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In the latest episode of the popular Chinese reality TV show "I, Actor," the young star's face is digitally altered to blur out his earrings. Chinese actor Jing Boran is seen with what appears to be digitally altered ears on "I, Actor. Jing, who held lead roles in Chinese box office hits "Monster Hunt" and "Time Raiders," is not the only victim of the alleged "earring ban.

It's unclear if Chinese regulators have issued a specific directive barring men from being shown wearing earrings, or whether TV stations are reacting to a shift in what is considered culturally appropriate. Last year , China's media regulator banned TV stations from featuring actors with tattoos. It results when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single exposure, due to rapid movement or long exposure. When a camera creates an image, that image does not represent a single instant of time.

Because of technological constraints or artistic requirements, the image may represent the scene over a period of time. Most often this exposure time is brief enough that the image captured by the camera appears to capture an instantaneous moment, but this is not always so, and a fast moving object or a longer exposure time may result in blurring artifacts which make this apparent. As objects in a scene move, an image of that scene must represent an integration of all positions of those objects, as well as the camera's viewpoint, over the period of exposure determined by the shutter speed.

In such an image, any object moving with respect to the camera will look blurred or smeared along the direction of relative motion. This smearing may occur on an object that is moving or on a static background if the camera is moving. In a film or television image, this looks natural because the human eye behaves in much the same way. Because the effect is caused by the relative motion between the camera, and the objects and scene, motion blur may be avoided by panning the camera to track those moving objects. In this case, even with long exposure times, the objects will appear sharper, and the background more blurred.

In computer animation this effect must be simulated as a virtual camera actually does capture a discrete moment in time.

This simulated motion blur is typically applied when either the camera or objects in the scene move rapidly. Without this simulated effect each frame shows a perfect instant in time analogous to a camera with an infinitely fast shutter , with zero motion blur. This is why a video game with a frame rate of frames per second will seem staggered, while natural motion filmed at the same frame rate appears rather more continuous.

Many modern video games feature motion blur, especially vehicle simulation games. There are two main methods used in video games to achieve motion blur: cheaper full-screen effects, which typically only take camera movement and sometimes how fast the camera is moving in 3-D Space to create a radial blur into mind, and more "selective" or "per-object" motion blur, which typically uses a shader to create a velocity buffer to mark motion intensity for a motion blurring effect to be applied to or uses a shader to perform geometry extrusion.

Classic "motion blur" effects prior to modern per-pixel shading pipelines often simply drew successive frames on top of each other with slight transparency, which is strictly speaking a form of video feedback. In pre-rendered computer animation, such as CGI movies, realistic motion blur can be drawn because the renderer has more time to draw each frame.

Temporal anti-aliasing produces frames as a composite of many instants. Frames are not points in time, they are periods of time.

Blurring Boundaries

If the shutter speed is shortened to less than the duration of a frame, and it may be so shortened as to approach zero time in duration, then the computer animator must choose which portion of the quarter paths in our 4 frame example they wish to feature as "open shutter" times. They may choose to render the beginnings of each frame, in which case they will never see the arrival of the object at the end of the path, or they may choose to render the ends of each frame, in which case they will miss the starting point of the trip.


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Most computer animations systems make the classic "fence-post error" in the way they handle time, confusing the periods of time of an animation with the instantaneous moments that delimit them. But what is the source of the phenomenon? Ambient Intelligence is about device-less and intuitive control , in which technological advances are introduced only to respond to a clear user-centric design challenge.

Ambient Living is also about new consumption attributes, focused on the multi-sensorial experiences. The second macro-driver behind the blurring boundaries phenomenon is the Internet of Things , a world of interconnected devices and appliances, which communicate among themselves seamlessly.

The new cytogenetics: blurring the boundaries with molecular biology | Learn Science at Scitable

While the concept is not new, because already in the late 90s consumer goods and appliance manufactures were envisioning more connectivity at home, it is now a reality. If you prefer a more traditional car, check out this chevrolet chevelle. The third macro-driver of our phenomenon finds its root in the changing global resources landscape.

In his scholar paper, Reinventing Marketing to Manage the Environmental Imperative , Professor Kotler urges marketers to start managing the sustainability question, because we all need to stop assuming that and acting like we were living in an infinite resources world , as well as, because consumers are more and more interested in how companies meet their societal obligations.

This sustainability imperative is the third macro-driver behind the blurring boundaries phenomenon. In a nutshell, most consumers will hardly pay a premium for greener and more sustainable products, but they expect their brands —specially the premium ones- to be sustainable, by ultimately removing from their repertoire brands, which do not meet certain sustainability criteria.

PCA is delighted to reveal the winners and finalists of the 2018 Blurring the Lines Exhibition!

This has a far-reaching impact on businesses, both in consumer marketplaces and in more traditional B2B environments, because what consumers demand of their brands, their brands will demand of their suppliers. As a matter of facts, sustainability at DSM goes hand in hand with innovation, and of course long term development happens in an Open Innovation eco-system together with customers and suppliers. The final macro-trend at the root of the blurring boundaries is the emergence of the collaborative economy.

Co-creation, Crowd-sourcing , open-source are all aspects of this new economical model, where an idea builds on top of another idea in a seamless and instant way, by providing new products, concepts, services, designs through agile, scalable and expert based, international collaborative organizations. To better understand the impact of the collaborative technology , we go back to out TV example, by looking at Netflix, at the time not yet in content, which in crowd-sourced the solution to a key problem they could not solve internally: an algorithm to better predict movies suggestions to their own customers, based on what they had rented and they rating of the movie.

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By doing so, Netflix elevated the consumer experience to the highest, while acknowledging that innovative solutions could not only be created through an inside-out approach.