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The historic nature means they are easy to measure but difficult to influence. For example, the number of customer complaints in a month are easily tracked, however reducing that number involves investigation and implementing a strategy to influence future behavior. Leading KPIs refer to a type of KPI that is designed to measure performance and processes that will influence future outcomes. For example, increasing the number of 'routine maintenance checks' in a production line may highlight faults that were causing defects.

Meta data refers to the secondary data that provides information on the main data set, this data can be used for identification, the data structure or other information relating to file type, access privileges or other technical information. A metric is used to track the status of a specific task or process. A metric may contain data or measures from more than one source to display a quantifiable status. For example, the number of web visitors may contain a consolidation of visitors from both mobile and desktop to state its value. A measure is a single, specific unit of measurement such as a value, a dollar, a centimeter, minutes or even temperatures.

A measure is primarily numeric in nature and used to record directly observable values. Self-Service Analytics refers to the ability of business professionals to analysis data and generate dashboards and reports without the need to involve internal IT support. Normally this is serviced through Business analytics tools and applications that are easy to implement and use.

Scorecards are performance management tools or report aligned to the scorecard methodology of weighting KPIs and metrics by importance to the overall strategic aims of the business. It is used to describe the philosophy of creating KPIs and metrics to achieve measurable goals and strategic business objectives through a guided process. R is an extended acronym on the principles of the S. T philosophy. Social BI, and Social Business Intelligence, refers to the approach of blending traditional performance management and reporting, with social media capabilities such as networking, forum or thread-based format and social sharing to share and communicate knowledge and insights.

It is a programming language used to manage relational databases and for data manipulation used to collect and store large amount of data. Tabular Data is used to describe the data format or structure where data is organized in rows and columns such as dates.

This format of data is designed to be more understandable by users. Whatever, here is a list of trademarks which may be current, expired, or legally overturned that can reasonably be considered genericized to a lesser or greater degree , i. Used in the phrase 'From the get go. The employees are often offered wage rises and new benefits at a later date. Glamorous, rich, famous people, often connected to show business. A term used when an international company adapts its manufacturing methods, products or services to suit local conditions. Official language, spoken or printed or online, which is intended to explain or justify or inform or clarify or instruct, but which actually confuses people instead, because it is phrased in a stupid or unnecessarily complex way.

Alternatively called 'Officialese', or 'Bureaucratese', gobbledegook is common in marketing, product instructions especially for electronic products , contracts, training manuals, official communications, and certainly in politics, and local government. Here below is a short example in which a UK tax form SA attempts to instruct users how to complete a section requiring a profit figure. An employee who runs errands, as well as doing their normal job, usually in an office or on a film set.

A dogsbody.

English for Human Resources VV 43 - HR Management (1) - Business English Vocabulary

Over-estimating goodwill value, sometimes to an extraordinarily stupid degree, is a surprisingly common downfall of many big corporate takeover deals, when arrogance and blindness to market trends of the acquiring CEO and takeover team can lead to a reckless waste of shareholder funds and ruthless cost-cutting, post-acquisition, when performance, synergies and return on investment fail to reach required levels. A googlewhack tends not to retain its status indefinitely, and sometimes only fleetingly, because due to the strange popularity of the effect, googlewhacks are likely to be published on the web when discovered, which immediately produces a second occurrence.

Aside from the study of language and statistics there is no earthly purpose for this phenomenon, which apparently was first described by Gary Stock in and who runs a website dedicated to the concept. Those who are in it can't get out, and those who are on the outside have no desire to get in. To have it easy. An official assessment which shows the effect that an organisation or a company has on the environment.

Taxes which are levied on companies, businesses, etc. These terms do not refer to counterfeit goods. The reference is to the unofficial, sometimes illegal, distribution and availability of official branded original goods. The term alludes to the older expression 'black market', and is used or analysed most commonly from the standpoint of manufacturers, who generally regard grey markets as threatening to their marketing distribution and pricing strategies. The term grey market extends widely and includes notably the substantial availability of products which have been diverted from one international marketing territory to another.

They also move scenery and set up large pieces of equipment. GDP is however not easily explained or understood at a detailed and precise level. GDP may be calculated in different ways. Each method requires some qualification of precise definition, and then comprises quite complex formulae, mainly to ensure there is no double-counting, and no ommissions.

The main methods seem to be as follows, although each nation has its own rules, and various institutional bodies produce other rules and standards for calculations and definitions. Ordinary people can reasonably regard fully detailed definitions of GDP very confusing. Lots of experts do too. Here is a very simple guide: Simply, and firstly, GDP may be calculated by totalling the market sales values of all products and services. GDP may instead be expressed as the combined total spending on products and services by consumers, industry and state.

Each of these methods contains several and variable minor additional factors and caviats. Other methods exist as well, as if the basic two or three methods were not confusing enough. Gross profit margin is obtained by dividing gross income by net sales. This is an example of how language and meanings evolve over time, particularly when a term becomes distorted for dramatic effect by mass media.

Be aware in this case therefore, that some people - especially original 'old-school' hackers and computer code enthusiasts could be offended and unjustly maligned by the criminal implication of the common illicit hacking interpretation. Incidentally among coding enthusiasts the original technical term for a criminal 'hacker' was a 'cracker'.

Thanks to Vit Kavan, an 'old-school' hacker, for help in for clarifying this entry. A halo effect typically refers to an unreliable indicator of good quality ethics, goodness, honesty, value, benevolence, etc but might rarely instead refer to an unreliable indicator of negative quality.

The Hawthorne Effect basically established that attitude was more influenced by emotional rather than economic factors. In Britain, a act of Parliament which regulates and reinforces the health, safety and welfare of employees in the workplace. Sometimes heuristic thinking is helpful; other times not. More generally the word heuristic describes personal learning and discovery, as distinct from being told or taught or instructed by somebody else. This may involve trial and error, and within a learning or training environment crucially must allow for people to make mistakes, as a method of developing effective ideas and solutions.

The word is from Greek, heuriskein, to find. A contract between a buyer and seller in which the buyer takes possession of an item and then pays for it in regular instalments, usually monthly, and does not become the owner of the item until the final payment has been made. Also referred to as 'Buying on the never-never'. Technically, yet somewhat unhelpfully, the OED Oxford English Dictionary defines homeostasis as "The tendency towards a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes".

Homeostasis is perhaps more easily understood initially via its Greek roots, meaning 'similar' and 'standing still'. For example, the notion that planet Earth tends to balance itself, adjusting life-forms in response to environmental conditions. On a smaller scale a detailed instance is offered in the natural and eventually balanced re-population of life-forms on Krakatoa island after devastating earthquake in Humankind's survival is not guaranteed within this; but the planet's survival, and life of one sort or another, probably is.

Such self-balancing of a system is called homeostasis. In human terms this is very typically seen as avoidance of overall system change, which is usually felt to be threatening. We can see this and other sorts of homeostatic theory acting in practice for example where:. The people who are employed by and operate a business or organisation. The department within a company which deals with recruitment, training, employee benefit, etc.

By contrast hyperinflation may be at a rates of tens of percentage points increase per month, and in extreme rare cases hundreds of percentage points per month. In this event, where prices can be doubling and currency values halving every few weeks or days, in very rare situations , a country is forced to issue new banknote denominations of ludicrously high values, and within living memory news stories have featured workers collecting their wages in wheelbarrows. Icon has come also to mean a role-model or leading example i. Icon also refers to computerized symbols or other small symbols which are used to convey a meaning, especially in signage and designs of electronic devices intended to be intuitive and self-explanatory in operation.

Icon is from Greek, eikon, meaning likeness or image, which originally was used to refer to religious devotional paintings, notably of Christ. A method of problem solving involving members of a group meeting and sharing ideas. To cast somebody out of public office, for example a president or courtroom judge because of a serious crime or misdemeanor. To offer customers rewards for buying products or services. If they are Index-Linked it means that the payments or income from these may vary according to the rate of inflation. Known in the US as Job Action. They are often referred to as a Business Magnate.

The technique applies to privacy and personal rights, as well as purchasing and contract extensions, and especially conversion of free or low-cost trials into chargeable contracts. Minimising inflation is normally a high priority within national fiscal policy since higher levels of inflation cause a variety of economic and business problems. See also deflation and hyperinflation. Andrew S. Grove - Intel. The term is relatively new but the concept of conveying information via graphics is very old indeed.

Many prehistoric cave paintings are infographics, for example which depict hunting or record other activities. Some infographics become very iconic, such the map of the London Undergound railway. More recently infographics feature strongly in computer media, especially on the internet, because technology enables easier design of infographics, and audiences which have grown up surrounded by visual media, increasingly seek and respond to data presented in ways that can be absorbed and understood very quickly.

A long television commercial advertisement presented in the form of a documentary or TV program. This format is used so that it does not appear to be selling a product or service. Known as Death Tax in the US. A tax imposed by the government which much be paid on the total value of the estate of a deceased person. A new way of doing something.

The use of Inside Information for the buying and selling of shares is usually illegal. To know about something before others get to hear about it. An independent person who investigates insurance claims for an insurance company and evaluates the damage caused and decides whether the claims are valid, and if they are, how much should be paid in settlement to the insured party. Inter alios means 'among other people', but is much less used. Established in by the United Nations to monitor foreign exchange systems and encourage trade between member nations.

It also lends money to developing countries with economic problems. A non-government organisation with over member nations, which promotes international standards in trade, technology, science, economy, etc. Being unable to locate a particular website which you found interesting or on which you saw a useful piece of information.

Discover 1000s of knowledge centers. Management glossary.

A public place where people can use a computer, usually for a fee, to check e-mail, access the Internet, etc. These places often sell drink and food, like a regular cafe. If the price falls below this then the government, or agency, will buy the produce at the Intervention Price. Scope or activities , 2. Time or timescale or completion date , and the output of Quality or performance. The concept is commonly shown as a triangle with an input item on each corner, and 'quality' or 'performance' in the middle of the triangle.

For example where a reduction in project time e. Broadening the project scope commonly caused by 'project creep', i. Among other variations, the Iron Triangle concept is alternatively adapted as a 'project diamond', by which the 'quality' outcome is shown as a fourth point of a diamond, and this version of the model tends to encourage a more flexible approach to the project outcome, viewing it as a variable alongside the other three Iron Triangle inputs. It should be noted that the Iron Triangle or Diamond model addresses project management from a very fundamental standpoint.

The study and use of computers and communications systems. Japanese securities exchange, the headquarters of which are situated in Tokyo. The stockholders run the company and share its profits and debts. A high risk bond with a high interest rate, often used by companies to raise finances in order to take over other companies. A manufacturing system in which materials and components are delivered immediately before they are required, in order to increase efficiency, reduce waste and minimise storage costs. When implemented in the workplace, Kaizen activities help to improve the running of a business.

In industry, a manufacturing system which is regulated by the use of cards or boards which contain specifications and instructions for the production process of goods. In the UK, the buying and selling of stocks and shares outside official trading hours. When a user types in a particular 'keyword', an advertisement which is linked to a business relevant to that word, is displayed alongside the search engine results.

Derives from the computer industry. A new product or service which is the first in its category and therefore dominates that particular market, creating huge returns on the initial investment. A person who is employed by a company to use their brain and intellect to work with information, rather than performing manual tasks. Legislation which defines the legal rights and obligations of employees in the workplace. The act of loading cargo onto a ship. The expression was popularized in the mids after reported discussions between Laffer and government officals Don Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney, seemingly in which Laffer sought to advance the counter-intuitive argument that lower taxation would increase tax revenues.

The term may have an arrogant or patronising implication where expert, qualified, learned professionals discuss the general public or members who lack expertise. A means of purchasing an item by paying a small deposit to reserve it and then paying the balance in installments. When the total purchase price has been paid the customer can then take delivery of the goods. Lead users are individuals or companies who greatly benefit from being the first to use or adapt a product for a particular need, often months or years before the general public or other businesses are aware of the need for the product.

A system used in management, production, manufacturing, etc. A steep learning curve shows that a person is learning quickly, and a shallow learning curve means that a person is slower and taking more time to learn. Particularly used in the automotive industry, specifically for a poor-quality second-hand car, or a sub-standard new vehicle.

The words derive from the Latin root liber, meaning free, like the word liberty, meaning freedom. For example, 'time off in lieu' means and is a shortening of time given off work instead of payment for extra hours worked. Tables which show peoples life expectancy, depending on their age, lifestyle, etc. These strikes are often short in duration and usually without official union backing. The advertised or recommended retail price RRP of a product. Another example is the commonly used "Not bad," or "Not half Bad," when referring to something very good. The word litotes comes from Greek, litos, meaning single, simple or meagre.

Living Trusts avoid dealing with the legalities of a will. These points convert into vouchers which the customer can spend at the store at a later date. From the Luddite rioters of , who in defence of labourers' jobs in early industrial Britain wrecked new manufacturing machinery. A computer language, which consists only of numbers, that can be read and interpreted by a computer's central processing unit CPU. The simplicity is for users, not necessarily for the developers.

See also Silver Bullet, basically the same meaning. A large powerful central computer to which a network of smaller computers are connected, used commonly by large organisations. Mainstream basically means 'commonly used by people'. Mainstream as a marketing term is the opposite to 'niche' or specialised. Interestingly while 'mainstream' seems like a relatively modern word, it's actually existed in this sense since about The purchase of all or part of a company by the company's existing managers.

More loosely it refers to a permission or approval. In politics or democratic situations such as trade unions it refers to an authorisation for leadership to act based on election or vote. Derived from Latin mandatum meaning 'something commanded', from manus hand and dare give.

Mandate is also a verb, meaning to empower someone to take action. The customers who buy goods and services. A collection of products or services which consumers buy on a regular basis, and the prices which are paid for them. A best-selling product. The customers for which certain goods and services are marketed. To raise the price of an item which is for sale. A fundamental motivational theory describing five stages of human needs which must be met in a particular order. Entitlement to Maternity Leave depends on how long the woman has been with her employer.

Entitlement to Maternity Pay depends on how long they have worked for their employer and varies from country to country. A system of management in which people from different departments in an organisation work together, so that each individual employee has two bosses, one functional and one operational. This is common in project management. Memos can be formal letters or informal notes to colleagues. A, sometimes informal written agreement between two or more parties which establishes each party's responsibilities and requirements.

Commercial products which are associated with a film, pop group, TV show, celebrity, etc. A financial institution which offers financial advice and services to large businesses and wealthy individuals. The original sense is from the Greek word meta, loosely meaning 'with' and arises now commonly as a prefix in computing and communications terminology, for example referring to meta tags increasingly 'metatags' within website or computer code, which are typically hidden in normal use but which carry useful or vital information about the material or functionality concerned - specifically useful for computerised automated functions and analysis, data search, retrieval, organization and display, etc.

The similar term meta data increasingly 'metadata' refers more generally to information or code which is usually hidden in normal use or communications but which carries important meaning towards understanding or using the whole message or instruction, or other form of data. Sometimes used in management buy-outs. Often co-branded or 'white label', i. Also refers metaphorically to an executive or director or manager in an organization who has authority and rank but no responsibility for specific activity.

This is done so that some of the traffic can be diverted from the original website to the Mirror Site when the original site becomes very busy. Alternatively a copy website whose purpose is to attract and direct additional visitors towards the original site, regarded as unacceptable SEO search engine optimisation or 'cheating' by most search engines. The word is pronounced 'nemonic' and is commonly misspelled 'numonic'. It's from Greek mnemon, mindful. The study of the development and assistance of memory is called mnemonics or mnemotechnics. Most mnemonic devices operate by association, i.

Some mnemonics can become very deeply embedded into the brain, especially those which are learned in formative childhood years, so that they can be recalled effortlessly after several decades of not being used. Mob is actually a shortened version of the full Latin phrase, mobile vulgus, meaning excitable crowd. The term was abbreviated in English first as 'mobile', in the s. An electronic device which is used to connect computer systems using a telephone line for transmitting data. Someone who presides over a debate. On the Internet - a person who presides over a website forum to make sure that rules and guidelines are adhered to.

Such people can be said to have their 'mojo working', an expression popularised by blues singer Muddy Waters in his hit song 'Got My Mojo Working'. These small businesses are characterized typically as being small in economic terms, and usually old-fashioned, slow to adapt, resistant to change and new technology, ideas, etc.

As such, marketing executives, managers and sales people of much larger organizations tend to regard 'mum-and-pop' businesses with a degree of disdain. While plentiful in numbers across many sectors and therefore overall accounting for potentially big market shares, mom-and-pop businesses are extremely difficult to profile, assess, and target in sales and marketing, which combined with a reputation for stubbornness based often on mom and pop having very good knowledge and experience of their own industries , makes them very challenging for suppliers to reach, engage in dialogue, and to convert to new products and services.

Small order values and high maintenance expectations commonly associated with mom-and-pop businesses add to the difficulties faced by corporations attempting to sell and serve them. Some suggest this adds to the arguably envy-driven resentment which can be felt and displayed by large corporations and staff trying to market to mom-and-pop shops. Also used to describe travelling salesmen, a large number of who drive Mondeo cars. The total amount of a country's currency which is in circulation, for example, coins, notes, etc. To borrow money from a bank, etc. The main circuit board of a computer which has all the components to make everything in the computer work together, such as the monitor, keyboard, mouse, DVD drive, etc.

Logically mountweazel entries are removed from legitimate authorized versions. Mountweazel is supposedly named after a false entry Lillian Virginia Mountweazel in the New Columbia Encyclopedia. Also called a nihilartikel, from the Latin nihil meaning nothing, and the German word artikel. A fictitious 'trap street' is the equivalent used to combat map copyright theft.

NB This is entry is not a mountweazel, probably.. Mouse Potato is a clever adaptation of the older s slang 'couch potato', referring to a person who spends too much time sat watching TV, eating and drinking too. Also known as Transnational Corporation. A company which operates in several countries outside the country in which it is based. The members usually have a share of the profits. A company's loan or debt which is not backed by any security, i. A country's money supply which can be exchanged, for example coins, bank notes, bank cheques, travellers cheques, etc.

This usually only affects the borrower if they need to sell the property during this time. Sometimes this is done deliberately to reduce costs. There are a few in this very dictionary listing. The word came into English from French in the mids and originally derives from the Italian nipote, nephew, and the tradition of giving privileges to the 'nephews' of popes, who were typically actually illigitimate sons.

A product or service for which there is sometimes little demand and often little or no competition. Companies use this information to decide when to advertise their products, and TV companies use this information to set prices for advertisement slots. A term used for companies who reject ideas or products which are not theirs because they originated from outside the company.

A bond or stock which cannot be redeemed by the issuer before a particular date or until maturity. Often used in business when products or projects are being developed.


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A person who is an independent member of a company's board of directors, i. If the borrower fails to make repayments the lender can only take back what was bought with the loan and none of the borrowers other assets. You burn witches; wood also burns; so witches are made of wood.

Wood floats; a duck also floats; so a witch weighs the same as a duck An agreement with your solicitor in which you don't have to pay their fee if your court case is not successful. Methods are based on the careful design of communication and relationship between the influencer and the target group, often applied with great subtlety and sophistication. Many of the tactics are hardly noticeable, and target groups will commonly not perceive remotely that their actions and attitudes have been influenced at all.

Nudge theory is to an extent counter-intuitive because it seeks to achieve influence more effectively than traditional strategies involving forceful instruction, threat, legal action or other enforcement. Simple examples of Nudge theory methods:. Both examples encourage potentially large behavioural shifts towards a specific challenging aim by using a related indirect stimulus of a less challenging, appealing, or non-threatening nature.

Freedom of choice and absence of pressure are two important aspects of nudge theory. Nudge principles were also originally based firmly on being ethical and helping people, rather than exploiting them. Essentially nudge theory works because it provides easier ways for people to make and implement change decisions. A computer which can perform complex calculations in a short time. An account, offered by certain banks, which can only be identified by a number, so the account holder is known only to a restricted number of the bank's employees.

In the UK, a qualification with no age limits, that does not have to be completed in a specified time, which reflects the skills and knowledge required to perform a particular job competently. In other words, in choosing between competing theories or explanations for uncertain things, the most reliable theory will be that which entails the least use of assumptions and other unknowns.

The 'razor' term seems first named and recorded by Sir William Hamilton in , after the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar Father William of Ockham c. Philosophers and scientists throughout history including Einstein, Russell, Newton have described similar and basically supportive versions of the Occam's Razor principle, moreover many great thinkers have also demonstrably put the principle into practice in their own work, from which we can derive a reasonable degree of confidence in the validity of the concept itself.

It's a very memorable and teachable idea - the theme itself, its Ockham derivation, and the metaphorical allusion to 'shaving' away unnecessary or unsubstantiated aspects of a written or spoken theory or explanation. The study of peoples behaviour at work, covering personal relations, mental health, employee selection and training, safety, etc.

Also known as Mobocracy. An ochlocracy is usually an example of ineffective democracy, and of the so called 'wisdom of crowds' not working very well. Often mob rule results from a reaction against oppressive leadership. A popular metaphor which criticizes mob rule is: 'the lunatics have taken over the asylum'. Ochlocracy derives from the Greek word okhlos meaning mob. An ochlocrat is one who advocates or participates in mob rule.

May instead refer to a person who lives self-suffiently in terms of gas, electric, water, sewerage services, etc. Or someone not connected to the internet. Describes merchandise, usually clothing, which is made in standard designs and sizes, rather than made-to-measure, and is available in stock at retail outlets. A computer which is connected to the Internet. A cheque which does not have to be paid into an account, and can be cashed at the bank of the person who wrote it. Also means a cheque which has been signed but no amount has been filled in.

An OEIC can issue more shares if there is a demand from investors. The fund reduces if investors sell their shares back to the company. An offer to existing share holders of a company, which entitles them to purchase new shares at a fixed price, usually lower than the current market price, in order to raise money for the company.

Therefore, they will be paid only after other creditors have been paid. A share in a company which entitles the owner to a share in the company's profits, and the right to vote at shareholders meetings.

A diagram which shows the structure of a business or organisation, showing connections between departments, jobs, etc. Advertising which consumers can see while they are outside, e. A company's ordinary shares which have been issued and are owned by investors. To overestimate the capital value of a business. An arrangement in which a bank extends credit to a customer, usually up to a maximum amount. The pay received, usually charged at a higher rate, for working outside regular working hours.

Products which are sold by a retailer under the retailer's own name, rather than the name of the manufacturer. The way in which something, such as a product, person, proposal, etc. In the UK, The cost of packing and sending goods, usually added to the price of mail-order goods. Interestingly the term first appeared in the late s, based on the word 'knickers' as an expression of contempt or ridicule.

A sudden change in point of view. Commonly the ratio is surprisingly even more extreme. A payment method, usually when purchasing a car, in which the buyer gives something they own, for example a car, as part payment to the vendor for the more expensive item. The balance is usually paid in cash or with a loan. A method of marketing in which agents host parties, usually at someone's home, to demonstrate and sell products to invited potential customers. Entitlement to Paternity Leave depends on how long they have been with their employer. Entitlement to Paternity Pay depends on how long the partner has been with their employer.

If the loan is not repaid the Pawnbroker sells the item. Also can be used to pay debts as they are incurred. In the UK, a system of paying income tax, which is deducted from an employees salary by an employer and paid to the government. Therefore, the bigger the volume of work output, the bigger the salary. The percentage of a company's net earnings paid to shareholders in dividends. A small hand-held electronic device that is used for storing information and can serve as a telephone, diary, alarm clock, fax, etc.

A group of products or businesses which are similar. The concept now extends more widely to business models in various areas. Per head. An expression of something for example car ownership, consumption, etc in relation to the population of a particular city, nation, etc. Often refers to money paid to employees for daily expenses or reimbursements. This is an allusion to weather factors, commonly applied to economic or trading situations, but applicable to any disaster or chaotic outcome resulting from forces or effects whose combination and timing has not been thought likely or anticipated at all.

The teacher analogy is apt since the word derives from the Greek peripatetikos, and the earlier peripatein, which referred specifically to the teaching style of Aristotle BC, Greek philosopher, student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great , who walked about while he talked. The ancient Greek prefix peri means around, or round, and patein means to tread. It closely relates to and is often implicit within the offence of perverting the course of justice, which in the UK technically carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.

The word perjury derives from Latin perjurium, meaning false oath, similar to jury which comes from jurare, meaning to swear. The amount of income an individual can earn in a year before paying tax. A person who works for one person, often an executive, in an organisation, performing secretarial and administrative duties. Acquiring abilities, skills, knowledge, etc. Computer software which handles personal information, such as names, addresses, memos, lists, e-mails, etc.

An administrative department in an organisation which deals with employees and often liaises between departments. A management scheduling tool which charts the tasks involved in a project, showing the sequence of the work, the time needed for each task, etc. A business tool which is used in strategic planning and helps to understand the environmental influences on a business or orgasnisation. The theory that employees rise in rank in an organisation until they are finally promoted to a level, and remain there, at which they do not have the ability to do their job.

Or a phone that is also a tablet computer. A word formed like this i. From the Greek philanthropos, meaning man-loving. Historical linguistics. A graphic symbol or diagram which represents a concept, an amount, an activity, etc. An Internet program which is used to check if another computer on a network is working. To contact someone on a computer. In the US, a system displaying over-the-counter shares, which is published every day. Most companies listed on the Pink Sheets are very small and do not meet the minimum requirements for trading on the Stock Exchange.

The smallest element of an image displayed on a computer screen. The quality of the image depends on the number of pixels per square inch, i. Planogram - In retailing, a drawing or diagram which shows when and how products should be displayed in a store. Plasma is ionized gas containing free electrons, making it responsive to electromagnetism, and conductive of electricity, in turn enabling it to take a very visible physical shape unlike other forms of gas.

The stars are made of plasma; so is lightening and the Northen Lights Aurora Borealis. Plasma display screens also basically employ this effect. Consists of disbursements not yet vouchered purchase receipts and cash plus vouchers in transit. See indirect costs. The unit that purchased the asset or currently owns it. P Top of page. Examples include but are not limited to athletic clubs; bowling games; court fees - tennis, handball, etc. A business owned by two or more individuals. A formal document issued by the country of citizenship; must be valid at all times.

See Vendor identification number. A document form used to pay vendors for goods or services rendered or to replenish imprest funds. See change fund or imprest fund. PIN payee identification number. The office or other location at which a state employee most frequently conducts official state business. Personal property of a capital nature including equipment, machine tools, test equipment, furniture, vehicles, and accessory and auxiliary items for use in manufacturing supplies, in performing services, or for any administrative or general plant purpose.

It does not include special tooling or special test equipment FAR The sum of the free balances of all accounts in a budget pool. Used to determine sufficiency of funds for a transaction. The combined investment holdings of an individual or an institution. Documents that approve at the department level will be audited for compliance with payment rules on a post-payment basis.

They apply to UT-Austin only. The assets of an account other than income derived from those assets. The specific assets or amounts from which income is earned. A unit responsible for final approval of a document after departmental approvals are complete. Examples include Payroll and Accounts Payable.

Services that cannot be performed in an efficient and timely manner by regular University personnel. Departments may obtain the services of individuals outside the University to fulfill these needs. Prior approval and authorization for the procurement of these professional services are required. A term used to refer to the individual with primary responsibility for a contract or grant. The terms Project Director and Principal Investigator are synonymous. Authorized representative of the Contracting Officer assigned to administer the contract requirements and obligations relating to Government property.

A person who is being considered for employment with a state agency. A notary public's written statement that, upon presentment for payment or acceptance, a negotiable instrument was neither paid nor accepted. Used by Payment Services to code certain transactions for reporting purposes. Information on a Request for Travel Authorization indicating the reasons that a trip is to take place. Q Top of page. R Top of page. Land or rights in land, ground improvements, buildings, etc.

Any written, photographic, machine-readable, or other information created or received that documents activities in the conduct of State business. Records Management Terminology. Refer to A listing of all types of records and their required retention periods. A category of related records with the same function and retention period that is evaluated as a unit for retention scheduling purposes.

Regents' Rules and Regulations. General rules governing how funds and supporting documentation must be handled by all University of Texas campuses. To pay someone an amount of money equal to an amount the person has spent. A motor vehicle, train, aircraft, boat, or bicycle that a state employee rents or pays a fare to use for a period of less than one month. Simplified transaction type that summarizes all accounting transactions based on the balances they update. An official document that authorizes an individual employee, prospective employee, student or non-employee to travel for UT business purposes and to be reimbursed for related travel expenditures.

The RTA must be completed and approved prior to the beginning travel date if the traveler type is an employee or prospective employee. An RTA for non-employee travelers is only created when the traveler will not receive a fee for services or an honorarium payment. The RTA supports the legality and fiscal responsibility of a travel payment or reimbursement, or for both purposes. If a purchase is made for resale, lease, or rental to others, the purchaser must provide you with a resale certificate. This certificate entitles one to make tax-free purchases. The responsible person is the person who has the equipment in his or her possession and will safeguard the asset to ensure it is not lost or stolen.

The responsible person can bring the equipment to the inventory contact for scanning during the annual inventory process or can report on the status and whereabouts of the item s. For example, if a staff member is issued a laptop to use at home or at the office, the staff member is the person responsible for the laptop. In the case of a computer lab, the responsible person would be the one that oversees the lab. Generally the department head. Imprest funds are kept in this person's name. The responsible person assigns custodians and should ensure that proper internal controls are in place.

The amount of time a records series must be retained before destruction or archival preservation. Profit earned by a capital investment or other type of security.

Data Dictionary vs. Business Glossary | Octopai

See Request for Travel Authorization. S Top of page. A tax on the sale, lease, or rental of taxable tangible personal property and taxable services within the State of Texas. Property that, because of its worn, damaged, deteriorated, incomplete condition, or specialized nature, has no reasonable prospect of sale or use as serviceable property without major repairs, but has some value in excess of its scrap value FAR Items for which insurance coverage has been requested and approved, and premium has been paid by the requesting department.

The items can be owned by or on loan to the university, and coverage must be requested on an item-by-item basis for each item that needs to be insured. Personal property that has no value except for its basic material content FAR Items of property for which the theft, loss, or misplacement could be potentially dangerous to the public safety or community security, and which must be subject to exceptional physical security, protection, control, and accountability.

The following types of property should be designated as "sensitive" in the University's property management system. Weapons, ammunition, explosives, narcotics and drugs, radioactive material, hazardous material, hazardous waste, precious metals, and any other item designated by a Defense Agency to be sensitive. The authority to sign or approve accounting documents manually or electronically. Assigned at unit or budget group level. The federal contracts negotiated by The University of Texas at Austin refer to businesses as small business concerns.

A business concern is a business entity organized for profit, with a place of business located in the United States. A business concern may be a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, or any other legal form. See statement of account. Social Security number. A nine-digit number used for personnel appointments, vendor files, and student records. An individual who holds sole ownership of a business. A special event is any event that occurs outside the day-to-day operations of the university, is not paid with university funds, and is not an official university event.

Special events are usually short-term, and they can expose the institution to risk either directly or indirectly. Examples of special events include art shows, conferences, exhibits, festivals, weddings, and reunions. Depending on where the special event is held, an appropriate contract is required. Erwin Jr. Other facilities require that an event contract be drawn up by the Business Contracts Office. There are three possible values for special handling of inventory items:. Single or multi-purpose integrated test units engineered, designed, fabricated, or modified to accomplish special purpose testing in performing a contract.

It consists of items or assemblies of equipment including standard or general purpose items or components that are interconnected and interdependent so as to become a new functional entity for special testing purposes. It does not include material, special tooling, facilities except foundations and similar improvements necessary for installing special test equipment , and plant equipment items used for general plant testing purposes.

FAR All components of these items, and replacement of these items, which are of specialized nature that without substantial modification or alteration their use is limited to the development or production of particular supplies or parts thereof or to the performance of particular services. It does not include material, special test equipment, facilities except foundations and similar improvements necessary for installing special tooling , general or special machine tools, or similar capital items.

Glossary of Business Terms

Examples include but are not limited to horse shows; motorcycle races; automobile races; rodeo; sporting events such as football, baseball, basketball, hockey and soccer games; and wrestling, or boxing. Undertaking a risky investment with the objective of earning a better profit than might be available with a risk-free investment. A governmental agency or private company that funds research at The University. An externally funded research project undertaken at The University. See Social Security number.


  • Flare & Fetter.
  • The Reach (T.O.A.D. Book 5).
  • San Ignacio de Loyola: Del Íñigo en busca de Dios al Ignacio compañero de Jesús (Santos. Amigos de Dios) (Spanish Edition).
  • The Travelers Verse.
  • Funds appropriated to a state agency by the Texas legislature and on deposit with the State Treasury until disbursement. Institutional funds held in the State Treasury are also considered to be state funds; examples include tuition and fees. All state funds are subject to State expenditure rules. An official listing of all accounting transactions occurring on an account. Reflects the results of all increases, decreases, and transfers affecting university funds. It presents a summary of total activity from the beginning to the end of the reporting period, including the resources flowing into and out of university funds and the effect on the net increase or decrease in fund balance.

    Stipends can be defined in many ways. A stipend can be a periodic payment such as a scholarship or fellowship granted to a student as support for the student's educational pursuits. A stipend can be a fixed or regular amount of money paid as a travel reimbursement. Finally, a stipend can be a payment for work if it is intended to compensate an individual for services performed.

    The last two digits of an account number, used to divide a budget group into categories, such as salaries, equipment, scholarships, or other expenses. A subdivision of an official University of Texas entity. The last three digits of a unit code divide the official unit into subunits, which may indicate individuals, such as Principal Investigators, or other programs or projects within the official unit. The "" subunit is reserved for the official unit as recognized by the Office of the President. All parties involved, directly or indirectly, in fulfilling a customer request, including the manufacturer and suppliers, transporters, warehouses, retailers, and customers.

    Within each organization, the supply chain includes all functions involved in receiving and filling a customer request, including new product development, marketing, operations, distribution, finance, and customer service. Sustainability refers to societal efforts that meet the needs of present users without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Decisions and investments aimed to promote sustainability will simultaneously advance economic vitality, ecological integrity, and social welfare.

    The responsible management of environmental, social, and economic resources. T Top of page. Personal property that can be seen, felt, measured or that is apparent to the senses in any other way. It includes computer programs. Not subject to sales tax due to the nature of the purchasing organization or the way the merchandise is to be used.

    Governmental entities the United States, the State of Texas, or a county, city, special district, or other subdivision of the state , religious, educational, and public service organizations are among the organizations that are considered tax exempt. A certificate which, when properly executed, allows the tax-free purchase of an item that would otherwise be subject to sales tax.

    The percentage that is charged based on the taxable sale. The rate will depend on where the sale takes place. Taxpayer identification number. For example, a booth at a conference or convention is a temporary place of business. Note : For questions related to charging and remitting sales tax when doing business in states other than Texas, contact Financial Accounting and Reporting at oa. Accounting and Financial Management uses it to complete year-end entries for reporting purposes. See Gratuity.

    Determines the account balances to update when a transaction is processed. Records of temporary usefulness that are not an integral part of a records series of an agency, that are not regularly filed within an agency's record keeping system, and that are required only for a limited period of time for the completion of an action by an official or employee of the agency or in the preparation of an on-going records series.

    See Record Management Services for further information. Transportation, meal, lodging, or incidental expense. Travel Regualtions Act. Refers to Texas Government Code, Chapter The month review period based on the end of the effective rate period for the service center. A legal, fiduciary relationship in which an individual or institution the trustee holds legal title to property with the responsibility for keeping or managing this property for the benefit of another person or beneficiary.

    Twenty Factor Test. The common name for a list of 20 factors compiled by the U. Internal Revenue Service that is used to determine the status of a worker as an employee or an independent contractor. U Top of page. An official University of Texas entity, such as an academic department, administrative department, organized research unit, or project director responsible for a sponsored project.

    A seven-digit code assigned to an official University of Texas entity. The first four digits indicate an official University department or organization. The last three digits divide the official unit into subunits, which may indicate individuals, such as Principal Investigators, or other programs or projects within the official unit. The administrator of a unit. For an official unit a unit that ends in "" , the unit head is the chairman, director, dean, or vice president. The unit head for a subunit is an administrator assigned responsibility for a subdivision of the official unit.

    A one-digit code assigned to a unit indicating its location in the organizational hierarchy. Income earned by an independent contractor for services rendered inside the U. V Top of page. Unique digit number that identifies a payee. Contains the following components: Digit 1: Prefix indicating the type of payee. Digit Automatically generated check digit.

    Digits Mail code indicating where payment is to be sent. A formal declaration by which one swears to or affirms the truth of the statements in a document. In addition, the statement of a notary public that the person appearing before the notary has been properly identified as being the person purported to be appearing. A stamp in the passport issued by the U. Consulate for entry to the U. Allows citizens from certain countries to enter the U. They do, however, receive an Iw at the port of entry. Visa Waiver Program. This program enables nationals of 36 participating countries to travel to the United States for tourism or business visitor [B] visa purposes only for stays of 90 days or less without obtaining a visa.

    The program was established to eliminate unnecessary barriers to travel, stimulating the tourism industry, and permitting the Department of State to focus consular resources in other areas. An accounting document that creates accounting transactions. A unique seven-character number assigned to a voucher when it is final approved. Consists of one alpha character followed by six automatically generated numeric characters. The alpha character indicates the type of voucher: L — Local check was cut for payment S — State warrant was cut for payment C — Cash received B — Balance forward entry R — Year-end adjusting entry O — Material encumbrance T — Interdepartmental transfer J — Does not fall into one of the categories listed above.

    A printed document submitted with supporting documentation for a voucher to a processing office. Reimbursement vouchers that you have submitted but have not finished processing. A day on which an employee is regularly required to conduct state business.