was a fitting Viking end for the Sacred Clubs. Occasions of insanity such as this stopped us all going mad. The Gun Position Telephone at Mill Wood was in a small wooden but nine foot by eight foot, some two hundred yards from the gun. We were fairly isolated, off the road, in what had been a sand quarry. The but backed on to the working face of a sandy cliff about, fifteen feet high. Around and above grew gorse and brambles. It was simple. You sat by the phone and every hour tested the line to Battery Exchange.
The G. It was all too much for me. Sharing it with a friend like Harry rounded off the occasion. Happiness is a yesterday thing. Ablutions were primitive. We crossed the road into Bexhill Cemetery.
Dancing On One Foot: Growing Up In Nazi Germany, A Memoir
Loughborough, died 23 September That was it. In the evenings after dark, one or two of our favourite birds would visit us and bring fish and chips; once in we bolted the door. As the days of came to an end, Dunkirk was sliding into history. The war was spreading; there seemed very little in the way of victories, there were constant reversals in Libya and Greece. On my birthday, April 16 th, , London had its worst raid yet. But cheering news—May 14th was the first anniversary of—wait for it—The Home Guard! It was for us a paradise—large clean rooms—white walls, ideal for nails—parquet floors, a large ballroom, showers, a wellequipped gymnasium which we pretended not to see and finally a brand new upright piano, on which Harry could play the bloody awful Warsaw Concerto.
From here we ran our own dances. At this new billet we received morning visits from a W. Canteen Van. A very dolly married woman took a fancy to me and one night, after a dance, she took me home. Strange aftermath: a week later I thumbed a lift to Eastbourne, a civvy car: inside I could smell her perfume. There was a lovely busty bird called Beryl, who had hot pants for me. During the interval of our first dance at Turkey Road I took her to the lorry park, into the back of a fifteen hundredweight truck.
We were going through our third encore when the truck drove off. It stopped at Hastings. He backed the truck up an alley and left it while he went into The White Lion for a drink with his bird who was barmaid.
Slipping into the driving seat I drove it back, and arrived in time to play the second half of the dance. Every time they fired, bits fell off. In place of bolts and nuts were bent nails and chicken wire. Gunners on leave would rummage through their sheds for screws, pinions, etc. The end came when elastic bands, which held the gun-sight together, were no longer obtainable.
The Major wrote away, asking for a new gun for Christmas. One day they arrived. Dozens of them! Huge things towed behind Giant Schamell lorries. At once we were put into vigorous training to familiarize us with the new toys. For weeks the area rang to the clang of breech-blocks, shouted orders, grunts of the sweating ammunition numbers. Momentum was mounting, we were getting new field telephones, wireless trucks, wireless sets, tummy guns, Tannoy loudspeakers that linked Command Post to the guns.
The war effort was moving into top gear. One autumn dawn the sky was a mass of grey sponges: this undoubtedly would be the day. It was. Off we went. One hour after off we went we stopped wenting. We were in the middle of a Rain Forest that appeared to be in the Mato Grosso. Soggy officers were called to the O.
They stood in a squelching semi-circle, holding maps. Chaterjack whipped through the map references and all that Khaki Jazz. Our officer was Tony Goldsmith. Synchronise watches. None of us had one. Using his method, we had arrived at a hundred-year old deserted chalk quarry. How can people be so heartless as to desert a hundred-year-old chalk quarry? We were two hundred feet below sea level.
We got out. Goldsmith consulted his map. How shrewd of you to notice. This could mean promotion for you, or death. I suggest we retrace our steps to the main road. Does anybody know where it is? We boarded the truck, and set off somewhere. What a lovely name I thought for a dripping wet C. Goldsmith spoke. We drove grimly on. Russians were advancing on all fronts. Then a list of current British disasters, retreats, sinkings, etc.
The news concluded with a report of a two-headed calf born in Hereford. Using all the skill of a trained Army driver, Wenham had the truck into a ditch a second time! Send another message. Chaterjack: Good God, Tony, where are you man? Goldsmith: About a mile from the O.
Goldsmith: Roger sir. Chaterjack: Anything else? Goldsmith: A two-headed calf has been born at Hereford sir. Chaterjack: Two what? Goldsmith: Very good sir, anything else? Chaterjack: No. Roger and out. He told me a story about Jesus College, Cambridge. We tossed for who was to sleep in the truck. I lost. Under the truck! Laid out ground sheet, rolled myself like a casserole in three blankets. I dropped into a deep sleep. I awoke to rain falling on me. The truck had gone. Everybody had gone. There had been a surprise call to action at hours. I was alone in a fifty-acre field.
Smell of oil—I felt my face. It was smothered. The stuff had dripped from a leaky sump. Sound of motor-bike approaching. It was Jordy Dawson. I cut an artery and struck oil. We can be married. Tiger had been a roaring success. The German High Command must have been ecstatic.
The following is an excerpt from the Regimental war diary of the time: When the weather was too bad for schemes out of doors, wireless and telephone exercises were held within the Regiment to increase the proficiency in communications. Estimated, strength three capital ships, sixteen destroyers, and many lesser craft. The scheme finished, and the Regiment prepared to depart on its nightly occupations.
Suddenly the peace was shattered by the frantic ringing of the telephone bell. It was a call from the War Office, who enquired, in no uncertain tones, what the thundering blazes was the meaning of our message. What steps had been taken by us: and had the Navy been informed? By the time that the matter had been sorted out, tempers were frayed and feeling was running high. It took some laughing off, but a personal visit by the C. It is an interview that few of us would have cared to undertake personally. I think I can now safely reveal that the signal was sent by , Gunner Milligan. Now boxers at that weight are usually only five-foot-six.
Southern Command Sports were coming up. One of our competitors was Gunner Alexander Naze who had entered for the high jump. This puzzled us. Such was his confidence, he never trained. Came the day and Bexhill Sports Ground was crammed with shouting soldiers and things. The weather was perfect, sunny, warm, with a delightful cool, salt-scented breeze from the Channel. The grass was a fresh cut green. How can people have wars! Among the contestants were professional athletes from pre-service days; some Canadian high jumpers were clearing the bar at five-foot-eight just as a warm up!
To date, no sign of Gunner Naze. Then we saw it. Issuing from under the stands was a figure. It was wearing a red hooped football jersey, elastic-waisted blue military P. He ran in a series of peculiar little bounds and leaps, flicking his feet behind him, which I thought was some sort of expertise muscle-loosening exercise. He was blissfully unaware of the comparison his comic garb made with his sleekmuscled professionally-clad opponents. By then he had arrived at the jump-off; the warming up had been terminated. The official had taken down the bar and temporarily rested it at the three foot level…Naze eyed it… He walked some hundred yards from the bar, then turned and started to run.
He seemed well pleased, unconscious of the puzzled look that followed his effort. Came time for the jump off. An official signalled Naze and asked him if he was competing. Naze nodded. Naze walked twenty yards away, turned, and now saw that the officials had set the bar at five foot. For the first time he looked worried. He walked back a further fifty yards. He started his approach.
The stadium fell quiet as the great athlete bounded across the grass. We all felt that something unusual was about to happen. The bar broke across his forehead. Cheering broke out from the stands. Gunner Naze kept running, he left the field, he left the stadium, he left athletics.
Our next hope of a champion was the as yet untested Lofty Andrews. The notice was pinned below the ticket office window in the foyer of the De La Warr Pavillion. He was a strange-looking fellow, his eyes very close together, his nose and ears so large they appeared to be trying to outgrow each other. He spoke with that sound peculiar to the cockney larynx, when it tries to speak posh. Troops were rolling in; I sat thirteen rows back, between Gunners Devine and White, Devine being no mean brawler himself. The hall was packed, and a great carillon of voices filled the ear.
Cigarette smoke wafted upwards from two thousand throats, and hung like a pall in the still air. Old scores were being settled with balls of paper flicked at the backs of unsuspecting N. Men were standing shouting to men in other rows. Bombardier Rossi was taking bets in the tense region of two shillings.
The last of the officers were sauntering in, flushed with hurried whiskies. They were greeted with cheers or raspberries according to their popularity rating. Now came guest of honour, Lieutenant-Colonel Harding. No sooner had we all sat down, when came the National Anthem, and very strangely. It was being played by Gunner Edgington on a piano from the stage behind vast heavy velvet curtains that acted as a baffle.
As the first tinklings of the Anthem permeated the babble, it was a rare sight to see 2, soldiers in various stages of patriotic uncertainty, those nearest could hear and were at attention, those in the middle were somewhere in between sitting and hovering in the half upright, while those farthest away heard nothing and sat looking puzzled at the confusion around them.
He was joined by a few promotionseeking officers. At the end, the small band of brave singers were given a tremendous ovation with shouts of encore enriched with farts. Edgington, thinking the applause was for him, appeared grinning through the curtain, a waste of time, as the house lights went off, blacking him out. The ring now stood candescent in the floods, the light bouncing off the taut white ropes. Two miserable looking boxers sat in their corners, with towels draped over their shoulders.
Warburton, scrubbed, gleaming in crisp S. The first fight on your programme is a fly-weight contest of three three-minutes rounds. At the weigh-in, Reynolds, in the red corner, weighed eight stone, two pounds! The first three fights went through their thudding, sweating, grunting course—the animal in the crowd had been released, and tension lessened. Now came the bout we had come to see. In the opposite corner sat a red thing called Rifleman G. He was five-foot-six, covered in muscles, hair, scars, and tattoos of snakes disappearing into every orifice. Under neolithic brows, two evil black eyes stared out from hair which grew on his forehead.
There was no neck, the head seemingly joined to the shoulders by the lobes of his ears. At the first sight of this creature Lofty tried to scramble out of the ring. The Bexhill air raid sirens went. Lofty, a nervous lad, immediately took cover lying face down on the canvas. The referee was puzzled. He got it. Lofty rose, the fight continued. Another disaster. The lights fused. More uproar and whistling.
The lights went up. The referee was unconscious on the canvas. Lofty went to pick him up. The bell went. Conroy dragged Lofty to his corner. Warburton dragged the referee out of the ring. The lights went out again. The bell for the second round. He served as senior advisor to President Herbert Hoover from — His Democratic opponent was Robert L. Moran , an alderman from the Bronx who had succeeded to the Board presidency in when Alfred E. Smith , who had been elected board president in , became governor. Tammany Hall looked with alarm upon Kelly's entrance into the campaign and tried to persuade him to withdraw his candidacy and throw his support behind Moran.
When he refused, Tammany went to the New York Supreme Court and successfully sued to keep Kelly's name off the ballot. As the son of Italian immigrants and an interpreter on Ellis Island between and , La Guardia had experienced how immigration policies affected the families that came to the United States.
He wanted a change for the immigrants, especially with the immigrant medical examinations that took place on Ellis Island. His passion for justice among immigrants, and his ability to speak Italian, Yiddish, and Croatian helped him in his endeavor for justice amongst immigrant factory workers and set him on his path in public service.
La Guardia, running as a Republican, won a seat in Congress from the Italian stronghold of East Harlem in and served in the House until March 3, It circumvented Supreme Court limitations on the activities of labor unions, especially as those limitations were imposed between the enactment of the Clayton Antitrust Act in and the end of the s. Based on the theory that the lower courts are creations not of the Constitution but of Congress, and that Congress therefore has wide power in defining and restricting their jurisdiction, the act forbids issuance of injunctions to sustain anti-union contracts of employment, to prevent ceasing or refusing to perform any work or remain in any relation of employment, or to restrain acts generally constituting component parts of strikes, boycotts, and picketing.
It also said courts could no longer enforce yellow-dog contracts , which are labor contracts prohibiting a worker from joining a union. Never an isolationist , he supported using American influence abroad on behalf of democracy or for national independence or against autocracy.
Thus he supported the Irish independence movement and the anti-czarist Russian Revolution of , but did not approve of Vladimir Lenin. Unlike most progressive colleagues, such as Norris, La Guardia consistently backed internationalism , speaking in favor of the League of Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union as well as peace and disarmament conferences. In domestic policies he tended toward socialism and wanted to nationalize and regulate; however he was never close to the Socialist Party and never bothered to read Karl Marx.
As a congressman, La Guardia was a tireless and vocal champion of progressive causes, from allowing more immigration and removing U. He fought for progressive income taxes , greater government oversight of Wall Street , and national employment insurance for workers idled by the Great Depression. La Guardia was one of the first Republicans to voice his opinion about prohibition , urging that the Dry cause "would prove disastrous in the long run".
This was breaking a taboo, given the fact that both parties "avoided taking a stand on prohibition issues" at the time. As a Republican, La Guardia had to support Harding in ; he had to be silent in the campaign although he favored Al Smith , a Democrat. Walker and his Irish-run Tammany Hall were forced out of office by scandal and La Guardia was determined to replace him.
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First he had to win the nomination of both the Republican party and also the "Fusion" group of independents. He was not the first choice of either, for they distrusted Italians. On the other hand, La Guardia had enormous determination, high visibility, the support of reformer Samuel Seabury and the ability to ruin the prospects of any rival by a divisive primary contest. He secured the nominations and expected an easy win against hapless incumbent Mayor John P.
However, at the last minute Joseph V. McKee entered the race as the nominee of the new "Recovery party". Flynn and apparently was opposed by President Franklin Roosevelt. La Guardia made corruption his main issue. La Guardia's win was based on a complex coalition of regular Republicans mostly middle class German Americans in the boroughs outside Manhattan , a minority of reform-minded Democrats, some Socialists, a large proportion of middle-class Jews, and the great majority of Italians.
The Italians had been loyal to Tammany; their switch proved decisive. La Guardia came to office in January with five main goals: . La Guardia then collaborated closely with Robert Moses , with support from the governor, Democrat Herbert Lehman , to upgrade the decaying infrastructure. The city was favored by the New Deal in terms of funding for public works projects. La Guardia was not an orthodox Republican. He also ran as the nominee of the American Labor Party , a union-dominated anti- Tammany left wing group that supported Franklin D.
Roosevelt for president beginning in He was a Republican Episcopalian who had grown up in Arizona and had a Triestine Jewish mother  and a lapsed Catholic father. He spoke several languages; when working at Ellis Island, he was certified as an interpreter for Italian, German, Yiddish, and Croatian. When Henry Frank, a Jewish opponent, accused him of anti-Semitism, La Guardia rejected the suggestion that he publicly disclose that his mother was Jewish as "self-serving".
Instead, La Guardia dictated an open letter in Yiddish that was also printed in Yiddish. La Guardia loathed the gangsters who brought a negative stereotype and shame to the Italian community. La Guardia then went after the gangsters with a vengeance, stating in a radio address to the people of New York in his high-pitched, squeaky voice, "Let's drive the bums out of town".
In he went on a search-and-destroy mission looking for mob boss Frank Costello 's slot machines, which La Guardia executed with gusto, rounding up thousands of the "one armed bandits", swinging a sledgehammer and dumping them off a barge into the water for the newspapers and media. In La Guardia appeared at The Bronx Terminal Market to institute a citywide ban on the sale, display, and possession of artichokes , whose prices were inflated by mobs. When prices went down, the ban was lifted. Dewey , a future Republican presidential candidate, single out Lucky Luciano for prosecution.
The case was made into the movie Marked Woman , starring Bette Davis. La Guardia proved successful in shutting down the burlesque theaters, whose shows offended his puritanical sensibilities. La Guardia's admirers credit him, among other things, with restoring the economy of New York City during and after the Great Depression. He is given credit for many massive public works programs administered by his powerful Parks Commissioner Robert Moses , which employed thousands of voters.
The mayor's relentless lobbying for federal funds allowed New York to develop its economic infrastructure. He and Moses built highways, bridges and tunnels, transforming the physical landscape of New York City. When the city's newspapers were closed by a strike he famously read the comics on the radio. Responding to popular disdain for the sometimes corrupt City Council, La Guardia successfully proposed a reformed City Charter that created a powerful new New York City Board of Estimate , similar to a corporate board of directors. He was an outspoken and early critic of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime.
In a public address in , La Guardia warned that "part of Hitler's program is the complete annihilation of the Jews in Germany".
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In , speaking before the Women's Division of the American Jewish Congress , he called for the creation of a special pavilion at the upcoming New York World's Fair , "a chamber of horrors" for "that brown-shirted fanatic". Adolf Eichmann and Heinrich Himmler knew that Gemma was La Guardia's sister and ordered her to be held as a political prisoner. She and Herman Gluck were deported to Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria, where he died, as Gemma learned from reading a newspaper account a year after her own release.