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In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in , but South Africa maintained de facto rule. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in Namibia has a population of 2.

The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert , considered to be the oldest desert in the world. The dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San, Damara, and Nama.

Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam very well, [20] granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment.

The Nama-Herero War broke out in , with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam, and Herero. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa , Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Germany and Sweden.

In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola. Some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey. From to , the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the OvaHerero and Namaqua genocide.

Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories, which under South African rule after were turned into "homelands" Bantustans. Some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model for the Nazis in the Holocaust. As a result of the Conference on International Organization in , the League of Nations was formally superseded by the United Nations UN and former League mandates by a trusteeship system.

South Africa began imposing apartheid , its codified system of racial segregation and discrimination, on South West Africa during the late s. Development was concentrated in the region of the country immediately adjacent to South Africa, formally called the "Police Zone", where most of the German colonial era settlements and mines were. Outside the Police Zone, indigenous peoples were restricted to theoretically self-governing tribal homelands. During the late s and early s, pressure for global decolonisation and national self-determination began mounting on the African continent; these factors had a radical impact on South West African nationalism.

Namibia became one of several flashpoints for Cold War proxy conflicts in southern Africa during the latter years of the PLAN insurgency. Growing war weariness and the reduction of tensions between the superpowers compelled South Africa, Angola, and Cuba to accede to the Tripartite Accord , under pressure from both the Soviet Union and the United States. By the end of the month transition period, the last South African troops had been withdrawn from Namibia, all political prisoners granted amnesty, racially discriminatory legislation repealed, and 42, Namibian refugees returned to their homes.

The Namibian Constitution was adopted in February It incorporated protection for human rights and compensation for state expropriations of private property, and established an independent judiciary, legislature, and an executive presidency the constituent assembly became the national assembly. The country officially became independent on 21 March Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first President of Namibia at a ceremony attended by Nelson Mandela of South Africa who had been released from prison the previous month and representatives from countries, including 20 heads of state.

Since independence Namibia has completed the transition from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy. Multiparty democracy was introduced and has been maintained, with local, regional and national elections held regularly. Several registered political parties are active and represented in the National Assembly, although the SWAPO has won every election since independence. Since independence, the Namibian government has promoted a policy of national reconciliation. It issued an amnesty for those who fought on either side during the liberation war.

The civil war in Angola spilled over and adversely affected Namibians living in the north of the country. In , the national government quashed a secessionist attempt in the northeastern Caprivi Strip. It wanted the Caprivi Strip to secede and form its own society. Being situated between the Namib and the Kalahari deserts, Namibia has the least rainfall of any country in sub-Saharan Africa. The Namibian landscape consists generally of five geographical areas, each with characteristic abiotic conditions and vegetation, with some variation within and overlap between them: the Central Plateau, the Namib, the Great Escarpment , the Bushveld , and the Kalahari Desert.

The Central Plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Skeleton Coast to the northwest, the Namib Desert and its coastal plains to the southwest, the Orange River to the south, and the Kalahari Desert to the east. The Namib is a broad expanse of hyper-arid gravel plains and dunes that stretches along Namibia's entire coastline.

It varies between and many hundreds of kilometres in width. Areas within the Namib include the Skeleton Coast and the Kaokoveld in the north and the extensive Namib Sand Sea along the central coast. Average temperatures and temperature ranges increase further inland from the cold Atlantic waters, while the lingering coastal fogs slowly diminish. Although the area is rocky with poorly developed soils, it is significantly more productive than the Namib Desert.

As summer winds are forced over the Escarpment, moisture is extracted as precipitation. The area is generally flat and the soils sandy, limiting their ability to retain water and support agriculture. The Kalahari Desert , an arid region that extends into South Africa and Botswana, is one of Namibia's well-known geographical features. The Kalahari, while popularly known as a desert, has a variety of localised environments, including some verdant and technically non-desert areas.

The Succulent Karoo is home to over 5, species of plants, nearly half of them endemic ; approximately 10 percent of the world's succulents are found in the Karoo. Namibia's Coastal Desert is one of the oldest deserts in the world. Its sand dunes, created by the strong onshore winds, are the highest in the world. Typically the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, with frequent clear skies, provides more than days of sunshine per year.

It is situated at the southern edge of the tropics; the Tropic of Capricorn cuts the country about in half. Both rainy seasons occur in summer: the small rainy season between September and November, the big one between February and April. Rainfall is highly variable, and droughts are common. As the area behind the coast is a desert, these winds can develop into sand storms, leaving sand deposits in the Atlantic Ocean that are visible on satellite images. Efundja , the annual seasonal flooding of the northern parts of the country, often causes not only damage to infrastructure but loss of life.

The worst floods so far [update] occurred in March and displaced 21, people. Namibia is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa and depends largely on groundwater. The only perennial rivers are found on the national borders with South Africa , Angola , Zambia , and the short border with Botswana in the Caprivi. In the interior of the country, surface water is available only in the summer months when rivers are in flood after exceptional rainfalls.

Otherwise, surface water is restricted to a few large storage dams retaining and damming up these seasonal floods and their runoff. Where people do not live near perennial rivers or make use of the storage dams, they are dependent on groundwater. More than , boreholes have been drilled in Namibia over the past century. One third of these boreholes have been drilled dry. It has been estimated to be capable of supplying the , people in the North for years, at the current rate of consumption. Namibia is one of few countries in the world to specifically address conservation and protection of natural resources in its constitution.

The project's main goal is to promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local communities rights to wildlife management and tourism. Namibia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. The Constitution of Namibia guarantees the separation of powers : [85]. While the constitution envisaged a multi-party system for Namibia's government, the SWAPO party has been dominant since independence in Namibia has a largely independent foreign policy , with persisting affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle, including Cuba.

With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian government's principal foreign policy concern is developing strengthened ties within the Southern African region. A dynamic member of the Southern African Development Community , Namibia is a vocal advocate for greater regional integration. It became the th member of the UN on 23 April On its independence it became the 50th member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia does not have any enemies in the region , though it has been involved in various disputes regarding borders and construction plans.

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Military expenditure rose from 2. The Namibian constitution defines the role of the military as " defending the territory and national interests. The British formulated the plan for integrating these forces and began training the NDF, which consists of a small headquarters and five battalions. According to the Namibian Defence Ministry , enlistments of both men and women will number no more than 7, Namibia is divided into 14 regions and subdivided into constituencies. The administrative division of Namibia is tabled by Delimitation Commissions and accepted or declined by the National Assembly.

Since state foundation four Delimitation Commissions have delivered their work, the last one in under the chairmanship of Judge Alfred Siboleka. Regional councillors are directly elected through secret ballots regional elections by the inhabitants of their constituencies. Local authorities in Namibia can be in the form of municipalities either Part 1 or Part 2 municipalities , town councils or villages. Namibia's economy is tied closely to South Africa's due to their shared history. Namibia has a highly developed banking sector with modern infrastructure, such as online banking and cellphone banking.

The Bank of Namibia BoN is the central bank of Namibia responsible for performing all other functions ordinarily performed by a central bank. Under a broader definition including people that have given up searching for employment unemployment rose to This estimate considers people in the informal economy as employed. Labour and Social Welfare Minister Immanuel Ngatjizeko praised the study as "by far superior in scope and quality to any that has been available previously", [] but its methodology has also received criticism.

In early the Government tender board announced that "henceforth per cent of all unskilled and semi-skilled labour must be sourced, without exception, from within Namibia". In , global business and financial news provider, Bloomberg , named Namibia the top emerging market economy in Africa and the 13th best in the world.


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Worldwide, Namibia also fared better than Hungary, Brazil and Mexico. Bloomberg Markets magazine ranked the top 20 based on more than a dozen criteria. The countries were also rated on areas of particular interest to foreign investors: the ease of doing business, the perceived level of corruption and economic freedom. In order to attract foreign investment, the government has made improvement in reducing red tape resulted from excessive government regulations, making Namibia one of the least bureaucratic places to do business in the region.

Facilitation payments are occasionally demanded by customs due to cumbersome and costly customs procedures. The cost of living in Namibia is relatively high because most goods, including cereals, need to be imported. Its capital city, Windhoek, is the th most expensive place in the world for expatriates to live. Taxation in Namibia includes personal income tax, which is applicable to total taxable income of an individual. All individuals are taxed at progressive marginal rates over a series of income brackets.

The value added tax VAT is applicable to most of the commodities and services. Despite the remote nature of much of the country, Namibia has seaports, airports, highways, and railways narrow-gauge. It seeks to become a regional transportation hub; it has an important seaport and several landlocked neighbours. The Central Plateau already serves as a transportation corridor from the more densely populated north to South Africa, the source of four-fifths of Namibia's imports.

This disparity illustrates the large gap between the rich and the poor. About half of the population depends on agriculture largely subsistence agriculture for its livelihood, but Namibia must still import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is five times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in rural areas and have a subsistence way of life.

Namibia has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the world, due in part to the fact that there is an urban economy and a more rural cashless economy. The inequality figures thus take into account people who do not actually rely on the formal economy for their survival. About 4,, mostly white, commercial farmers own almost half of Namibia's arable land. Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more enterprises in coming years, with hopes that this will stimulate much needed foreign investment, but reinvestment of environmentally derived capital has hobbled Namibian per capita income.

These are particularly important to the rural, generally unemployed, population. There has been significant investment in uranium mining and Namibia is set to become the largest exporter of uranium by There are offshore gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean that are planned to be extracted in the future. Domestic supply voltage is V AC. Electricity is generated mainly by thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

Non-conventional methods of electricity generation also play some role. Encouraged by the rich uranium deposits the Namibian government plans to erect its first nuclear power station by , also uranium enrichment is envisaged to happen locally. Although much of the world's diamond supply comes from what have been called African blood diamonds , Namibia has managed to develop a diamond mining industry largely free of the kinds of conflict, extortion, and murder that have plagued many other African nations with diamond mines.

This has been attributed to political dynamics, economic institutions, grievances, political geography, and the effects of neighborhoods, and is the result of a joint agreement between the government and De Beers that has led to a taxable base, strengthening state institutions.

Tourism is a major contributor There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate eco-tourists. In addition, extreme sports such as sandboarding , skydiving and 4x4ing have become popular, and many cities have companies that provide tours. Windhoek plays a very important role in Namibia's tourism due to its central location and close proximity to Hosea Kutako International Airport. Its primary objectives are to regulate the tourism industry and to market Namibia as a tourist destination. Namibia is the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide water through municipal departments.

The UN evaluated in that Namibia has improved its water access network significantly since independence in A large part of the population can not, however, make use of these resources due to the prohibitively high consumption cost and the long distance between residences and water points in rural areas.

Compared to the efforts made to improve access to safe water, Namibia is lagging behind in the provision of adequate sanitation. The UN has identified a "sanitation crisis" in the country. Apart from residences for upper and middle class households, sanitation is insufficient in most residential areas. Private flush toilets are too expensive for virtually all residents in townships due to their water consumption and installation cost.

Many of Namibia's inhabitants have to resort to "flying toilets", plastic bags to defecate into, which after use are flung into the bush. Namibia has the second- lowest population density of any sovereign country, after Mongolia. Other ethnic groups are the Herero and Himba people , who speak a similar language, and the Damara , who speak the same "click" language as the Nama. In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan such as Nama and San , who are descendants of the original inhabitants of Southern Africa. The country also contains some descendants of refugees from Angola.

There are also two smaller groups of people with mixed racial origins, called " Coloureds " and " Basters ", who together make up 8. There is a substantial Chinese minority in Namibia ; it stood at 40, in Whites mainly of Afrikaner , German, British and Portuguese origin make up between 4. Although their proportion of the population decreased after independence due to emigration and lower birth rates, they still form the second-largest population of European ancestry , both in terms of percentage and actual numbers, in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa.

A large minority of whites around 30, trace their family origins back to the German settlers who colonized Namibia prior to the British confiscation of German lands after World War I, and they maintain German cultural and educational institutions. Nearly all Portuguese settlers came to the country from the former Portuguese colony of Angola. Namibia conducts a census every ten years.

After independence the first Population and Housing Census was carried out in ; further rounds followed in and This is called the de facto method. These areas do not overlap with constituency boundaries to get reliable data for election purposes as well. The Population and Housing Census counted 2,, inhabitants.

Between and the annual population growth was 1. Lutherans are the largest religious group, a legacy of the German and Finnish missionary work during the country's colonial times. Missionary activities during the second half of the 19th century resulted in many Namibians converting to Christianity. Islam in Namibia is subscribed to by about 9, people, [] many of them Nama.

Up to , English, German , and Afrikaans were official languages. Long before Namibia's independence from South Africa, SWAPO was of the opinion that the country should become officially monolingual, choosing this approach in contrast to that of its neighbour South Africa which granted all 11 of its major languages official status , which it saw as "a deliberate policy of ethnolinguistic fragmentation.

Its implementation is focused on the civil service, education and the broadcasting system, especially the state broadcaster NBC. Private schools are expected to follow the same policy as state schools, and "English language" is a compulsory subject. Both Afrikaans and English are used primarily as a second language reserved for public communication. A complete list of languages according to the census is Most of the white population speaks either German or Afrikaans. Even today, years after the end of the German colonial era, German plays a role as a commercial language.

The most popular sport in Namibia is association football. The most successful national team is the Namibian rugby team , having competed in five separate World Cups. Namibia were participants in the , , , and Rugby World Cups. Cricket is also popular, with the national side having played in the Cricket World Cup. The most famous athlete from Namibia is Frankie Fredericks , sprinter in the and m events.

He won four Olympic silver medals , and also has medals from several World Athletics Championships []. He achieved a career high world ranking of 78th in Although Namibia's population is fairly small, the country has a diverse choice of media; two TV stations, 19 radio stations without counting community stations , 5 daily newspapers, several weeklies and special publications compete for the attention of the audience.

Additionally, a mentionable amount of foreign media, especially South African, is available. Online media are mostly based on print publication contents. The first newspaper in Namibia was the German-language Windhoeker Anzeiger , founded During German rule, the newspapers mainly reflected the living reality and the view of the white German-speaking minority.

The black majority was ignored or depicted as a threat. During South African rule, the white bias continued, with mentionable influence of the Pretoria government on the "South West African" media system. Independent newspapers were seen as a menace to the existing order, and critical journalists were often threatened. Except for the largest newspaper, The Namibian , which is owned by a trust, the other mentioned private newspapers are part of the Democratic Media Holdings. Furthermore, the print market is complemented with party publications, student newspapers and PR publications.

Radio was introduced in , TV in The public broadcaster offers a TV station as well as a "National Radio" in English and nine language services in locally spoken languages. The nine private radio stations in the country are mainly English-language channels, except for Radio Omulunga Oshiwambo and Kosmos Compared to neighbouring countries, Namibia has a large degree of media freedom. Over the past years, the country usually ranked in the upper quarter of the Press Freedom Index of Reporters without Borders , reaching position 21 in , being on par with Canada and the best-positioned African country.

An independent media ombudsman was appointed in to prevent a state-controlled media council. Namibia has free education for both primary and secondary education levels. Grades 1—7 are primary level, grades 8—12 are secondary. In , there were , Namibian students in primary school and , students in secondary schools. Most schools in Namibia are state-run, but there are some private schools, which are also part of the country's education system.

Namibia launched a National Health Extension Programme in [] deployment 1, of a total ceiling of 4, health extension workers trained for six months in community health activities including first aid, health promotion for disease prevention, nutritional assessment and counseling, water sanitation and hygiene practices, HIV testing and community-based antiretroviral treatment. Namibia faces non-communicable disease burden. The Demographic and Health Survey summarizes findings on elevated blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes and obesity:.

It falls to the government to provide education, food, shelter and clothing for these orphans. The malaria problem seems to be compounded by the AIDS epidemic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Namibian disambiguation. Name in national languages. Coat of arms. Kung Gciriku Thimbukushu. Main article: History of Namibia. See also: South West Africa. Main article: Geography of Namibia. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia. Main article: Communal Wildlife Conservancies in Namibia.

Main article: Politics of Namibia. Main article: Foreign relations of Namibia. Main article: Namibian Defence Force. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March Main article: Administrative divisions of Namibia. Main article: Economy of Namibia. Main article: Agriculture in Namibia. Main article: Mining in Namibia. Main article: Tourism in Namibia.

Main article: Demographics of Namibia. Main article: Religion in Namibia. Main article: Languages of Namibia. See also: List of cities and towns in Namibia. Largest cities or towns in Namibia According to the Census []. Main articles: Sport in Namibia and Rugby union in Namibia. See also: Media of Namibia.

Main article: Education in Namibia.

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See also: List of schools in Namibia. Main article: Health in Namibia. Namibia portal. Government of Namibia. Archived from the original PDF on 25 February Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original PDF on 1 March Archived from the original PDF on 19 August Retrieved 4 September French Politics. Of the contemporary cases, only four provide the assembly majority an unrestricted right to vote no confidence, and of these, only two allow the president unrestricted authority to appoint the prime minister. These two, Mozambique and Namibia, as well as the Weimar Republic, thus resemble most closely the structure of authority depicted in the right panel of Figure 3, whereby the dual accountability of the cabinet to both the president and the assembly is maximized.

Namibia allows the president to dissolve [the assembly] at any time but places a novel negative incentive on his exercise of the right: He must stand for a new election at the same time as the new assembly elections. Retrieved 7 February International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 January World Bank. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September Terrestrial Ecoregions. A pipe bomb is thrown through the window of a closed Planned Parenthood clinic in Madera, Calif.

Mower reportedly confesses to the attack and pleads guilty to arson, damaging religious property and violating the Freedom of Access to Clinics Act. He is sentenced in January to five years in prison and three years of supervised release. After earlier receiving tips that Moose was posting threats of violence against abortion providers and information about explosives on his Facebook page, the FBI set up a sting operation to capture him.

Moose later pleads guilty to distributing information on manufacturing and use of an explosive and is sentenced to 30 months in prison. He is released in November Victor White, 55, wounds all three men before they retreat, and a hour standoff follows. White eventually surrenders and is charged with three counts of attempted capital murder of a peace officer, one count of attempted capital murder, and aggravated assault. He is sentenced to life in prison in Curtis Scrivner, a sovereign citizen facing charges of menacing with a deadly weapon, disorderly conduct and two counts of possession of a dangerous weapon, is killed in a gun battle in Riggins, Idaho, that begins after law enforcement officers try to arrest him for sending a threatening letter to the court.

In the letter, Scrivner warned that police had violated his rights "protected by the second and fourth amendments to the Constitution," and added, "I know this as I have studied law as an ex-cop. Your court and attorneys should know this, as it is your job to know. The two murders are apparently only part of Luke's plan to kill black, Latino and Jewish people.

After being captured by police, he reportedly says he planned to go to an Orthodox synagogue near his home that night and "kill as many Jews as possible. When he later appears in court for a hearing, Luke, charged with murder, kidnapping and aggravated rape, has etched a swastika into his own forehead, apparently using a jail razor. He is convicted of first-degree murder in May and sentenced to life in prison without parole. Three Pittsburgh police officers — Paul Sciullo III, Stephen Mayhle and Eric Kelly — are fatally shot and a fourth, Timothy McManaway, is wounded after responding to a domestic dispute at the home of Richard Andrew Poplawski, who had posted his racist and anti-Semitic views on white supremacist websites.

In one post, Poplawski talks about wanting a white supremacist tattoo. He also reportedly tells a friend that America is controlled by a cabal of Jews, that U. More law enforcement officers are killed during the incident than in any other single act of violence by a domestic political extremist since the Oklahoma City bombing. Poplawski is convicted of three counts of first-degree murder in and sentenced to death.

After fleeing the scene, Cartwright is fatally shot during a gun battle with pursuing officers. Cartwright's wife later tells investigators that her husband was "severely disturbed" that Barack Obama has been elected president. He also reportedly believed the U. The sheriff tells reporters that Cartwright had been interested in joining a militia group. It was one of those homemade plates that led Topeka police to stop Roeder in April , when a search of his trunk revealed a pound of gunpowder, a 9-volt battery wired to a switch, blasting caps and ammunition.

But his conviction in the case is ultimately overturned. In the Tiller case, Roeder is convicted of first-degree murder in January and is sentenced to life in prison. Holocaust Memorial Museum and shoots to death security guard Stephen Johns before he is himself shot and critically wounded by other officers. Von Brunn, who earlier served six years in connection with his attempt to kidnap the members of the Federal Reserve Board at the point of a sawed-off shotgun, has been active in the white supremacist movement for more than four decades.

In the early s, he worked at the Holocaust-denying Noontide Press, and in subsequent decades, he comes to know many of the key leaders of the radical right. Obama does what his Jew owners tell him to do. Jews control the mass media. Forde orchestrated the May 30 home invasion because she believed the man was a narcotics trafficker and wanted to steal drugs and cash to fund her group. Authorities say the murders, including the killing of the child, were part of the plan.

Authorities say that Bush had ties to the neo-Nazi Aryan Nations in Idaho, and that Forde has spoken of recruiting its members. Forde is sentenced to death in February , and Bush is sentenced to death in April Gaxiola is sentenced to life in prison. Longtime white supremacist Dennis Mahon and his brother Daniel are indicted in Arizona in connection with a mail bomb sent in to a diversity office in Scottsdale that injured three people. There's a few white people who are standing up. On the same day, white supremacist Robert Joos is arrested in rural Missouri, apparently because phone records show that Dennis Mahon's first call after the mail bombing was to Joos' cell phone.

Dennis Mahon is found guilty of three bombing charges in February He is sentenced to 40 years in prison. Daniel Mahon is acquitted of the one charge against him. George Sodini, a year-old male supremacist, walks into a women's dance class at the LA Fitness center in Collier Township, Pennsylvania, with several concealed firearms. Sodini turns off the lights, takes out two handguns and opens fire on the women in the room, killing three and wounding nine others.

According to police, Sodini fired 52 shots before taking his own life. On his website, Sodini chronicled years of sexual frustration and romantic rejection by women, along with a nine-month account of plans to carry out the shooting. Six people, most of them tied to the militia movement, are arrested in rural north-central Pennsylvania after officials find stockpiles of assault rifles, improvised explosives and homemade weapons, at least some of them apparently intended for use in terrorist attacks on U.

Agents find 16 homemade bombs during a search of the residence of Pennsylvania Citizens Militia recruiter Bradley T. Kahle, who allegedly tells authorities that he intended to shoot black people from a rooftop in Pittsburgh and also predicts civil war if either Barack Obama or Hillary Clinton is elected president. A raid on the property of Morgan Jones results in the seizure of 73 weapons, including a homemade flame thrower, a machine that supposedly shot bolts of electricity, and an improvised cannon.

Also arrested and charged with weapons violations are Marvin E. Hall, his girlfriend Melissa Huet and Perry Landis, who allegedly tells undercover agents he wanted to kill Gov. Ed Rendell. Landis is sentenced in to time served plus two years of supervised release. Hall is sentenced in January to time served with three years of probation.

Huet spends years trying to get the charges against her — helping a convicted felon possess a firearm — dismissed. In July , federal prosecutors drop gun charges against her. Two adults die and seven others are wounded. Adkisson allegedly tells investigators that liberals should be killed because they are ruining the country and that Democrats, aided by media, are also responsible. Adkisson pleads guilty to two counts of first-degree murder and six counts of attempted murder and is sentenced to life in prison on Feb. Johnson are arrested in Denver during the Democratic National Convention on weapons charges and for possession of amphetamines.

Although police say they talked about assassinating presidential candidate Barack Obama, they are not charged in connection with that threat because officials see their talk as drug-fueled boasting. Police report the three had high-powered, scoped rifles, wigs, camouflage clothing and a bulletproof vest, along with the crystal methamphetamine. Gartrell is released from prison in June , while Johnson is released in Adolf, who was already wanted on other charges, draws a longer sentence and is released in April Two white supremacists, Daniel Cowart and Paul Schlesselman, are arrested in Tennessee for allegedly plotting to assassinate Barack Obama and murder more than black people.

Officials say Schlesselman and Cowart, a probationary member of the racist skinhead group Supreme White Alliance, planned to kill 88 people, then behead another Both numbers are significant in white supremacist circles. The pair are indicted on charges that include threatening a presidential candidate, possessing a sawed-off shotgun, taking firearms across state lines to commit crimes, planning to rob a licensed gun dealer, damaging religious property, and using a firearm during the commission of a crime.

In , Cowart is sentenced to 14 years and Schlesselman is sentenced to Police responding to a shooting at a home in Belfast, Maine, find James G. Cummings dead, allegedly killed by his wife after years of domestic abuse. They also find a cache of radioactive materials, which Cummings was apparently using to try to build a radioactive "dirty bomb," along with literature on how to build such a deadly explosive.

Police also discover a membership application filled out by Cummings for the neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement. Friends say that Cummings had a collection of Nazi memorabilia. The authorities say Cummings was reportedly "very upset" by the election of Barack Obama. Kody Ray Brittingham, a lance corporal in the U. Marine Corps, is arrested with four others on attempted robbery charges. A search of his barracks room at Camp Lejeune in North Carolina turns up white supremacist materials and a journal written by Brittingham containing plans to kill Barack Obama. Brittingham is indicted for threatening the president-elect of the United States.

He is sentenced in to months in prison. Five members of the Alabama Free Militia are arrested in north Alabama in a raid by federal and state law enforcement officers that uncovers a cache of homemade hand grenades, an improvised grenade launcher, a Sten Mark submachine gun, a silencer, 2, rounds of ammunition and almost marijuana plants. Dillard draws the harshest sentence, and is released in May Treasury agents in Utah arrest David J.

D'Addabbo for allegedly threatening Internal Revenue Service employees with "death by firing squad" if they continued to try to collect taxes from him and his wife. D'Addabbo, who was reportedly carrying a Glock pistol, 40 rounds of ammunition and a switchblade knife when he was seized leaving a church service, allegedly wrote to the U. Tax Court that anyone attempting to collect taxes would be tried by a "jury of common people. You then could be found guilty of treason and immediately taken to a firing squad. He is sentenced to time served and released the same year as his arrest.

A former roommate tips off authorities that year-old Steven Michael Ekberg might have illegal biological materials and firearms. A week later law enforcement officers trail Ekberg to a nightclub in Ocala, Florida. An undercover officer strikes up a conversation with Ekberg, wherein he reveals that he always carries three guns.

Ekberg shows the officer a gun in a holster on his ankle. He is arrested on charges of violating the terms of his concealed carry permit. A search of Ekberg's residence uncovers terrorist-associated literature, including the Unabomber's manifesto, how-to manuals on various ways to kill people, as well as ricin, castor beans and various other unspecified chemicals. Ekberg accepts a plea deal that includes a month prison sentence, two years of probation and drug-counseling sessions.

Daniel J. The informant says Schertz demonstrated how to attach the pipe bombs to cars, then sold him bombs that Schertz expected to be used against a group of Haitians and, separately, Mexican workers on a bus headed to work in Florida. Schertz eventually pleads guilty to six charges — including teaching how to make an explosive device; making, possessing and transferring destructive devices; and possessing a pistol with armor-piercing bullets — and is sentenced to 14 years in prison. He is to be released in Arizona man Denys Ray Hughes, a year-old survivalist with far-right anti-government views, is pulled over for a traffic violation in Kansas.

Authorities notify police in Arizona that Hughes could be involved in dangerous activity. A search of his cabin quickly reveals 43 guns, along with materials needed for the manufacture of ricin, including production formulas, six bottles of castor beans and dimethyl sulfide. A search of his residence in Phoenix also reveals several castor bean plants, a pipe bomb, bomb-making components and an unregistered silencer.

Hughes is convicted in and sentenced to 87 months in prison. However, after several years behind bars, Hughes is allowed to serve out the rest of his sentence in a halfway house. While being transported back to Wisconsin, in May , Hughes escapes custody and is a fugitive before his corpse is discovered in Western Nebraska in April , nearly a year later. The body's identity is publicly confirmed in April Authorities believe Hughes died of prior health complications. Neo-Nazi Skinhead Sean Gillespie videotapes himself as he firebombs Temple B'nai Israel, an Oklahoma City synagogue, as part of a film he is preparing to inspire other racists to violent revolution.

In it, Gillespie boasts that instead of merely pronouncing the white-supremacist "14 Words" slogan "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children" , he will carry out 14 violent attacks. A former member of the neo-Nazi Aryan Nations, Gillespie is found guilty of the attack and later sentenced to 39 years in federal prison, with an expected release date of During the attempted robbery of a Tulsa bank by Wade and Christopher Lay, a father-son pair of antigovernment extremists, security guard Kenneth Anderson is shot to death.

Both robbers are wounded, and are arrested a short time after fleeing the bank. In the end, Wade Lay is sentenced to death for first-degree murder, while his son is sentenced to life without parole. Ivan Duane Braden, a former National Guardsman discharged from an Iraq-bound unit after superiors noted signs of instability, is arrested after checking into a mental health facility and telling counselors about plans to blow up a synagogue and a National Guard armory in Tennessee.

The FBI reports that Braden told agents that he planned to go to a synagogue wearing a trench coat stuffed with explosives and get himself "as close to children and the rabbi as possible," a plan Braden also outlined in notes found in his home. In addition, he intended to take and kill hostages at the Lenoir City Armory, before blowing the armory up. Eventually, Braden, who also possessed neo-Nazi literature and reportedly hated blacks and Jews from an early age, pleads guilty to conspiring to blow up the armory.

He is sentenced to prison, where his release is expected in FBI agents in Tennessee arrest farmhand Demetrius "Van" Crocker after he tried to purchase ingredients for deadly sarin nerve gas and C-4 plastic explosives from an undercover agent.

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The FBI reports that Crocker, who local officials say was involved in a white supremacist group in the s, tells the agent that he admires Hitler and hates Jews and the government. He also says "it would be a good thing if somebody could detonate some sort of weapon of mass destruction on Washington, D. Hale is charged with soliciting the murder of the federal judge in the case, Joan Humphrey Lefkow, who he has publicly vilified as someone bent on the destruction of his group. Although Lefkow originally ruled in WCOTC's favor, an appeals court found that the complaint brought by an identically named church in Oregon was legally justified, and Lefkow reversed herself accordingly.

In guarded language captured on tape recordings, Hale is heard agreeing that his security chief, an FBI informant, should kill Lefkow. Hale is found guilty and sentenced to serve 40 years in federal prison; he is not expected to be released until James D. Brailey, a convicted felon who once was selected as "governor" of the state of Washington by the antigovernment Washington Jural Society, is arrested after a raid on his home turns up a machine gun, an assault rifle and several handguns.

Gary Locke, both because Locke was the state's real governor and because he was Chinese-American. A second informant says that Brailey actually went on a "dry run" to Olympia, carrying several guns into the state Capitol building to test security. Eventually, Brailey pleads guilty to weapons charges and is sentenced to serve 15 months in prison. He is released in Federal agents in Pennsylvania arrest David Wayne Hull, imperial wizard of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and an adherent of the anti-Semitic Christian Identity theology, alleging that Hull arranged to buy hand grenades to blow up abortion clinics.

The FBI says Hull also illegally instructed followers on how to build pipe bombs. Hull, who published a newsletter in which he urged readers to write Oklahoma City bomber Tim McVeigh "to tell this great man goodbye," is found guilty of weapons violations and sentenced to 12 years in federal prison. He is released in July Federal agents arrest antigovernment extremist David Roland Hinkson in Idaho and charge him with trying to hire an assassin on two occasions in and to murder a federal judge, a prosecutor and an IRS agent involved in a tax case against him.

In early , a federal jury finds him guilty in the assassination plot as well. He is not expected to be released until The FBI raids the Noonday, Texas, home of William Krar and storage facilities that Krar rented in the area, discovering an arsenal that includes more than , rounds of ammunition, 65 pipe bombs and remote-control briefcase bombs, and almost two pounds of deadly sodium cyanide. Also found are components to convert the cyanide into a bomb capable of killing thousands, along with white supremacist and antigovernment material.

Investigators soon learn Krar was stopped earlier in by police in Tennessee, who found several weapons and coded documents in his car that seemed to detail a plot. But Krar refuses to cooperate, and details of that alleged plan are never learned. He pleads guilty to possession of a chemical weapon and is sentenced to more than 11 years in prison, where he dies. Police arrest Norman Somerville after finding a huge weapons cache on his property in northern Michigan that includes six machine guns, a powerful anti-aircraft gun, thousands of rounds of ammunition, hundreds of pounds of gunpowder, and an underground bunker.

Officials describe Somerville as an antigovernment extremist enraged over the death of Scott Woodring, a Michigan Militia member killed by police a week after Woodring shot and killed a state trooper during a standoff. Somerville eventually pleads guilty to weapons charges and is sentenced to six years in prison.

He is released in August Abbeville, S. After a day-long shootout, Steven and Arthur are arrested. Steven is charged with murder and criminal conspiracy, and his father is eventually sent to a mental institution. Rita, who was not in the house, is arrested later and charged as an accessory.

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Steven is sentenced to death in and remains on Death Row; his father is never tried and dies in the mental institution in ; and Rita is sentenced to life in and dies in prison four years later, six days after her husband. The leader of a militia-like group known as Project 7 and his girlfriend are arrested after an informant tells police the group is plotting to kill judges and law enforcement officers in order to kick off a revolution. David Burgert, who has a record for burglary and is already wanted for assaulting police officers, is found in the house of girlfriend Tracy Brockway along with an arsenal that includes pipe bombs and 25, rounds of ammunition.

Although officials are convinced the Project 7 plot was real, Burgert ultimately is convicted only of weapons charges, draws a seven-year sentence and is released in March Six others are also convicted of, or plead guilty to, weapons charges. Brockway gets a suspended sentence for harboring a fugitive, and is sent to prison for violating its terms. She is released in early Burgert leads them on a pursuit and fires multiple rounds at the deputies before fleeing on foot. He is wanted on two counts of attempted murder for the shootout, and his current whereabouts are unknown.

Officers find more than two dozen weapons in Barefoot's home. They also find bombs and bomb components in the home of Barefoot's son, Daniel Barefoot, who is charged that same day with the arson of a school bus and an empty barn. The elder Barefoot — who broke away from the National Knights of the KKK several months earlier to form his own, harder-line group, the Nation's Knights of the KKK — is charged with weapons violations and later sentenced to more than two years. In , Barefoot, his wife and three other men are charged with the murder of a former Klan member.

In , a judge rules Barefoot mentally incompetent to stand trial for murder and commits him indefinitely to a mental hospital. Sharon Barefoot is released from prison in July Charles Barefoot is ruled competent to stand trial in and, in September , a jury convicts him on six felony counts, including conspiracy, possession of stolen guns and receipt of explosives with intent to kill. Far-right sovereign citizen Donald W. Matthews is stopped by an Ohio Highway Patrol officer for speeding.

Matthews refuses to hand over identification and flees in his car, citing a non-existent constitutional amendment. As the authorities chase Matthews across the county, he speeds into a construction site parking lot and fires through the window of his spinning car with a semiautomatic pistol. Matthews shoots and murders Massillon patrolman Eric Taylor before he is killed by police.

Tampa-area podiatrist Robert J. Goldstein is arrested after police, called by Goldstein's wife after he allegedly threatened to kill her, find more than 15 explosive devices in their home, along with materials to make at least 30 more. Also found are homemade C-4 plastic explosives, grenades and mines, a.

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Eventually, two other local men are charged in connection with the plot, and Goldstein's wife is arrested for possessing illegal destructive devices. Goldstein pleads guilty to plotting to blow up the Islamic Society and is sentenced to more than 12 years in federal prison. His wife is released in Goldstein is released in August Officials close in on longtime antigovernment extremist Larry Raugust at a rest stop in Idaho, arrest him and charge him with 16 counts of making and possessing destructive devices, including pipe bombs and pressure-detonated booby traps.

He is accused of giving one explosive device to an undercover agent, and is also named as an unindicted co-conspirator in a plot with colleagues in the Idaho Mountain Boys militia to murder a federal judge and a police officer, and to break a friend out of jail. A deadbeat dad, Raugust is also accused of helping plant land mines on property belonging to a friend whose land was seized by authorities over unpaid taxes. He eventually pleads guilty to 15 counts of making bombs and is sentenced to federal prison.

Raugust was released in early As part of an ongoing probe into a white supremacist group, federal and local law enforcement agents raid the Corbett, Ore. Springmeier, an associate of the anti-Semitic Christian Patriots Association, is eventually charged with setting off a diversionary bomb at an adult video store in Damascus, Ore. Eventually, Bateman pleads guilty to bank robbery and Springmeier is convicted of the same charges.

Both are sentenced to nine years. Springmeier is released in March ; Bateman in September White supremacists Leo Felton and girlfriend Erica Chase are arrested following a foot chase that began when a police officer spotted them trying to pass counterfeit bills at a Boston donut shop. Investigators quickly learn Felton heads up a tiny group called Aryan Unit One, and that the couple, who had already obtained a timing device, planned to blow up black and Jewish landmarks and possibly assassinate black and Jewish leaders.

They also learn another amazing fact: Felton, a self-described Aryan, is secretly biracial. Felton and Chase are eventually convicted of conspiracy, weapons violations and obstruction, and Felton is also convicted of bank robbery and other charges. Felton, who previously served 11 years for assaulting a black taxi driver, is sentenced to serve more than 21 years in federal prison, while his one-time sweetheart draws a lesser sentence and is released in Anti-government extremist Larry Peck, after being pulled over at a routine traffic stop, flees police and barricades himself in a small bungalow in Reno, Nevada.

As authorities begin to surround Peck, he uses a high-powered firearm to exchange fire with the armed cops. Officer John Bohach is fatally shot with armor-penetrating bullets. Peck surrenders after a four-and-a-half-hour standoff with the authorities. In April , Peck is convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to two life terms without parole. The year-old man is found dead in his prison cell on October 4, On September 15, Stroman murders a Pakistani Muslim man by shooting him in the head; the man had recently relocated to Dallas, Texas.

Several days later, on September 21, Stroman shoots and wounds Raisuddin Bhuiyan in a convenience store, leaving him partially blind. Stroman then fires at Patel and attempts to open the cash register as his last victim lies dying. In April , Stroman is convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death. According to prosecutors, Stroman thought his victims were of Middle Eastern descent and was motivated by a "patriotic" impulse to protect the country from "terrorists. The execution is delayed by two hours as judges hear Bhuiyan's final appeals.

On July 20, , Stroman is executed by lethal injection in Hunstville, Texas. A North Carolina sheriff's deputy pulls over Steve Anderson, a former "colonel" in the Kentucky Militia, on a routine traffic stop as he heads home to Kentucky from a white supremacist gathering in North Carolina. Anderson, who is an adherent of racist Christian Identity theology and has issued violent threats against officials for months via an illegal pirate radio station, pulls out a semi-automatic weapon and peppers the deputy's car with bullets before driving his truck into the woods and disappearing for 13 months.

Officials later find six pipe bombs in Anderson's abandoned truck and 27 bombs and destructive devices in his home. In the end, Anderson apologizes for his actions and pleads guilty. He is sentenced on a variety of firearms charges to 15 years in federal prison. Darrel Issa R-Calif. Authorities say a confidential informant taped meetings with the two in which the bombings were discussed and Krugel said the JDL needed "to do something to one of their filthy mosques.

Krugel pleads guilty to conspiracy in both plots, and testifies that Rubin conspired with him. Krugel dies in prison in McCool, who is arrested after buying powerful C-4 plastic explosives and an automatic weapon from an undercover FBI agent, earlier plotted to attack the federal building with a member of his own group and a member of the antigovernment Republic of Texas, but those two men eventually abandoned the plot. McCool, however, remained convinced the UN had stored a cache of military materiel in the building.

In the end, he pleads guilty to federal charges that bring him just six months in jail. Immigration attorney Richard Baumhammers, himself the son of Latvian immigrants, goes on a rampage in the Pittsburgh area against non-whites, killing five people and critically wounding a sixth. Baumhammers had recently started a tiny white supremacist group, the Free Market Party, that demanded an end to non-white immigration into the United States. In the end, the unemployed attorney, who is living with parents at the time of his murder spree, is sentenced to death. White supremacist Paul Warner Powell attempts to rape his year-old friend Stacie Reed after confronting her for having a black boyfriend.

When Reed fights off his sexual advances, Powell stabs her to death, turns to her year-old sister, whom he rapes, assaults and leaves for dead. Powell is convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death in the Virginia Supreme Court, but the verdict is thrown out on appeal after the court decides there is insufficient evidence to support the claim that Powell attempted to rape Stacie Reed. Powell, believing he no longer faces the death penalty, writes a number of letters boasting about his crimes - including the attempted rape of Stacie Reed - to the prosecutor.

In a second indictment based on new evidence from his confession to attempted rape, Powell is convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death. He is executed by electric chair on March 18, White supremacist Jessy Joe Roten shoots a semi-automatic firearm at the home of an interracial family. The bullet enters the bedroom of four young children in the Mance family, killing one six-year-old twin and seriously injuring the other. The bullet also nicks the ear of a third sister, who was sleeping in the same bed.

While Roten initially seeks to distance himself, and his incriminating tattoos, from Nazi ideology by claiming association with the non-racist SHARP group, it becomes clear that this was an initial cover-up for what police later discover in Roten's home. According to detectives, various Nazi and white supremacist items are found in Roten's room, along with an inscription on the back of his bedroom door that reads, "Someone had to — for Race and Nation — Jessy Roten, to all my brothers, see you in Valhalla.

Officials arrest Alabama plumber Chris Scott Gilliam, a member of the neo-Nazi National Alliance, after he attempts to purchase 10 hand grenades from an undercover federal agent. Gilliam, who months earlier paraded in an extremist T-shirt in front of the Southern Poverty Law Center's offices in Montgomery, tells agents he planned to send mail bombs to targets in Washington, D.

Agents searching his home find bomb-making manuals, white supremacist literature and an assault rifle. Gilliam pleads guilty to federal firearms charges and is sentenced to 10 years in prison. He is released in early Days later, after tracking purchases made on Mowder's stolen credit card, police arrest brothers Benjamin Matthew Williams and James Tyler Williams. At least one of the pair, Matthew Williams both use their middle names , is an adherent of the anti-Semitic Christian Identity theology. Police soon learn that the brothers two weeks earlier carried out arson attacks against three synagogues and an abortion clinic in Sacramento.

Both brothers, whose mother at one point refers in a conversation to her sons' victims as "two homos," eventually admit their guilt — in Matthew's case, in a newspaper interview. Matthew, who at one point badly injures a guard in a surprise attack, commits suicide in Tyler, who pleads guilty to an array of charges in the case, is given two sentences amounting to 50 years to be served consecutively.

Infuriated that neo-Nazi leader Matt Hale has just been denied his law license by Illinois officials, follower Benjamin Nathaniel Smith begins a three-day murder spree across Illinois and Indiana, shooting to death a popular black former college basketball coach and a Korean doctoral student and wounding nine other minorities. Smith kills himself as police close in during a car chase. But it quickly emerges that Hale has recently given Smith his group's top award and, in fact, spent some 16 hours on the phone with him in the two weeks before Smith's rampage.

Conveniently, Hale receives a registered letter from Smith just days after his suicide, informing Hale that Smith is quitting the group because he now sees violence as the only answer. Buford Furrow, a former member of the neo-Nazi Aryan Nations who has been living with the widow of slain terrorist leader Bob Mathews, strides into a Jewish community center near Los Angeles and fires more than 70 bullets, wounding three boys, a teenage girl and a woman.

The next day, Furrow turns himself in, saying he intended to send "a wake-up call to America to kill Jews. Anti-abortion extremist Clayton Lee Wagner, who nine months earlier escaped from an Illinois jail while awaiting sentencing on weapons and carjacking charges, is arrested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wagner's odyssey began in September , when he was stopped driving a stolen camper in Illinois and told police he was headed to Seattle to murder an abortion provider.

He escaped in February and, while on the lam, mailed more than hoax anthrax letters to abortion clinics and posted an Internet threat warning abortion clinic workers that "if you work for the murderous abortionist, I'm going to kill you. In Ohio, he is sentenced to almost 20 years more, to be served consecutively, on various weapons and car theft charges related to his time on the run.

In late , he also is found guilty of 51 federal terrorism charges. He is scheduled to be released in While searching his home, police find the materials needed to make ricin, one of the deadliest poisons known. Gluck later threatens a judge, claiming that he could kill 10, people with the chemical.

After serving time in federal prison, Gluck is released in early Two California men, both members of the San Joaquin Militia, are charged with conspiracy in connection with a plot to blow up two million-gallon propane tanks, a television tower and an electrical substation in hopes of provoking an insurrection. In , the former militia leader, Donald Rudolph, pleads guilty to plotting to kill a federal judge and blow up the propane tanks, and testifies against his former comrades.

Kevin Ray Patterson and Charles Dennis Kiles are ultimately convicted of several charges in connection with the conspiracy. In , Patterson is sentenced to 24 years and five months in prison; Kiles to 22 years. Donald Beauregard, head of a militia coalition known as the Southeastern States Alliance, is charged with conspiracy, providing materials for a terrorist act and gun violations in a plot to bomb energy facilities and cause power outages in Florida and Georgia.

After pleading guilty to several charges, Beauregard, who once claimed to have discovered a secret map detailing a planned UN takeover mistakenly printed on a box of Trix cereal, is sentenced to five years in federal prison. He is released in , a year after accomplice James Troy Diver is freed following a similar conviction. An off-duty police officer is killed and a nurse terribly maimed when a nail-packed, remote-control bomb explodes outside a Birmingham, Ala. Letters to media outlets and officials claim responsibility in the name of the "Army of God," the same entity that took credit for the bombings of a clinic and a gay bar in the Atlanta area.

The attack also will be linked to the fatal bombing of the Atlanta Olympics. Eric Robert Rudolph, a loner from North Carolina, is first identified as a suspect when witnesses spot his pickup truck fleeing the Birmingham bombing. But he is not caught until He ultimately pleads guilty to all four attacks in exchange for a life sentence.

Louis, Ill. The three, along with three other men arrested later, formed a group called The New Order, patterned on a s terror group called The Order a. New Order members plotted to assassinate a federal judge and civil rights lawyer Morris Dees, blow up the Southern Poverty Law Center that Dees co-founded and other buildings, poison water supplies and rob banks.

Wallace Weicherding, one of the men, came to a Dees speech with a concealed gun but turned back rather than pass through a metal detector. In the end, all six plead guilty or are convicted of weapons charges, drawing terms of up to seven years in federal prison. New Order leader Dennis McGiffen is released in , the last of the six to regain his freedom. Three members of the North American Militia of Southwestern Michigan are arrested on firearms and other charges.

Prosecutors say the men conspired to bomb federal buildings, a Kalamazoo television station and an interstate highway interchange, kill federal agents, assassinate politicians and attack aircraft at a National Guard base — attacks that were all to be funded by marijuana sales. Carter pleads guilty, testifies against his former comrades, and is sentenced to five years in prison. The others, Randy Graham and Bradford Metcalf, go to trial and are ultimately handed sentences of 40 and 55 years, respectively.

Carter is released from prison in A day after stealing a water truck, three men shoot and kill a Cortez, Colo. Mason is found a week later, dead of an apparently self-inflicted gunshot.

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The skeletal remains of Pilon are found in and show that he, too, died of a gunshot to the head, another apparent suicide. McVean is not found, but most authorities assume he died in the desert. Many officials believe the three men intended to use the water truck in some kind of terrorist attack, but the nature of their suspected plans is never learned. Three men are charged with conspiracy to use weapons of mass destruction after threatening President Clinton and other federal officials with biological weapons.

Officials say the men planned to use a cactus thorn coated with a toxin like anthrax and fired by a modified butane lighter to carry out the murders. One man is acquitted of the charges, but Jack Abbot Grebe Jr. The men are set for release in South Carolina militia member Paul T. Chastain is charged with weapons, explosives and drug violations after allegedly trying to trade drugs for a machine gun and enough C-4 plastic explosive to demolish a five-room house.

He is sentenced to 15 years in federal prison and is released in Barnett Slepian is assassinated by a sniper as he talks with his wife and children in the kitchen of their Amherst, N. Identified as a suspect shortly after the murder, James Charles Kopp flees to Mexico, driven and disguised by friend Jennifer Rock, and goes on to hide out in Ireland and France. Two fellow anti-abortion extremists, Loretta Marra and Dennis Malvasi, make plans to help Kopp secretly return. Kopp, also suspected in the earlier sniper woundings of four physicians in Canada and upstate New York, is arrested in France as he picks up money wired by Marra and Malvasi.

He eventually admits the shooting to a newspaper reporter — claiming that he only intended to wound Slepian — and is sentenced to life in prison plus 10 years. In , Marra and Malvasi are sentenced to time served after pleading guilty to federal charges related to harboring a fugitive.

Two anti-personnel bombs — the second clearly designed to kill arriving law enforcement and rescue workers — explode outside an abortion clinic in Sandy Springs, Ga. Seven people are injured. Letters signed by the "Army of God" claim responsibility for this attack and another, a month later, at an Atlanta gay bar. Authorities later learn that these attacks, the bombing of a Birmingham, Ala. Rudolph avoids the death penalty by pleading guilty in exchange for a life sentence, but simultaneously releases a defiant statement defending his attacks.

Authorities raid the Martinton, Ill. Salyers was discharged earlier from the Marines, where he taught demolitions and sniping, after tossing a live grenade with the pin still in at state police officers serving him with a search warrant in Following the raid, Salyers, an alleged member of the underground Black Dawn group of extremists in the military, is sentenced to serve three years for weapons violations.

He is released from prison in Militia activist Brendon Blasz is arrested in Kalamazoo, Mich. Prosecutors say Blasz plotted to bomb the federal building in Battle Creek, the IRS building in Portage, a Kalamazoo television station and federal armories. But they recommend leniency on his explosives conviction after Blasz, a member of the Michigan Militia Corps Wolverines, renounces his antigovernment beliefs and cooperates with them.

He is sentenced to more than three years in federal prison and released in late Subsequently, the IRS searches the home of Bell's parents. The search reveals a cache of chemicals including sodium cyanide and a precursor to sarin nerve gas. Authorities also find anti-government militia literature and explosives manuals. According to a federal criminal complaint, Bell authored an essay that advocated for the creation of a digital currency and electronic payment system to facilitate the assassination of government employees and "specifically mentioned Tax Collectors as part of his plan.

In July , Bell strikes a plea deal and is sentenced to 11 months in prison, plus additional supervision upon release. Several months after his release in April , Bell's residence is searched again, with authorities discovering many of the same chemical materials found during his arrest. He is rearrested in June for stalking federal officials and their family members, violating his probation conditions. Nearly two weeks later, Bell is arrested again and is found guilty on two counts of stalking government officials.

He is sentenced to 60 months of prison for each count and is released on December 20, The three, along with a fourth arrested later, expected to kill a huge number of people with the blast — authorities later say as many as 30, might have died — which was to serve, incredibly, as a diversion for a simultaneous armored car robbery. Among the victims would have been children at a nearby school. All four plead guilty to conspiracy charges and are sentenced to terms of up to 20 years. Spence enters the witness protection program. Carl Jay Waskom Jr. Edward Taylor Jr.

Florida police arrest Todd Vanbiber, a member of the neo-Nazi National Alliance's Tampa unit and the shadowy League of the Silent Soldier, after he accidentally sets off pipe bombs he is building, blasting shrapnel into his own face. He is accused of plotting to use the bombs on the approach to Disney World to divert attention from a planned string of bank robberies. Vanbiber pleads guilty to weapons and explosives charges and is sentenced to more than six years in federal prison.

Within two years, Vanbiber is posting messages on neo-Nazi Internet sites boasting that he has built over bombs successfully and only made one error, and describing mass murderer Timothy McVeigh as a hero. After a cache of explosives stored in a tree blows up near Yuba City, Calif. Investigators looking into the blast arrest two Goehler associates, one of them a militia leader, after finding pounds of explosives — enough to level three city blocks — in a motor home parked outside their residence.

Six others are arrested on related charges. Goehler, with previous convictions for rape, burglary and assault, is sentenced to 25 years to life in prison. He is later accused of stabbing his attorney with a shank and charged with attacking prison psychologists.

Federal agents later arrest five men in connection with the arson, which is conceived as a protest against the tax system. Ringleader James Cleaver, former national director of the antigovernment Sons of Liberty group, is accused of threatening a witness and eventually sentenced to 33 years in prison, with a release date of Accomplice Jack Dowell receives 30 years and is scheduled to be freed in Dowell's cousin is acquitted of all charges, while two other suspects, Ronald Sherman and Thomas Shafer, plead guilty to perjury charges in connection with the case.

Militiaman Bradley Playford Glover and another heavily armed antigovernment activist are arrested before dawn near Fort Hood, in central Texas, just hours before they planned to invade the Army base and slaughter foreign troops they mistakenly believed were housed there. In the next few days, five other people are arrested in several states for their alleged roles in the plot to invade a series of military bases where the group believes United Nations forces are massing for an assault on Americans. All seven are part of a splinter group from the Third Continental Congress, a kind of militia government-in-waiting.

In the end, Glover is sentenced to two years on Kansas weapons charges, to be followed by a five-year federal term in connection with the Fort Hood plot. The others draw lesser terms. Glover is released in , the last of the seven to get out. Armed with a semiautomatic rifle, year-old Carl Drega, a self-described sovereign citizen, kills state troopers Scott Phillips and Les Lord in the parking lot of a supermarket in Colebrook, New Hampshire. Drega then steals one of the troopers' vehicles and heads to the office of Colebrook District Court Judge Vickie Bunnell. Drega purposely seeks out Judge Bunnell for revenge over a years-old property ruling.

He shoots the judge in the back from a distance and uses a second firearm to shoot an editor at the Colebrook News and Sentinel who attempted to disarm Drega, killing both the editor and the judge. Drega again flees in the trooper's car, shooting another state officer in the arm as he plows through a police checkpoint.

He is chased into the woods, with armed authorities from New Hampshire and Vermont in pursuit. Drega opens fire on multiple state troopers and a U. Border Patrol agent and engages in a shootout with several officers before he is eventually killed. In his vengeful rampage and subsequent shootout, Drega murders four individuals and injures three.

A federal grand jury in Arkansas indicts three men on racketeering charges for plotting to overthrow the government and create a whites-only Aryan People's Republic, which they intend to grow through polygamy. Chevie Kehoe, Daniel Lee and Faron Lovelace are accused of crimes in six states, including murder, kidnapping, robbery and conspiracy. Kehoe and Lee will also face state charges of murdering an Arkansas family, including an 8-year-old girl, in Kehoe ultimately receives a life sentence on that charge, while Lee is sentenced to death.

Lovelace is sentenced to death for the murder of a suspected informant, but because of court rulings is later resentenced to life without parole. Kehoe's brother, Cheyne, is convicted of attempted murder during a Ohio shootout with police and sentenced to 24 years in prison, despite his helping authorities track down his fugitive brother in Utah after the shootout. Cheyne went to the authorities after Chevie began talking about murdering their parents and showing sexual interest in Cheyne's wife. Along with six other suspects arrested around the same time, Langan is charged in connection with a string of 22 bank robberies in seven Midwestern states between and After pleading guilty and agreeing to testify, co-conspirator Richard Guthrie commits suicide in his cell.

Two others, Kevin McCarthy and Scott Stedeford, enter plea bargains and do testify against their co-conspirators. Eventually, Mark Thomas, a leading neo-Nazi in Pennsylvania, pleads guilty for his role in helping organize the robberies and agrees to testify against Langan and other gang members. Shawn Kenny, another suspect, becomes a federal informant. Langan is sentenced to a life term in one case, plus 55 years in another.

McCarthy is released from prison in , while Stedeford's release date is set in Thomas receives eight years and is released in early Antigovernment activist and self-described "survivalist" Ray Hamblin is charged with illegal possession of explosives after authorities find pounds of the high explosive Tovex, pounds of ANFO blasting agent and 15 homemade hand grenades on his property in Hood River, Ore.

Hamblin is sentenced to almost four years in federal prison, and is released in March Apparently inspired by his reading of a neo-Nazi tract, Larry Wayne Shoemake kills one black man and wounds seven other people, including a reporter, during a racist shooting spree in a black neighborhood in Jackson, Miss. As police close in on the abandoned restaurant he is shooting from, Shoemake, who is white, sets the restaurant on fire and kills himself.

A search of his home finds references to "Separation or Annihilation," an essay on race relations by neo-Nazi National Alliance leader William Pierce, along with an arsenal of weapons that includes 17 long guns, 20, rounds of ammunition, and countless military manuals. Later in the year, they are sentenced to terms of up to eight years. Another Militia-at-Large member, Troy Allen Kayser alias Troy Spain , is arrested two weeks later and accused of training a team to assassinate politicians. Starr is released from prison in , while McCranie gets out in Kayser, convicted of conspiracy, is released in early Twelve members of an Arizona militia group called the Viper Team are arrested on federal conspiracy, weapons and explosive charges after allegedly surveilling and videotaping government buildings as potential targets.

All 12 plead guilty or are convicted of various charges, drawing sentences of up to nine years in prison. The plot participants are all released in subsequent years. Gary Curds Baer, who drew the heaviest sentence after being found with pounds of ammonium nitrate, a bomb component, is freed in May A nail-packed bomb goes off at the Atlanta Olympics, which are seen by many extremists as part of a Satanic "New World Order," killing one person and injuring more than others.

Investigators will later conclude the attack is linked to bombings of an Atlanta-area abortion clinic, an Atlanta gay bar and a Birmingham, Ala. Suspect Eric Robert Rudolph — a reclusive North Carolina man tied to the anti-Semitic Christian Identity theology — flees into the woods of his native state after he is identified in early as a suspect in the Birmingham attack, and is only captured five years later.

Eventually, he pleads guilty to all of the attacks attributed to him in exchange for life without parole. Washington State Militia leader John Pitner and seven others are arrested on weapons and explosives charges in connection with a plot to build pipe bombs to resist a feared invasion by the United Nations. Pitner and four others are convicted on weapons charges, while conspiracy charges against all eight end in a mistrial. Pitner is later retried on that charge, convicted and sentenced to four years in prison. Three "Phineas Priests" — racist and anti-Semitic Christian Identity terrorists who feel they've been called by God to undertake violent attacks — are charged in connection with two bank robberies and bombings at the two banks, a Spokane newspaper and a Planned Parenthood office.

Brian Ratigan, a fourth member of the group arrested separately, draws a year term; he is scheduled for release in Seven members of the Mountaineer Militia are arrested in a plot to blow up the FBI's national fingerprint records center, where 1, people work, in West Virginia.

In , leader Floyd "Ray" Looker is sentenced to 18 years in prison.