Cogswell emphasized the necessity for complete planning for the proposed library, not for the building and other accommodations, but for the character of the library to be formed, for the particular topics which Astor wished to have represented most thoroughly. The necessary detail extended to a catalog that must belong to the collection. This was agreeable to Astor. Astor , Daniel Lord , Jr. James G. King , Joseph G. Samuel B.
Ruggles , Samuel Ward, Jr. Sometimes he had a downtown office at his disposal.
The complete five voice madrigals : for mixed voices
Cogswell was concerned about the progress of the plans for the library, in , threatened to take an offer to be secretary of legation under Washington Irving, now appointed American minister to Spain. Thus matters stood until Astor's death in Cogswell lived with or near Astor, worked on plans for the library as opportunity offered. The first meeting of the trustees came on May 20, On September 28, a location was finalized for the building, in what is now the East Village, Manhattan.
On January 18, , the library was incorporated, received a paragraph in the annual message of Governor Hamilton Fish ; the trustees appointed by the act were Washington Irving, William Backhouse Astor, Daniel Lord, Jr. Ruggles, Samuel Ward , Jr. In April , the trustees hired a house at 32 Bond Street for temporary custody and exhibition of the books they had purchased. A German-born architect, Alexander Saeltzer — who had designed Anshe Chesed Synagogue , — was selected as the architect for the building, he designed the building in Rundbogenstil style the prevailing style for public building in Germany.
Astor and Saeltzer drew up specifications and called for bids for construction. Through his brother Francis, he was the uncle of Saint Katharine Drexel.
Joseph Drexel was a partner in the firm of Drexel and Company , where his brother, was senior partner. In , tired of battling the brusque J. Pierpont Morgan , Joseph retired from the business and devoted his life to philanthropic and civic organizations, he owned a acre farm near New York City , where people without work were housed, clothed and taught agriculture until they could find a job.
He owned a large tract of land in Maryland , developed into Klej Grange , a planned community, where the lots are sold to poor people at cost. About 7, acres in Michigan were bought for the same purpose, he was chairman of New York Sanitary Commission, the commissioner of education, president of the New York Philharmonic Society , trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art , founding trustee of the American Museum of Natural History , trustee of the U.
National Academy of Sciences , director of the Metropolitan Opera house. Hill was about to move into. Drexel was an avid collector of music amassing a collection of over 6, items.
Grant completed his memoirs. Together, they had four children: Katherine Drexel, who married Dr. Charles Bingham Penrose , the brother of U. Penrose, Jr. Penrose , Solicitor of the United States Treasury , in , they had two children. Dahlgren , had eight children, they divorced in Dahlgren, in , with whom she had one son. Josephine Wharton Drexel, who married Dr.
John Duncan Emmet, the son of prominent physician , Dr. Thomas Addis Emmet , in , they divorced in and in , she married Seton Henry, the son of Gen. He had been suffering from Bright's Disease for a half before then, he was buried in The Woodlands Cemetery in Pennsylvania. Drexel Collection Correspondence and bills from J. Joseph William Drexel at Find a Grave.
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Inigo Jones Inigo Jones was the first significant English architect in the early modern period, the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings. As the most notable architect in England , Jones was the first person to introduce the classical architecture of Rome and the Italian Renaissance to Britain, he left his mark on London by his design of single buildings, such as the Queen's House , the first building in England designed in a pure classical style, the Banqueting House, Whitehall , as well as the layout for Covent Garden square which became a model for future developments in the West End.
He made major contributions to stage design by his work as theatrical designer for several dozen masques , most by royal command and many in collaboration with Ben Jonson. Beyond the fact that he was born in Smithfield , the son of Inigo Jones, a Welsh cloth worker, baptised at the church of St Bartholomew-the-Less , little is known about Jones's early years, he did not approach the architectural profession in the traditional way, namely either by rising up from a craft or through early exposure to the Office of Works , although there is evidence that Christopher Wren obtained information that recorded Jones as an apprentice joiner in St Paul's Churchyard.
At some point before a rich patron sent him to Italy to study drawing after being impressed by the quality of his sketches. From Italy he travelled to Denmark where he worked for King Christian on the design of the palaces of Rosenborg and Frederiksborg. Jones first became famous as a designer of costumes and stage settings after he brought "masques" to the stage. Under Queen Anne's patronage he is credited with introducing movable scenery and the proscenium arch to English theatre. Between and , he was responsible for staging over performances, collaborating with Ben Jonson for many years, despite a relationship fraught with competition and jealousy: the two had arguments about whether stage design or literature was more important in theatre.
Over drawings for the scenery and costumes survive, demonstrating Jones's virtuosity as a draughtsman and his development between and from showing "no knowledge of Renaissance draughtsmanship " to exhibiting an "accomplished Italianate manner" and understanding of Italian set design that of Alfonso and Giulio Parigi. This development suggests a second visit to Italy, circa , influenced by the ambassador Henry Wotton. Jones learned to speak Italian fluently and there is evidence that he owned an Italian copy of Andrea Palladio's I quattro libri dell'architettura with marginalia that refer to Wotton, his architectural work was influenced by Palladio.
To a lesser extent, he held to the architectural principles of the ancient Roman writer Vitruvius. Jones's first recorded architectural design is for a monument to Lady Cotton, circa , showing early signs of his classical intentions. Around this time, Jones produced drawings for the New Exchange in the Strand and the central tower of St.
Paul's Cathedral, displaying a similar practical architectural inexperience and immature handling of themes from sources including Palladio and Sangallo. In , having accompanied Lord Salisbury's son and heir, Viscount Cranborne , around France , he appears as an architectural consultant at Hatfield House , making small modifications to the design as the project progressed, in , Jones was appointed Surveyor to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. He devised a masque for the Prince and was involved in some alterations to St James's Palace. On 27 April , Jones was appointed the position of Surveyor of the King's Works and shortly after, embarked on a tour of Italy with the Earl of Arundel , destined to become one of the most important patrons in the history of English art.
On this trip, Jones was exposed to the architecture of Rome, Florence , Vicenza and Venice among others, his surviving sketchbook shows his preoccupation with such artists as Schiavone. He is known to have met Vincenzo Scamozzi at this time, his annotated copy of Palladio's Quattro libri dell'architettura demonstrates his close interest in classical architecture: Jones gave priority to Roman antiquity rather than observing the contemporary fashion in Italy. He was the first Englishman to study these Roman remains first hand and this was key to the new architecture Jones introduced in England ; the September , Jones was appointed Surveyor-General of the King's Works, marking the beginning of Jones's career in earnest.
Both James I and Charles I spent lavishly on their buildings, contrasting hugely with the economical court of Elizabeth I. As the King's Surveyor, Jones built some of his key buildings in London. With the foundations laid and the first storey built, work stopped when Anne died in Work resumed in , but this time for Henrietta Maria , it was finished in as the first classical building in England, employing ideas found in the architecture of Palladio and ancient Rome.
This is Jones's earliest-surviving work. Between and , the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall was built, a design derived from buildings by Scamozzi and Palladio, to which a ceiling painted by Peter Paul Rubens was added several years later; the Whitehall palace was one of several projects where Jones worked with his personal assistant and nephew by marriage John Webb.
The Queen's Chapel , St. James's Palace, was built betw. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Drexel New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Date 17th century Place of origin England Language s English , Italian , Latin Size leaves Drexel , also known as the Sambrook Book based on an inscription from a former owner, Francis Sambrook, is a music manuscript containing vocal and keyboard music from Italian and British composers, documenting the transition from Renaissance to Baroque music.
For information concerning the history and discrediting of the Tregian attribution, see Francis Tregian the Younger. The Sambrooke Book: Drexel M. Wichita State University. Francis Tregian the Younger as music copyist", Musical Times , : 7—16, doi : Baroque music manuscript sources. Fitzwilliam Virginal Book. Related Images. YouTube Videos. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. Stonehenge , a Neolithic monument. Boudica led an uprising against the Roman Empire.
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. On the wall are several lute s and brass instruments. On the left is a cello -type instrument.
In the middle are several drums. On the right is a small pipe organ. Historical musicology, which was traditionally the most prominent subdiscipline of musicology, studies the history of music. Central to this study is the examination of historical scores , such as this original manuscript sketch by Ludwig van Beethoven for Piano Sonata No.
The piece was completed in Music historian Jack Stewart lectures at a conference. Rosetta Reitz — was an American jazz historian who established a record label producing 18 albums of the music of the early women of jazz and the blues. With nearly 53 million items and 92 locations, the New York Public Library is the second largest public library in the United States and the third largest in the world.
The New York Public Library main building during late stage construction in , the lion statues not yet installed at the entrance. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about , inhabitants. Roman foundation and medieval wall, at the site of Basel oppidum. Basel Minster , built between and Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central and southern Europe.
It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The Old Swiss Confederacy from dark green to the sixteenth century light green and its associates blue. In the other colours are shown the subject territories. Inauguration in of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time.
Contrasted landscapes between the regions of the Matterhorn and Lake Lucerne. Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Panorama from the Barrage Vauban with the medieval bridge Ponts Couverts in the foreground the fourth tower is hidden by trees at the left and the cathedral in the distance on the right. Strasbourg, Cathedral of Our Lady.
The Lorelei rock in Rhineland-Palatinate. Lake Toma , seen from the upstream end. The confluence of the Anterior Rhine to the lower left and the Posterior Rhine in the back, forming the Alpine Rhine to the left next to Reichenau. Inigo Jones was the first significant English architect in the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings. A masque costume for a knight, designed by Inigo Jones. Interior of Banqueting House, with ceiling painted by Rubens.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. Benjamin Franklin , John Jacob Astor, an engraving based on an portrait by Alonzo Chappell. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a Revson Fountain at twilight. The David H. The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued. The British Library and St Pancras. The mechanical book handling system MBHS used to deliver requested books from stores to reading rooms.
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger , — Illustration from Vaux Passional thought to show Henry top mourning his mother, with his sisters, Mary and Margaret, in the foreground, To the east is Canterbury Quadrangle. The library houses the college's modern lending library and early printed books on two floors. The baroque interior, from Rudolph Ackermann 's History of Oxford Peter Philips was an eminent English composer, organist, and Catholic priest exiled to Flanders. Philips began his musical career at St Paul's Cathedral in London.
The score of Philips' Cantiones Sacrae The prison was built in , was rebuilt several times, and was in use until It was demolished in In bookbinding, a section, gathering, or signature refers to a group of sheets, folded in the middle, and bound into the binding together. Modern model of Coptic binding with eight sections. Twelve gatherings can be seen in this spine-side view of a book being bound. Lassus leading a chamber ensemble, painted by Hans Mielich. Parthenia , published in The term "folio", from the Latin folium, has three interconnected but distinct meanings in the world of books and printing.
It is firstly a term for a common method of arranging sheets of paper into book form, folding the sheet only once, and a term for a book made in this way. The title page of the Shakespeare First Folio , Music manuscripts are handwritten sources of music. Generally speaking, they can be written on paper or parchment. If the manuscript contains the composer's handwriting it is called an autograph.
Music manuscripts can contain musical notation as well as texts and images. Donated by Joseph W. Bust of Joseph W. A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications use a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows items to be stored in that order. A library book shelf in Hong Kong arranged using the Dewey classification.
The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book is a primary source of keyboard music from the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean periods in England, i. Virginal made by Ruckers. Manuscript of "I Rise and Grieve", in Lawes's hand. Through correspondence with Kathryn Bosi, Music Librarian at I Tatti and, through her, Craig Smyth's family, I became increasingly aware of his unusual and quite special character.
The Bronzino sonnet is a lament on the death of Pontormo, his teacher, and Laura Battiferri's poem is a direct response to that of Bronzino. As I was also asked to set sonnets by Petrarca, I chose two of his closely linked sonnets, numbers and in the Rime Sparse. Having written the Petrarca setting for I Tatti some five years before, I was familiar with the context. Petrach's sonnets attracted me for many reasons. Initially it was because they have such prominence in sixteenth century madrigal music. But it was also the heart-rending beauty of the poetry and its sheer technical brilliance.
Although I was vaguely aware of Bronzino as a painter, I did not know his poetry and I was grateful for the opportunity to look at previously unfamiliar texts, both of Bronzino and of Battiferri. Indeed having such things brought to my attention made me feel a surrogate part of the Villa I Tatti environment. The third project concentrates on the poetry of Laura Batiferri alone, and comes about because of the anniversary celebrations for her husband Ammannati. Kathryn Vosi sent me a number of texts and eventually I settled on four : three sonnets, one of which has 11 lines rather than the normal 14, and a sestina.
From the poems that she sent there are two further ones that I plan to set so that, in due course, there would be quite substabntial volme of I Tatti madrigals that could form an entire book in themselves, combining Petrarca, Bronzino and Battiferri. These two "bonus" pieces will set a poem by Bronzino plus Battiferri's response, like those from the second concert. As with the commission two years ago, these madrigals are for Singer Pur, and there is the advantage this time of having worked with them directly at I Tatti, of spending time with them socially and having a greater awareness of the character of this quite special ensemble.
The two line sonnets, numbers 53 "Fra queste piagge" and 54 "Ergiti enfin" , have a link to the area near I Tatti, with their references to Maiano, and to the Mensola, and the shorter sonnet 55 "Temprato aer sereno" also sings the praises of Tuscany. With the sestina number 48 "Qual per l'onde turbate" we have the same kind of poetic virtuosity demanded of the line form that I enjoyed with Petrarca's "A qualunque animale".
This form has six 6-line verses with a final 3-line verse , with the same six words at the ends of the lines in each verse, but in each succeeding verse on a different line. For the final three lines all six rhyming words are brought back, three of them as half rhymes. As with my seting of the Petrarca sestina, I followed this device by devising precise musical equivalents. With the Battiferri setting, I followed the same structural idea, but becoming more flexible by injecting greater variation in these phrases as the poem progresses.
It was the promptings of I Tatti that started me off on my settings of Petrach's sestine, through Kathryn Bosi and others, and which pointed me towards the poetry of Bronzino and Battiferri. I enjoy the intellectual give-and-take, and being encouraged to follow these promptings. After my second project at I Tatti for example, Dr Janie Cole, whom I met at the concert, sent me her book on the work of Michelangelo Buonarroti il Giovane and it is very likely that I will set some of this poetry in the future. As a professional composer, I live from commissions and these can take me in many different and sometimes unpredictable directions and I welcome the stimulus of such exchanges.
In an ideal world, when I would be free to write whatever I want, I would always chose to write vocal music, and having the pprotunity to set Petrarch and post-Petrarchian seicento poetry, is close to Paradise. Instrumentation: alto saxophone, bass clarinet, flugelhorn, horn, trombone, piano, electric keyboard, bass,, taped voice or male alto , 2 percussion. First performance: Apollo Theatre, Oxford, 16 November I had let Lucinda have some tapes and she made a solo dance, Outline , to one of these pieces Out of Zaleski's Gazebo.
The initial idea for the dance was hers and we discussed many times throughout that year the nature of the piece, its structure and relative pace. The music falls into in 4 sections: 'Water', 'Earth', 'Air' and 'Fire', each one being given a different musical character in terms of tempo, instrumental emphasis and colour; and theatrical character through different permutations of the 8 dancers 'Earth', for example uses only the 4 females, while 'Air' uses the 4 male dancers , the relative complexity of repetitive movement and the use of space.
Part 1 - 'Water' - is slow and features the bass clarinet and colouristic percussion including the water gong.
Italian Vocal Solos & Collections
Part 2 - 'Earth' - is at a medium tempo with a slow melodic line for tuned percussion and a mirrored line for wind instruments. Part 3 - 'Air' - is fast with an accompaniment by keyboards supporting high solo parts for in sequence alto saxophone, flugelhorn, and sax with French horn. Part 4 - 'Fire' - is slow with overlapping lines for unison brass trombone, horn, flugelhorn and amplified double bass, using effects pedals, with bass clarinet, over slow keyboard arpeggios and ends with a Coda in which David James' alto voice sings a short vocalise over low drones from the ensemble As well as working closely with Lucinda I also had a fruitful collaboration with Roger Heaton, then music director of Rambert who is also clarinettist in my own ensemble.
I deliberately chose to use a range of instruments that I had not used before - especially the combination of instruments in the wind section alto saxophone, bass clarinet, flugelhorn, French horn and tenor trombone. In memory of Professor Craig Smyth Duration c. Gordon and Elizabeth Morrill. You are missing some Flash content that should appear here! Perhaps your browser cannot display it, or maybe it did not initialize correctly. In , I embarked on a series of books of madrigals related to those from the Italian renaissance. For the first of these books, I set poems by Blake Morrison which, unusually, were actually written to be set to music as madrigals.
For subsequent books, however, I decided to set poets who had been the chief sources of texts for the renaissance madrigalists and for my second, third and fourth books of madrigals I turned to Petrarch. Petrarch's sonnets attracted me initially because of their prominence in sixteenth century madrigal music, but I was also drawn to the heart-rending beauty of the poetry and their sheer technical brilliance.
The ingenuity with which he conceals or alludes to her name can be astonishing. She can be the laurel sometimes obliquely as 'the honoured branch', 'noble tree', 'garland' and she is 'l'aura' the dawn. Here the "belle frondi" beautiful leaves are those of the laurel and the "altri rami" other branches are those of the cross. Given that the season "tempo" referred to in the penultimate sestina may be Lent it is appropriate that the premiere of this choral setting is at that time. His rhyme schemes can be virtuosic beyond belief. With the sestina form six 6-line verses with a final 3-line verse , each verse has the same six words at the ends of lines but in each succeeding verse on a different line.
Then in the final three lines all six rhyming words are brought back, three of them as half rhymes. These devices have soemtimes suggested musical approaches, but hey are never there just to demonstrate his cleverness, but are always at the service of the poetry. This extended madrigal was commissioned by the Addison Singers and was written specially for it.
The choir's director is an old friend of mine, and both my daughters have been members. The piece is dedicated to the Addison Singers, in a spirit of friendship and affection. My third opera, based on the life of Gutenberg gave me the chance to spend a great deal of time focussing on the solo bass voice - something that had not been necessary in my first two operas which feature higher voices.
In "G" there are four different bass parts, each of which is a substantial role. I was immensely impressed with Runi's voice, we became good friends and I resolved to find an occasion to work with him in more detail.
Collections by or with: Marenzio, Luca
When I was asked to propose an idea for a project with the Eastern Orchestral Board I immediately thought of the connection of the east of England with Viking history - the area where I grew up in East Yorkshire is steeped in Viking history and many of the towns and villages have names taken from the Viking invasions. The piece takes its text and narrative material from Egil's Saga, one of the great classics of Icelandic literature set in the 10 th century, but written around years later.
The words I set in Icelandic are those of Egil, an astonishingly fierce Viking warrior but also a stunning poet - one of the most original and advanced of his time. The extracts from the poems come from four different periods of Egil's life: from a praise-poem delivered in York to King Erik Bloodaxe in order to save Egil's own head; from a lament for the deaths of his two sons; from a poem in praise of a noble ally Arinbjorn; and his last poems written during his gradual, though furious, descent into blindness.
The scoring is essentially of low instruments: bass clarinet, bassoon, French horn, percussion, strings no violins, just violas, celli and basses. I was approached by James Hugonin some time ago to write a vocal piece for a series of concerts linked to exhibitions of his paintings. We met in Newcastle and talked about his work and I looked at a number of pictures.
I decided to write something which was, at the same time, a response to the physical context in which the pictures were made the North East of England and in an oblique way linked with the culture of the area. I had already written pieces for members of the Hilliard Ensemble which used 7th Century Northumbrian verse, in particular Cadman Requiem with its use of Caedmon's Creation Hymn.
I chose as text lines from Bram Stoker's Dracula, especially those which presage the wreck of the mysterious ship Demeter at Whitby. As a child I had spent many summers in Whitby, and it was at Whitby too that Caedmon had written his poetry. I noted the Dracula connection when I began re-reading the book following my friend Tom Waits' appearance in the recent film version.
It was then that I noticed that the Whitby incidents are described from the vantage point of the cliffs beneath St. Hilda's Abbey, the same place I used to visit, and the same Abbey where Caedmon worked. For this piece I decided to write for solo baritone voice with viola, and to work in an economical and restrained way moving between the form of the melodrama spoken voice and accompaniment, like Strauss's Enoch Arden for example and song.
I plan to write other pieces from subsequent parts of this narrative. Spoken The day was unusually fine till the afternoon, when some of the gossips who frequent the East Cliff churchyard, and from that commanding eminence watch the wide sweep of sea visible to the north and east, called attention to a sudden show of 'mares'-tails' high in the sky to the north-west.
The wind was then blowing from the south-west in the mild degree which in barometrical language is ranked 'No. The coastguard on duty at once made report, and one old fisherman, who for more than half a century has kept watch on weather signs from the East Cliff, foretold in an emphatic manner the coming of a sudden storm. The approach of sunset was so very beautiful, so grand in its masses of splendidly-coloured clouds, that there was quite an assemblage on the walk along the cliff in the old churchyard to enjoy the beauty. Before the sun dipped below the black mass of Kettleness, standing boldly athwart the western sky, its downward way was marked by myriad clouds of every sunset-colour - flame, purple, pink, green, violet, and all the tints of gold; with here and there masses not large, but of seemingly absolute blackness, in all sorts of shapes, as well outlined as colossal silhouettes.
The wind fell away entirely during the evening, and at midnight there was a dead calm. There were but few lights in sight at sea, for even the coasting steamers which usually 'hug' the shore so closely, kept well to seaward, and few fishing-boats were in sight. Add some 'singing' tone The only sail noticeable was a foreign schooner with all sails set, which was seemingly going westwards. Before the night shot down she was seen with sails idly flapping as she gently rolled on the undulating swell of the sea.
Recitativo Shortly before ten o'clock the stillness of the air grew quite oppressive, and the silence was so marked that the bleating of a sheep inland or the barking of a dog in the town was distinctly heard, and the band on the pier A little after midnight came a strange sound from over the sea, and high overhead the air began to carry a strange, faint hollow booming. With a rapidity which seemed incredible the whole aspect of nature at once became convulsed. The waves rose in growing fury, each over-topping its fellow, till in a very few minutes the lately glassy sea was like a roaring and devouring monster.
White-crested waves beat madly on the level sands and rushed up the shelving cliffs; others broke over the piers, and with their spume swept the lanthorns of the lighthouses which rise from the end of either pier of Whitby harbour. The wind roared like thunder, and blew with such force that even strong men clung with grim clasp to the iron stanchions. To add to the dangers of the time, masses of sea-fog came drifting inland - white, wet clouds, which swept by in ghostly fashion, so dank and damp and cold that it needed but a little effort of imagination to think that the spirits of those lost at sea were touching their living brethren with the clammy hands of death, and many shuddered as the wreaths of sea-mist swept by.
At times the mist cleared, and the sea for some distance could be seen in the glare of the lightning, which now came thick and fast, followed by such sudden peals of thunder that the whole sky overhead seemed trembling under the shock of the footsteps of the storm. Once or twice a fishing-boat, with gunwhale under water, rushed into the harbour, able, by the guidance of the sheltering light, to avoid the danger of dashing against the piers.
Before long the searchlight discovered some distance away a schooner with all sails set.
The wind had by this time backed to the east. Between her and the port lay the great flat reef on which so many good ships have from time to time suffered, and, with the wind blowing from its present quarter, it would be quite impossible that she should reach the entrance of the harbour.