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The song peaked at number one on the United States Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart for seven consecutive weeks, her fourth successive number one song. The recording became the second-most successful Latin single of and ranks as the twentieth best Hot Latin Songs chart single of all-time. Many musicians have since recorded the song and released it on their respective albums including Dominican salsa singer Jose Alberto "El Canario" and Mexican pop singer Paulina Rubio. While flying back from New York, A. Quintanilla —the brother-producer of Selena —heard the Pretenders ' single " Back on the Chain Gang " on the radio.

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October 12, Archived from the original on July 15, Chapter three addresses such issues. Chapter Five is a discourse on the theories of the Yoruba origins and their culture before, during and after Samuel Johnson. Belo, Crowther, Frobenius, Lucas and Parrinder are relevant in this discourse. In conclusion, the researcher discussed that the socio-religious and the political context of Sierra Leone and Yorubaland in the 19th century that influenced Johnson to associate the Yoruba origins with Christianity.

These backgrounds made it necessary to understand how Christianity spread to Africa and to the Yorubaland in particular. The 19th century marked a period during which documents on the spread of Christianity in West Africa were recorded, both in greater numbers and with increased richness of content. This conversion of countless African slaves to Christianity motivated missionary organisations, like the Church Missionary Society CMS , the Wesleyan Missionary Society and others, to extend their missions into the interior regions of West Africa. During its history, Egypt suffered various invasions during the first millennium BCE.


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After the capturing of Egypt by Alexander the Great in BCE, Egyptian culture and language were subdued to the point that Greek culture and language became prominent even among the Egyptians in Egypt. Rome in particular captured certain regions of the Ancient Near East together with Egypt around 30 BCE; and as a result, the Romans organised a united administration which allowed efficient communication systems.

The coordination of certain regions in Egypt ruled by Rome especially for the development of the Nile as a trading artery created easy access for communication and for early Christian evangelism among the Early Church. Herod was a district governor and the Roman client king of Judea. See Chapter Four for the details behind this motivation.

This view by Sanneh may require further study. Furthermore, according to Sanneh, the Gospel of Mark is generally regarded as an eye-witness account of the life of Jesus by the apostle Peter and is also regarded as the oldest known documents of the New Testament.

Sanneh gave the name of this Ethiopian official as Judich. Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 2. Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 2; cf. Acts ; M. Omolewa, M. And the multitude of believers, both men and women, that were collected there at the very outset, and lived lives of the most philosophical and excessive asceticism, was so great, that Philo thought it worthwhile to describe their pursuits, their meetings, their entertainments, and their whole manner of life.

A writer by the name of M. Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 4. They also believe that Mark was among the four evangelists that came to preach Christianity in Alexandria. This was about 52 AD. As mentioned by Sanneh, early Christian apologists, like Origen and Clement, all had their early foundational training in Alexandria One of the strongest centres of Christianity in Egypt was Alexandria.

Clement made his mark there, though he was not a native of that city; belonging to an elite, he stressed the element of reason in religion and established it as an important foundation of faith…. One of his [Clement] pupils was Origen c. In , after Clement left Alexandria, Origen, then only eighteen, was appointed to succeed his teacher at the Catechetical School which he successfully guided through a time of fierce persecution and gave it an enviable pre-eminence in the Christian world. When Christianity arrived in Egypt, it was welcomed and practiced mostly by members of the elite class who lived in urban areas.

Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 6. Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 7. The Coptic Egyptians faced great opposition, which eventually resulted in their persecution. As a result, the Coptic Church then concentrated on developing comprehensive liturgical and sacramental ordinances within Egypt. The strength of the Coptic Church was boosted in the fourth century CE when they translated the Scripture into Coptic. Similarly some of the Apostles appear to have landed on African soil, encouraging the setting up of Churches.

Christianity gained popularity in Egypt to such an extent that the Romans were concerned that the Copts rejected the divinity of the Roman Emperor. Because of this, the emperor Diocletian persecuted the Coptic Christians fiercely M. Sanneh, A history of ancient Egypt, 8. See E. The establishment of the Church in Alexandria is important because the Alexandrian Church has helped in the spread of Christianity to other parts of Africa, in part thanks to the work of Christian apologists.

Modern studies, especially those used in this research, support the school of thought which proposes that Christianity only came to Nigeria during the 14th century CE; led in greater part by missionaries from mission organisations, most of whom did not originate from Egypt or from the Ancient Near East.

There are two periods or phases during which Christianity spread to Nigeria. The first phase of the spread of Christianity to Nigeria started from the s and the second phase, which clearly affected the Yorubaland, started sometime around the early 19th century. The first group included explorers and traders, while the second group consisted from the Christian missionaries themselves.

Christian missionaries first came to the Southern parts of Nigeria before they arrived in Northern Nigeria. More so, the first Christian group from Judea who came to Egypt appeared as missionaries, and while they sought refuge in synagogues, they equally preached the Gospel B. Steed, A history of the Church in Africa, Studies like Certificate history of Nigeria by Omolewa, West African Christianity by Sanneh and the article by Adewale and Abu , all supports the suggestion that Christianity started in Nigeria around the 14th century.

In the book, Omolewa gave a detailed history of the beginning of Islam and Christianity in Nigeria. The mutually beneficial trade relationship between Portuguese traders and the leaders of Benin created the impression among Portuguese missionaries that they could introduce Christianity in West Africa by making Benin their starting point.

Ume discussed some aspects of the history of Christianity in Southern Nigeria, but he did not write extensively about Christianity and culture in Yorubaland cf. Omolewa discussed Christianity and how the people of Southern Nigeria responded to Christianity while upholding their individual cultures during the 19 th century. Aliogo, Up to date current affairs, Enugu: Dejoe Publication, , Abu, Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, The possibility exists that Portuguese traders conducted business in Nigeria before they entered Gambia and Sierra Leone.

Curtin, Feierman, Thompson and Vansina believes that Portuguese influence on the slave trade in Sierra Leone was felt only in the 16th century P. Curtin, S. Feierman, L. These missionaries were accompanied by Portuguese ships belonging to Portuguese explorers. Many traditional leaders, who invited the missionaries into their territories, did so primarily for political and economic reasons. For example, the Oba of Benin was more concerned about obtaining arms to fight his enemies than he was concerned about Christianity.

Adewale and Abu mentioned that in , some of the missionaries attempted a protest against the practice of child sacrifice in Benin, but were subsequently expelled from Benin Kingdom. This belief negatively influenced the attitudes of Southern Nigerians towards the acceptance of the Christian faith. Rather, they emphasised water baptism, which caused many people to be baptised without even fully understanding the Bible.

In addition, their failure to understand indigenous languages also limited their influence. Adewale and Abu said that some of the missionaries were frustrated and decided to abandon their mission work, mainly because indigenous rulers began to turn their backs on Christian missions.

During this phase, the missionaries were able to cover a wider part of Nigeria through their preaching. In addition, Christian converts in Nigeria were also being trained to become missionaries by foreign mission organisations. The abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament in contributed to the training and recruitment of African missionaries by foreign missionaries.

The Brazilian repatriates returned to Yorubaland in the mids to evangelise. In , the Brazilian returnees who came to Lagos numbered individuals, an estimate which grew to by The Brazilian returnees built a Catholic church in Lagos, which became famous in This thesis focuses on the Sierra Leonean group of repatriates. The fact that Samuel Johnson and his parents lived in Sierra Leone is another reason that gave the Sierra Leonean repatriates an edge over the Brazilian and Liberian repatriates in this research.

The Yoruba repatriates stationed in Sierra Leone were famous, as they were the largest and most socially organised group of repatriates in Sierra Leone, when compared to other repatriates from Congo or Senegal for example. Because of this, the Yoruba Cf. Steed, A history of the Church in Africa, , Fyfe, A short history of Sierra, Around the middle of the 19th century, many Yoruba began to return to Yorubaland from Sierra Leone and Liberia.

Sadiku said that it was during the middle of the 19th century that Christianity clearly found its way into Yorubaland through the influence of the Aku. At this time, there were already repatriates who settled in Badagry. Adewale and Abu said that the return of the sailing vessel was sponsored by the Church Missionary Society.

For example, Abeokuta had M. Sadiku, M. Sadiku, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, For example, Sodeke a Yoruba chief requested assistance from missionaries to aid his fight against King Ghezo of Dahomey M. In other instances, traditional rulers in Nigeria refused to accept the missionaries and their teachings. They built a hospital in Du, but traditional leaders of Du in Plateau State banned their subordinates from using hospital medicines or from going to the hospital to seek medical attention.

The traditional healers in Du thought that their jobs were being threatened by the teachings of missionaries who dissuaded local people from believing in the healing powers of African spirits B. He thought missionaries could help him secure arms to fight Dahomey. Now I see you, and my heart rejoices; and as you have come to visit us, I hope the English will never leave us.

Secondly, the Yoruba believed in the power of the Ifa god one of Yoruba deities , who they believed could bless or curse them. The Yoruba, especially during the early 19th century, consulted Ifa diviners whenever they were in need. For example, in the s, Sodeke consulted Ifa diviners on whether to allow missionaries into Abeokuta or not.

In , King Gezo of Dahomey arraigned between ten to fifteen thousand armies to fight Sedeke and to capture Abeokuta. Christian missionaries, together with the British government in Southern Nigeria, supported Sodeke by sending him some military aid. This assistance gave Sodeke victory over King Ghezo. The people of Abeokuta praised the Christian missionaries and attributed their victory to the God of the missionaries. The persecution of Christians in Abeokuta was lessened as a result of the victory won by Sodeke, which was secured through the support provided by missionaries.

This victory won by Sodeke encouraged other Yoruba kings to start inviting missionaries into their respective regions. Steed, A history of the Church in Africa, cf. Through the support provided by the missionaries, Akintoye was crowned as the Oba of Lagos and his arch rival Dosumu was dethroned. In addition, in the Niger Delta region, missionaries were invited to build schools, to teach and to develop skills among people so that the region could become economically buoyant.

Through their involvement in such activities, numerous missionary societies contributed immensely to the spread of Christianity to Yorubaland. The Wesleyan or Methodist missionaries were the first mission organisation to begin work in Nigeria in The Wesleyan missionaries established mission stations in Lagos, Ibadan and Abeokuta.

Bill in , today boasts several branches all over Nigeria. It was from Abeokuta that many parts of Yorubaland were evangelised. Abu, Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, cf. Omolewa gave reasons for the 19th century success of doing missions in Southern Nigeria: Repatriates who were originally citizens of Southern Nigeria and who returned to Nigeria were given opportunities to evangelise. The repatriates also served as interpreters and preachers.

Despite the growth of Christianity recorded during the second phase of the missionary movement in Nigeria, problems were encountered. Omolewa pointed at some of the challenges faced by the missionaries as follows: Many Southern Nigerians regarded the teachings of the missionaries as strange, while some missionaries still had no regard for African traditional religions. They believed that the missionaries were not obedient to Efik traditional laws, and that the missionaries were encouraging Christians to resist all forms of Efik traditional laws, which encouraged total submission to the king and to the gods K.

Ume, The rise of British colonialism in Southern Nigeria, This action led to the expulsion of some Christians from Abeokuta. For example, in a missionary was said to have sexually defiled an Ijaw girl. The missionaries were determined to limit the growth Islam in Southern Nigeria in pursuance of the growth of Christianity. Many Nigerians became Christians through the prioritisation of education among the local people. However, in the latter part of the 19th century, a number of Yoruba converts, who were educated in the four-wall classrooms, had conflicts of interest with the foreign base mission organisations and their staffers.

For example, after the death of the Bale King of Ibadan in , the Muslim community in Ibadan blamed white missionaries for the slow growth of Islam in Ibadan. They even threatened to fight and expel all white missionaries from Ibadan, including the Yorubas who also preached Christianity K. Some of the missionaries were not kind towards Islam, with some supporting the activities of the British government in Nigeria.

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Griffiths, intervened in the Yoruba internal wars around M. One of the reasons for this misunderstanding included the enforcement of the polygamy rule by some local pastors.

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Another reason was the economic depression of the s, which lessened foreign financial support for missionaries. These circumstances created a rift between the clergy and laity and, as a result, the African churches emerged. For example, the adoption of a non- native name at baptism in Yorubaland started in Sierra Leone and is still practiced among Churches in Nigeria today. The Yoruba Christians of the mid and late 19th century reacted against the influence of foreign missionaries on their land.

They therefore started their own churches that were willing to embrace Christianity, with the option of either accepting or not accepting certain aspects of Yoruba culture. A distinction could henceforth be made between the mission churches, started by foreign missionaries and the African churches, with the latter 0. Sadiku, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, ; B. Townsend was one of those who believed that liberal education should not be taught to pupils attending missionary schools, as he believed that liberal education would not equip the pupils in spreading Christianity properly.

He emphasised that pupils in missionary schools ought to be taught how to embrace their local cultures and to use it as a tool in spreading Christianity. Also, around the s, the economies of the United Kingdom, France and the USA suffered an economic recession, thus reducing their financial capabilities in term of sending missionaries to Africa B. The African churches are churches that encourage compliance to the biblical ordinances in combination with certain aspects of African traditional religions.

Fyfe, A short history of Sierra Leone, As Sadiku pointed out: Even today, the schools run by missions in Yorubaland are still greater in number than those run by all other agencies combined, including government schools. The missions have left a permanent stamp on the social scene far out of proportion to the number of their converts.

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Samuel Ajayi Crowther was a missionary trained by the mission churches and he contributed to the translation of the Bible into Yoruba in Bowen, Harvey Goodale and Robert F. Hill in 0. His extended family members celebrated his return to Yorubaland extravagantly, as they thought he had vanished forever due to being captured into slavery. His return was therefore a great relief for many. Crowther was greatly respected because of the education he received in England C. After his studies at Fourah Bay College, he went to England and studied further until he was ordained as a minister in England in Crowther was ordained as a bishop in at Canterbury Cathedral by Charles Longley, the archbishop of Canterbury.

This was because they thought Crowther was influenced by white people. Crowther died in The non-submission of Yoruba Christians to the authority of the Ifa diviners angered the Yoruba people who practiced the Yoruba traditional religions.

As a sign of their displeasure with the influence of Christianity in Yorubaland, followers of the Yoruba traditional religious whipped Christian women and put them in shackles. Townsend did not preach against the followers of traditional religions or against traditional religious practices during his twenty years of service to the CMS. Crowther also did not resist the Yoruba Ogboni cult. Rather, he allowed Alake Christians to continue with the practice of traditional rituals during his ten years of service as the secretary Cf.

In contrast, these practices were not allowed by the mission churches. Other features of the African churches are that they introduced the use of Yoruba drums during their worships; composed and sang Yoruba local hymns; emphasised the need for the churches to be able to meet the physical needs of one another; and allowed members of certain Yoruba cult groups to be part of their churches. For instance, members of the Ogboni cult were not condemned but admitted as normal church members. The most popular among all of the Yoruba African churches are the Aladura churches. The Aladura churches are popular mainly because their members believe that the Yoruba culture is non-contradictory to the Christian faith.

The Aladura church members believe that the mission churches were not in a position to address their spiritual, cultural, moral and material needs hence; they needed to start their own branched churches which would address their own concerns. They allowed pastors to worship Jesus Christ and still visit Babalawos traditional healers or be members of the Ogboni secret cult.

He was the first black bishop in Africa in modern times. Despites his achievements in translating the Bible to Yoruba, he failed at the end because he was treated badly by his white colleques. They are now divided into four groups namely: the Apostolic churches, the Cherubim and Seraphim churches, the Church of the Lord, and the Celestial Church. Another unique peculiarity that binds all these four churches together is the similarity of their beliefs, the emphasis on prayer, and observing the existence of the spiritual world. They have high regard for the God of Israel.

Infighting among the Yoruba stopped, as Christians regarded each other as a family. Inter-group marriages have also improved among the Yoruba, to the point that an Ijesha man can now marry an Ijebu woman, provided both of them are Christians. This marriage practice was not allowed before the emergence of Christianity in Yorubaland. For example, cocoa, which was non-indigenous plant, was brought to Yorubaland in Since then, cocoa has become one of the main boosters of the Nigerian economy.

It stood as the top export until the discovery of crude oil in the s. This was mainly due to due to the establishment of local institutions by foreign missionaries, coupled with the opportunities presented by missionary organisations for individuals to study abroad. The Yoruba themselves began to evangelise other Nigerians and eventually, the world at large. Due to Christian missionary influence, the English language is now accepted in Yorubaland, local people wear suits especially for preaching engagements, and monogamy is seemingly imposed as a norm.

Sadiku, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, , , It was from Borno that Islam began to spread west to other parts of the Hausaland in Northern Nigeria. Islam became grounded in the Hausa states of Nigeria from the 14th century, because of the trading activities of the Wangarawa traders, who also came from Mali. The few Hausas who claimed to have accepted Islam as their primary faith continued to practice their traditional religions alongside Islam.

The Hausas P. Sookhdeo, A Christian pocket guide to Islam, Skolfield, The false prophet, M Heaton, A history of Nigeria, Kanem use to be in western Chad but after , it became a part of Borno in North-Eastern Nigeria cf. Lange, , Ancient kingdoms of West Africa: Africa- centred and Canaanite-Israelite perspectives, a collection of published and unpublished studies in English and French.

Dettelbach: J. Roll, , , Heaton, A history of Nigeria, They thought that accepting Islam would unite them and that Islam would end their internal dissent. Uthman dan Fodio, the founder of Islamic jihad in West Africa, was not happy with the Muslims who practiced Islam together with their traditional religions. Thus, dan Fodio decided that Islam needed reformation and purification, as it was not practiced properly. He belonged to the Qadiriyya, the most prominent Sufi brotherhood tariqa in West Africa around the 18th century.

Uthman dan Fodio travelled to Zamfara and Gobir in to preach. He taught Muslims to observe the Sharia law in strict terms. After the meeting, Fodio continued to preach in Degelin Degel. Nafata, the new ruler of Degel, was concerned about the respect people had for Fodio, so between and , Nafata introduced measures to limit the influence of Fodio in Degel.

Nafata prohibited the people of Degel from wearing Muslim dress, turbans and veils. On 21 February , Fodio left Degel for Gudu; a migration event which became significant to local Muslims. The exact channels or dates of entry for Islam into Yorubaland remain unknown. Opeloye further notes that Islam was present Cf. Unbelievers and infidels referred to those who refused to accept Islam, and it also refers to Muslims who practice Islam alongside their traditional religions.

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The five pillars of Islam are: daily prayer, Zakat, the Ramadan, beliefs in Mohammed as the only Messenger of Allah and the beliefs in Angels and in Resurrection. Omolewa, Certificate history of Nigeria, ; CF. Gbadamosi stated: The date of entry of Islam to Yorubaland cannot be fixed with precision. It was unannounced and unplanned; and, for the most part, the first Yoruba Muslims had to worship privately and secretly. What is fairly certain is that in the 17th century, mention was made of Muslims in Yorubaland.

In other words, the Hausas played a significant role in the spread of Islam in Yorubaland before the birth of Samuel Johnson. Opeloye, Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies, 2. Achunike, Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, Omolewa, Certificate history of Nigeria, , Gbadamosi said that the contact between the Hausa region and the Yoruba people happened by the 18th century. It was through the activities of soldiers, Hausa slaves, and Arab traders, who had contact with both Hausaland and Yorubaland, propagated the spread of Islam.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the Yoruba people themselves were known to have been involved in Islamic evangelisation to other parts of West Africa, such as Porto Novo and Dahomey. This suggests that around the period , Islam was present in Yorubaland. Sadiq, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, Islam was first mentioned officially in Lagos in the court of Adele I in , , which further indicates that there were Muslims in Lagos before the s T.

Gbadamosi did not specify the date or period Afaa Yigi preached in Oyo. In order to foster Islamic reform, some of the non-Yoruba Muslims began to challenge erring traditional Yoruba authorities, which affected the flow of Islam in Yorubaland before In Oyo for example, about five holy men, two or three of whom were Arab Emirs, preached the Quran publicly, asking Yoruba children to learn to read the Quran. The Yoruba who were pagans were angered by his preaching. They complained to the Alaafin about the negative influence of Islam on Yoruba traditional religion around and The growth of Islam among the Yoruba, 6.

Both Johnson and Gbadamosi did not say or explain the date Ajiboyede reigned T. He refused to pay tribute to Oyo and fought for the independence of his territory, Ilorin, in the beginning of the 19th century. Afonja requested military assistance from Oyo and Ilorin Muslims, from Alimi and even from Sokoto military jihadists. Afonja was slain, and unfortunately Alimi, and his two sons from Sokoto, never had an immediate opportunity to rule over Ilorin after his death.

They could not rule Ilorin immediately because local Yoruba Muslims, led by Solagheru, continued to pursue the wishes of Afonja to resist the influence of Sokoto rule over the Yoruba in Yorubaland. The battle between the two groups continued until Solagheru was killed by Sokoto military forces. Following these events, Ilorin was ruled by non-Yoruba Muslims between and But it was signally checked in when Ibadan defeated Ilorin at the battle of Osogbo.

Since Ilorin Islamic forces could not capture Ibadan, they focused their attention eastward to Ekiti and Ijesa, but Ibadan stopped the political expansion of Illorin once again. As a result of the various internal religious conflicts between Yoruba Muslims and non-Yoruba Muslims, and between Yoruba Muslims, non-Yoruba Muslims and traditional Yoruba authorities, Hausa slaves were encouraged by the domineering war leaders of the time to flee to Ilorin from all of other parts of Yorubaland.

The Hausa slaves were also taught to rebel against their authorities. For example, the traditional authorities in Oyo did not treat Muslims kindly, as growing numbers of Muslims were becoming refugees. Although blood was not spilled as a result of these internal conflicts, relationships were tied against Muslims and Yoruba traditional authorities.

These conflicts did, however, reduce the spread of Islam in Yorubaland, which subsequently required a revival of faith within the Yoruba region during the early s. Various internal conflicts among different Yoruba communities resulted in many people becoming refugees, who needed to be resettled in peaceful areas mostly around the Yoruba regions.

Refugees were integrated in camps and shelters in Ife, Osogbo, Iwo, Ogbomosho, Ede, and Oyo, while new towns like Abeokuta and Ibadan were formed as a result of their resettlement. In Ilaro for example, the Adeyemi family, who was a part of the royal family in Oyo, fled to Ilaro where they preached and revived Islam in. In other instances, Muslim immigrants were completely integrated into the existing T.

It is important to note that the compilation of a history of Islam in Yorubaland, covering the period in which Johnson lived, is understudied. However, they have not addressed the status of Islam in Yorubaland during the time of Johnson, as Gbadamosi did. In Iwu, two mosques were built in and a Quranic school was established as well.

The school was led by Afa Fulani. Similar instances of attempted mosque demolition occurred in Ibadan and Oyo. This onslaught forced many Muslims to conduct prayer sessions in secrecy, especially in Ibadan in Oyo. Around the midth century, Muslims built a mosque in Oja-Oba, but Basorun Oluyole an army commander from Oyo , ordered that the mosque be destroyed.

Fortunately, Muslims obtained the favour and support of prominent members of the Yoruba community after In , when Opeagbe became the Bale of Ibadan, the Oja-Oba mosque was rebuilt under his leadership. Other Muslims were invited to worship there openly and Abdulahi Gunugun of Ayeye became the Imam of that congregation. Also, when Kosoko was exiled by the British colonial masters from Lagos in , he and his supporters, most of who were Muslims and soldiers like Balogun Ajeniya, Osodi Tapa and Posu , took refuge in Epe and transformed it into a Muslim community.

As a result, Aku Muslims decided to sponsor their own return to Yorubaland. They settled at Olowogbowo and in Isale Eko areas, and built their first mosque in Olowogbowo in In August , when Kosoko took over power in Lagos, he encouraged Muslims to worship openly. The survival of Islam in Lagos from the s to was due to the preaching efforts of certain great personalities, who were immigrants in Lagos.

The Aku Muslims incorporated Islam together with western education, in much the same way Christians did. As Gbadamosi explains: Yoruba Muslims were initially averse to Western education because of its Christian monopoly and tinge, but the Muslims from overseas were conspicuous among those who, in later years, Fyfe said that the government in Sierra Leone was suspicious of Aku Muslims.

A lawyer by the name of W. Savage fought for the rights of the Aku Muslims to live in Fourah Bay and to return to their countries of origin whenever they wished to do so. Fyfe noted that many Christians did not like Aku Muslims, and that in , a riot broke out between Aku Muslims and Christians. The riot led to the demolishment of the Fourah Bay mosque C. During the Oyo diaspora, residents fled from Oyo forming settlements in other parts of the Yorubaland.

Some of the Modakeke were Muslims and they lived peacefully with the Ife people who hosted them. After the Kiriji War of , in which Ibadan gave support to Ife and to Modakeke, Islam was restricted to the extent that open air preaching was banned and most able-bodied men from Ibadan were sent to war by their superiors. In the s, Ife changed sides and T. Most Yoruba towns like Ilorin was under the control of Oyo until the early 19th century when the Yoruba Wars started The Oyo diaspora led many Oyo indigenes to leave Oyo and seek refuge in other Yoruba towns because of the many attacks against Oyo cf.

D dissertation; Erasmus University Rotterdam, , After the s, Modakeke was a separate kingdom, particularly at the time of Oni Adegunle Abeweila. The treaty encouraged the separation of Ife from Modakeke as Johnson wrote According to the Treaty of , Modakeke was to be removed from Ife soil, and rebuilt in a place between the Rivers Osun and Oba, and the Ibadans were to see that this was carried out. That portion of the Treaty was galling to the Ibadans, the Modakekes simply would not hear of it, but the Ifes were jubilant, and were determined to see it carried out However, some Muslims were not contented with the treaty, so they began leaving Modakeke for other towns like Odeomu, Ipetumodi, Ikire, Gbongan Ago-Owu and some other section of Ife after For example, in , there were approximately people in Lagos, of which an estimated of them were Muslims.

By , the Muslim population in Lagos colony grew up to 10, individuals. By , the Muslim population had grown to 21, The building of mosques and the supply of material-support among Muslims contributed to the growth of Islam in the Lagos colony. Iseyin mosque in various Yoruba communities and the emergence of influential leaders, such as Muhammad Latosisa and the Are-Ona Kakanfo who became Muslims, consolidated the development and growth of Islam in Ibadan in Latosisa became a great military man and bolstered the military strength of Ibadan during his wars with Ijebu, Egba and Ekiti during the Ekiti Parapo war.

Latosisa loved Christians, but he held great faith in Islam and prayed as a Muslim. Oni Adegunle Abeweila started to reigned in These Muslim societies helped Muslims to unite and to assist those in need. They also promoted the celebration of Muslim festivals in extravagant fashion and greatly enhanced the administrative functions of mosques.

Within this period, some Muslims were against Islamic orthodoxy while others were open to the idea of adapting to Yoruba culture together with modern knowledge. Koranic schools were formed and some Muslims trained abroad to face Christian controversialists. Open air debates between Muslims and people of other faiths were encouraged, which boosted the popular growth of Islam. Muslims travelled within Yoruba regions to preach and as a result, many Yoruba leaders were converted to Islam. During the 19th century, the pilgrim route to Mecca was overland, but later that century; the sea route became the main passageway.

In addition, insecurity within the war-ton Yoruba territories forced people to travel in groups. Long journeys, influenced by wars and many other uncertainties, caused numerous pilgrims destined for Mecca to never return to Yorubaland. The persecution of Muslims was now lessened, as Islam was recognised by Yoruba people as one of the religions in Yorubaland. Sadiq, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, ; T. Gbadamosi described the period to as a period of rapid growth of Islam in Yorubaland.

While at work, they preached and promoted Islam among many influential Yoruba families. Many Ijebu families consulted Ifa diviners who told them that their pregnant women would give birth to children who were destined to be Muslims; hence the parents trained their children according to the tenets of Islam. Parents of the said predestined children handed their so-called predestined children over to Muslim Mallams teachers , so that their children would be nurtured in the knowledge of Islam.

One such child grew up to be an influential person; Iperu Asana, the mother of a chief Imam. A similar figure of great influence in Odowa was Kasumu Ojeneiye. Upon their return home, they continued to preach Islam in every nook and cranny of the Yoruba communities in which they found themselves. The third agency of Islamic evangelisation in Ijebuland was personified by those Muslims who were converted to Islam because the faith was preached to them in Ijebu. In T. In spite of opposition, wealthy Muslims insured the survival of Islam by using their wealth and political influence to ensure the sustained impact of the religion in Ijebu, Iperu and other parts of Yorubaland.

This view pleased many Yoruba people, who decided to accept Islam as a noble faith. Opeloye went even further to suggest that the contemporary devaluation of Yoruba culture among Yoruba people should be blamed on Christianity and not on Islam. Opeloye believed that Islam and Yoruba culture correlated, except for a few Yoruba cultures which contradicted the Islamic faith: The White people who brought Christianity to Yorubaland introduced more of the Western cultural values to the people than Christian values.

They contemptuously looked down upon the indigenous cultural values which they regarded as incompatible with the Christian values. He thought that reviving Muslim values will at the same time enhance the practice of Yoruba culture, especially the specific Yoruba cultures which did not contradict the Islamic faith. Opeloye, Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies, 3.

Sadiq, Understanding Yoruba life and culture, cf. Despite the challenges, Islam grew exceptionally in Yorubaland during the time of Samuel Johnson Even though he is now regarded as one of the greatest Yoruba intellectuals, his contribution to humanity is clearly not receiving deserved recognition; hence the need for embarking on this research.

A negative result of this situation is that there has been much speculation about him and his intentions. Even in his book, The History of the Yorubas, Johnson never gave his autobiography. The section in the introductory chapter of his book, which contains his journals and diaries, is closely relied upon in obtaining information about his lifestyle and private life, as they were written by Johnson himself.

The journals and diaries are part of the appendices which are further divided into Appendix A and Appendix B in The History of the Yorubas refer to Appendix C of this thesis for an extract. More so, the first section of Appendix A is a treaty signed to end the Abeokuta war on 18 January The treaty was signed between the governor and commander in chief of Lagos colony, G. However, more needed to be researched regarding Johnson and this is so because none of these authors have been able to say everything about Johnson.

Johnson, The history of the Yorubas: From the earliest times to the beginning of the British protectorate, O. Johnson ed. Other treaties in Appendix A are the agreements which banned the practice of human sacrifice, some of which were signed at Ijesa and Ekiti on 29 September and at Ile Ife on 10 August On details concerning his visit, Johnson described Ikoyi from his own perspective during his first catechetical visit to the Ikoyi quarter of Ibadan: Ikoyi is a royal city, captured by the Filatahs some seventy or eighty years ago. But yet to keep their nationality distinct they resigned a King at Ibadan who is honoured in the quarter.

His jurisdiction of course extends not farther than five compounds. This King died some years ago. One popular author that wrote about Johnson is Michel Doortmont. Johnson was personally involved in peace negotiation during some of the Yoruba Wars of the 19th century, and he might have obtained copies of some of the treaties as a result of his involvement in negotiating for peace. This paper is a preliminary study for the forthcoming Ph.

Doortmont, Samuel Johnson , The purpose of the institution was to train missionaries to evangelise properly C. It is therefore no surprise that his motivation behind writing the The History of the Yorubas had nothing to do to with increasing his popularity in print, but rather to present a formidable record of Yoruba history succinctly. Most recaptives were not taken back to their respective countries of origin, but to Freetown in Sierra Leone. When M. Johnson, The history of the Yoruba , x.

The British founded a colony for freed slaves in this mountainous peninsula around , which it then used as a basis from which to extend their control over regions encompassing the peninsula. In , the British gave the name Sierra Leone to the entire country, which remains in use to this day C. For example, recaptives from Wolof and Bambara in Senegal formed Leicester village, and a group from the Congo went to Temne village in the hills west of Freetown. However, for their own convenience, the Congo recaptives decided to move to the waterside and built their own Congo Town by the shore.

One group who spoke Portuguese established their own Portuguese Town on the outskirt of Freetown. Fyfe said that by , over six thousand recaptives were brought into Sierra Leone. Not all of them sent to villages. Some recaptives where enlisted to be part of the British army, while others served as workers or servants to wealthy settlers and Europeans in Sierra Leone. A group of recaptives that are particularly important for this research were the Aku. The Yoruba Wars had engulfed Yorubaland from the s to the middle of the 19th century. During these wars, thousands of Yoruba were enslaved and shipped for sale across the Atlantic.

However, a number of them were rescued by British naval ships, with some brought to Sierra Leone. The Yoruba recaptives formed their own group in Sierra Leone and were described as Aku. The Aku represented the largest group of recaptives in Sierra Leone. During this time, Christian organisations like the Church C.

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Fyfe, A short history of Sierra Leone, , Henry Johnson and Sarah Johnson were both Aku. The missionaries in Sierra Leone gave some recaptives new names, but most chose their own. The missionaries, together with the Sierra Leonean government under British rule, also built schools in the villages. The first pupil to be trained was Samuel Ajayi Crowther, an Aku missionary who helped tremendously in the spread of Christianity in Yorubaland. One of the reasons why some recaptives returned home or to their countries of origin was the desire to evangelise the Christian faith.

Also, some recaptives became rich and decided to return to their countries of origin to help their fellow countrymen. For example, in , three rich Aku combined their money and bought a ship, which they used to sail to Nigeria with other passengers. Two Hausa from Northern Nigeria recaptives, who returned from Brazil to Freetown, also decided to return to Hausa land where thy originally belonged.

For example, Christian missionaries, many of whom were evangelising in Freetown thought that Christianity, contributed to the abolishment of the slave trade. This was achieved, in part, by establishing missionary stations in some African territories, including certain parts of Yorubaland, from which they would preach not only the C.

After his ordination as a deacon on 19 December , and after his consecration into the priesthood, he was posted by the committee of the CMS in London to serve as a preacher to the Hausa speaking peoples of the West African Interior who had become Muslim. He first came to Badagry on 25 March , carrying with him an extract of the New Testament translated into Hausa.

The intention was for Hinderer to learn Hausa fluently in Badagry before relocating to Hausaland. However, many of the Hausas he met in Badagry were slaves whose masters refused to allocate them with enough free time to interact with Hinderer. However, Egba was not peaceful during the time that Hinderer moved to Abeokuta, due to the influence of King Ghezo of Dahomey. King Ghezo was adamant to capture Abeokuta, a major part of Egba, by force.

From the 15th century until the early 20th century, Europeans extended their territorial control throughout the world, including Africa and extended regions on the American continent. However, the majority of the Europeans did not travel outside of Europe and the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, except some of their traders, adventurers, and government agents.

Europeans were involved in commercial farming since the 15th century. Since the mechanisation of the agricultural sector only commenced in the 19th century, labourers were still employed to tend farms manually. Much of the American territories settled by Europeans were sparsely populated. However, in the more populous parts of the Americas, European invaders killed many native inhabitants or infected them with a variety of diseases such as bubonic plague, chicken pox, pneumonic plague, cholera, diphtheria, influenza, measles, scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, tuberculosis, and whooping cough , which resulted to the death of thousands.

Because of this, the settlers did not have enough indigenous American slaves to manage their plantations. Hence, the Europeans turned their focus on West Africa. For the European farmers, it was safer to import slaves from West Africa, as West African slaves were healthy, strong, and could not run away to their homelands, due to the long distance between America, Europe and West Africa. In addition, the expansion of manufacturing industries in Europe during the 19th century, also called for the import of West African slaves.

Many African chiefs and kings were also involved in selling their people to the Europeans in exchange for weapons, cotton cloth, brass pans, glass beads and other commodities C. As a result, Hinderer was advised by Townsend to work within the Yoruba community. Hinderer left Ibadan for England, but returned to Ibadan for missions in On his return to Ibadan, he came with his newly married wife Anna, whom he had married in England on 14 October In , Hinderer left Ibadan for England, but planned future travels to Sierra Leone, with the aim of recruiting capable hands that could cope with the demands of missionary work in Yorubaland.

Hinderer arrived in Hastings in November , where he recruited Henry Johnson together with William Allen a younger Aku and a schoolmaster. They all came to serve in Ibadan in January after receiving some missionary training. Henry was recruited as an assistant to Hinderer and was particularly involved in Scriptures reading until his death in As a result, his relationship with both Anna and David Hinderer solidified. Hinderer can K.

Olabimtan,[a], Dictionary of African Christian Biography, In , Rev. David Hinderer struggled to establish a fruitful or rewarding mission station in Ibadan, so he requested that Henry Johnson should serve as a teacher at the mission station T. He diligently served under a CMS missionary, J. Thomas the first black minister in Hastings. David Hinderer, the pioneer missionary of C. This philosophy emerged in response to an early 18th century and late 19th century German theory on language and nationality, mainly propagated by Johann Gottfried and Friedrich Schleiermacher.

The Egba people were less receptive of him, probably due to his involvement in peace negotiation. It is possible that they wrongly perceived him as supporting one Yoruba region instead of the other. Hinderer soughed for peace and encouraged the Yoruba people to live in harmony. Olabimtan cited an example of a conversation between Hinderer and one of his friends, Dr. Edward Irving. A discourse on Yoruba Wars dominates the contents of this book K. Johnson, The history of the Yorubas, v. He was posted to Abeokuta until , when he travelled to Ibadan to relieve the Hinderers who went to England for medical reasons.

She died of fever shortly thereafter on 4 January He remarried Miss Annie Norris in , who came to live with him. Two years later, he introduced the histories of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, the Jews, and Alexander the Great to his general history class. In the arts, he introduced singing, calligraphy and orthography. Olabimtan [c], Dictionary of African Christian Biography, At this stage, Samuel Johnson remained in Ibadan longer than expected, as the on-going conflict made it near impossible for him return to his parents.

The Ijaye War was so turbulent at that time, that David and Anna Hinderer kept Samuel in Ibadan, as they were concerned about the safety of Henry Johnson and his family. In , Johnson graduated from the Abeokuta Training Institution and became a qualified school teacher. The CMS began work T. Falola, Yoruba gurus, 34, Johnson lived with the Hinderers before resuming studies in Abeokuta in January After Johnson completed his studies at the Abeokuta Training Institution in , he return to Ibadan and was recruited as a schoolmaster.

Muller in After his conversion, he was baptised by Muller at the Ake Church. The twenty years Olubi spent with Hinderer broadened his understanding of Christian ministry and prepared him for the ministry ahead. When Hinderer started his work in Ibadan in and married Anna, Olubi moved with them to the Ibadan mission station. Doing missions required a schoolmaster and seeing as Hinderer needed one when he travelled to Ibadan, Olubi took the position in December In addition to his work as schoolmaster, he continued to assist the Hinderers as a house servant. However, Hardesty was soon relieved by Olubi.

After their marriage, they continued to work in Ibadan. Olubi was ordained into fulltime priesthood on 6 February by the Bishop of Sierra Leone. Together, they visited Yoruba chiefs, preached and did other catechetical work in churches. Olabimtan b, Dictionary of African Christian Biography, In when Daniel Olubi became a deacon, he appointed Johnson as one of his assistants. Johnson continued to serve Olubi who had become his mentor until , when he himself became the catechist of Aremo Church.

Through his service with Olubi, Johnson met with many chiefs and Yoruba kings on the recommendations of Olubi. Johnson preached in places, performed catechisms and associated peacefully with the young, the old, Christians and non-Christians alike wining many into the service of Christ. In the s, Johnson became interested in obtaining knowledge regarding local Yoruba politics. His interest led him to meet great Yoruba chiefs like Are Latosa great leader of Ibadan in the s and s. By the s, Johnson became one of the most influential Christian leaders, mainly due to his involvement in the search for peace during the many Yoruba Wars that engulfed the Yoruba during his lifetime.

Concerning Johnson, Falola said: M. Johnson also blamed the Fulanis, who came from Northern Nigeria, for the wars and for their capturing of Ilorin, which became dominated by Islam due to their influence. For example, in October , Olubi, assisted by Johnson and other Christian leaders, were involved in a discussion which proposed the possible intervention of the British government over certain wars in Yorubaland.

Johnson then led a delegation to Lagos to air the views of the Alaafin of Oyo over the wars. Since , Johnson served as a negotiator between the British and Yoruba local chiefs, all in an effort to stop the wars M.

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As Samuel made it clear in his book, he became himself a principal figure in the major peace efforts by serving as the liaison between the British and the chiefs of Ibadan and Oyo. This diplomatic career, combined with his missionary work, made him popular figure in many circles.

Johnson married Lydia Okuseinde, the daughter of James Okuseinde, a catechist in Oke Ogunpa in , but lost her in His knowledge of the country and the manners and customs of the various tribes was unrivalled. He had collected a large amount of information relating to the history of the Yoruba country of which the manuscript exists.

He was… distinguished for his devotion to duty, well-known for his liberality and open-heartedness, and for urbanity, self-abnegation and patriotism. For example, in May , after his transfer to Oyo mission, Balogun Nofowokan his elderly friend notified him of the hate the Ijebus harboured towards him and about the threat to kill him. The Ijebus accused Johnson of not being on the side of peace but T.

Falola, Yoruba gurus, 35; originally from J. Olorunyomi, Isin Ofosi no Igbede Ilorin, self-published, They also accused Johnson of supplying him with ammunition and weapons of war in order for him to destroy Ibadan. More so, his commitment to writing his book suggests that he was patient and willing to empower the younger generation in their understanding Yoruba history. One of the main reasons for this contestation, primarily voiced by historians, is that the book combines a number of fields of study regarding the Yoruba people, their culture and the socio-religious and political context of Yorubaland during the 19th century.

More so, the book has information on Yoruba culture, Yoruba origins, and the history of the Yoruba Wars as well as the role of the British government in putting a stop to the wars. Fields as wide apart as literature and history, as well as the cognate disciplines of anthropology and sociology have K. It was the historians, however, who have had a field day exploring the influences that shaped him and are either affirming or contesting his submissions on Yoruba history.

Since its first appearance in , the volume has always been sought after by scholars who are genuinely interested in getting an authentic account of the phenomenon of the Yoruba race. Local Yoruba people respect him and his ideas as presented in his book. Essex: Longman, Johnson, The history of the Yorubas, vii.

They regard what he said as true, despite the many ideological and chronological limitations in his suggestions, especially with regard to the Yoruba origins. Even in cases where academic scholars have been able to use other sources to question Johnson or correct such thing as his dates and chronology, their revisions and reasoned suggestions are generally ignored by the local audience.

It is an article of faith for many of its readers that Johnson is always right. Firstly, he was concerned that the Yoruba elders, who preserved Yoruba oral history, were dying without their knowledge being transcribed, and that their history might be lost as a result. Educated natives of Yoruba are well acquainted with the history of England and with that of Rome and Greece, but of the history of their own country they know nothing whatever!

It is in this regard that T.