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Tex, however, retrieves it and contacts Command, angering Carolina. With the mission, a success, Tex is appointed as No. Tex is later sent to Armada 8 on a mission to play a game of Capture the Flag with a group of simulation troopers , in order to test prototype technology. As the two battle, Tex tries to strike Carolina with the Blue team flag but she deflects her attack and causes the flag to impale Biff , a trooper of the Red team.

Tex pulls the flag out of Biff's stomach and wins the match for Red team. As the other Blues and Reds watch Biff as he bleeds to death, the Director retrieves the two Freelancers and keeps a description of the Desert Gulch simulation for later use. In the ensuing battle, Tex fatally wounds C. The Insurrectionist Leader, heartbroken, escapes with the dying C. After the mission, Tex is seen in the training room of the Mother of Invention , where the Director and Counselor discuss her "increase in aggression levels".

Tex tells them that she is tired of training and wishes for something more challenging. Carolina soon interrupts them and demands to talk to the Director. She makes a remark about Tex being the Director's pet, which angers the latter.

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The Director orders the two to stand down and tells Carolina that she can have either Eta or Iota , the next A. Carolina demands them both, despite the fact that the surgery will delay the implantations of Washington and South Dakota.

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After the Director agrees to her decision, Tex compliments Carolina on her "gutsy move" and wishes her surgery to go well. Tex later witnesses South punch her locker door, causing the name tag to fall and break in half. Tex approaches her and demands that she pick up the name tag. The two briefly stare each other down until South picks up half of the name tag and shoves it against Tex's chest, leaving the locker room in anger. York then approaches her and asks what she is doing in the locker room, in which Tex replies that she is looking for Carolina.

As Tex opens her locker, she finds a dog tag inside. York then asks Tex if she is going to the recovery room with him and Wash, in which Tex replies that she'll catch up. As the two leave, Tex takes the dog tag and stashes it with her. While Tex prepares her A. As the match begins, both Carolina and Tex charge at each other but the Director notices her involvement in the match and yells out her name, causing the A.

Witnessing Carolina in pain, Tex offers her hand, but Carolina rejects it. Feeling concerned, Tex yells up at the observatory in order to get Carolina some assistance. When no one arrives, Tex approaches Carolina herself, with Omega whispering in her ear to kill her. She resists Omega and punches Carolina, knocking her unconscious. Several days later, Tex checks up on Carolina at the medical observatory.

There, she tells North , who is also present, that South has filed a petition to receive one of Carolina's A. Tex warns North to keep an eye on South in the future and then confides to him that she refuses to use her A. Omega, because she believes him to be too dangerous. She also tells him that she has not informed the Director about it and does not intend to do so.

North believes that Carolina's accident would bring a halt to the A. Tex then leaves, informing North to let her know when Carolina wakes up. In it, Tex discovers a recorded video of C. Tex proceeds to further analyze the data, which contains info on all the A. Seeing that she cannot access the information regarding the A. Beta which requires a password , Tex types the word " Allison " as the password and successfully gains access to its files. In her research, Tex discovers that she is the Beta A.

According to the Director, Tex was a byproduct of the Alpha's creation. Following this revelation, Tex becomes enraged and goes rogue, where it is rumored that during this time, she attacked Wyoming in an attempt to steal his A. However, this is said to be false by North in a conversation with Wash and South. Despite her many attempts at avoiding the oncoming missiles, Tex becomes overwhelmed. Fortunately, North rescues her by firing his sniper rifles at the individual missiles and allows her to continue her objective while he has a "chat" with South.

As the two siblings battle, Tex flees but is suddenly cornered by a tank. She radios York for assistance, in which the latter deactivates the ship's artificial gravity, allowing Tex to successfully bypass the tank and proceed with her mission. As Tex gets closer to the ship's bridge, she encounters Carolina. The two fight in a prolonged battle, which causes the Mother of Invention to crash land on a nearby frozen planet.

During this time, Tex takes the opportunity to access the ship's systems in order to find Alpha. Upon finding him, Tex tries to convince him to leave with her, but Alpha doesn't recognize her and is reluctant to leave the ship, stating that he is very tired and just wants to rest. Disappointed that Alpha doesn't remember her, Tex has a short chat with him before logging out of the system. She suddenly notices Maine approaching a wounded Carolina from outside the ship and sprints to Carolina's aid. Unfortunately, Tex is too late, as Maine forcibly steals Carolina's two A.

Shocked by Carolina's sudden "death", and heavily outnumbered and outgunned, Tex flees the situation, where Sigma proceeds to state that the "Meta" will find her very soon. When she appears at Blue Base, she terrifies Tucker and Caboose , while using the latter as a target. During her assault on Red Base , she sticks a plasma grenade to Donut , knocks out Grif while Simmons faints , and successfully returns the Blue team flag , but is captured by Sarge and Lopez , the former uses the butt of his shotgun to knock her out, thus damaging her voice filter.

The Reds are surprised to find out they were almost defeated by a girl. Church, Tucker, and Caboose are then forced to break her out, at which point Church reveals that Tex is his former girlfriend. In exchange for breaking her out, she agrees to aid them for the duration of their time in Blood Gulch. O'Malley , but she completes the repairs and begins her attack. It isn't long, however, before she is killed by the Red Team rookie, Donut, who throws a plasma grenade a quarter way across the canyon in revenge for her previously injuring him. Before Tex "dies", she tells Church the A.

Tex is ambushed by O'Malley. In the mini-series that was focused on Tex, Red vs. Blue: Out of Mind , it is revealed that any bad A. However, Tex's A. Unlike Church, she does not reappear immediately after her death. Season Two begins three months after her death, and she does not appear until halfway through. When she does, she reveals that O'Malley has jumped into Caboose, and she is now driven by an urge to destroy him. To do this, she reasons that forcing him out of Caboose's Mind while everyone in the canyon has their radios off will eliminate him.

She enlists Church's aid in driving O'Malley from Caboose's head and sends Tucker to turn off the radios of the Reds, but their plan fails after everyone forgets about a medic named Doc , who was previously abandoned by both teams and knew nothing of the events taking place. Doc then becomes the unwilling host of O'Malley. After forcing the AI out of Caboose's head, Tex disappears until the end of the season, when she possesses the body of a robot built by Sarge as the condition of a surrender. Throughout Season 3, she again devotes herself to eliminating O'Malley, while at the same time protecting Tucker from Wyoming , whom O'Malley has hired.

Even when propelled into the future, she is driven to destroy the A. As a result, Tex pursues him in a fury. This is followed up in Out of Mind , where Tex hunts down Wyoming, hopefully, to also find O'Malley in the process and destroy him. Tex then corners Wyoming, with help from York's A. Tex then returns in Episode Sneaking up behind the Blue Team and launching an attack on them as she isn't sure who exactly O'Malley infected.

The Blues manage to convince her that they are aware of the situation, but Tex ends up becoming enraged once more when she realizes that the Blues have a new female recruit. Tex, after some time, then agrees to find Omega with the help of the Blues. After taking a non-lethal shot from Tucker using Church's sniper rifle and mistakenly beating up Church in the process , the three capture the empty base.

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Tex is then radioed by Caboose with information regarding O'Malley's current whereabouts. According to Caboose, the A. He explains that he was never officially promoted to the position after Captain Butch Flowers ' death. Suddenly, Wyoming, with the help of Gamma, ambushes the Blues and knocks out Tex, after the latter tried to take him out with stealth. Tucker manages to use his sword to prevent himself from being affected by Wyoming's time loops and ends up killing the bounty hunter. However, after Church and Tucker make their escape, they find numerous Wyoming clones.

They proceed to eliminate each one but become overwhelmed. Just then, the Reds come to the rescue and kill the rest of the Wyomings. Tex, Church, and Tucker then confront the last Wyoming clone, who explains Omega's plan. After killing Wyoming, Tex then activates her radio in order for Omega to infect her, revealing that she is associated with the plan.

In order to stop her, Church tells everyone to turn on their radios, but Tex knocks him down and flees. She then proceeds to pummel the soldiers who are infected by Omega, starting with the Reds. Afterward, Omega enters Caboose, leading Tex and Church to do the same. While inside Caboose's mind, Tex makes a deal with Omega to not hurt the other Reds and Blues, but Church interrupts them and knocks them out of Caboose. As the Pelican takes off, Andy, who was recently placed inside the ship by the Reds, explodes inside.

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Tex, unfortunately, still manages to escape the canyon with Omega, Gamma, Junior, and the Green Alien. Between the Meta's drastic increase in power and skill since they last fought and Tex presumably being injured from the crash. She, along with Omega and Gamma were captured.

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When Delta was about to be captured, she along with the rest greeted him. Tex is shown to be cold and distant towards others, displaying trust issues with other people. She is fiercely independent, preferring to rely on her own skills rather than depend on someone else to help her. Even when Tex is forced to work together with someone, she often goes off and takes care of everything by herself. If not that, then she usually assumes the role as the leader.

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Tex can also be somewhat arrogant and overconfident of her abilities. Due to her immense skill as a soldier, she often tends to underestimate her opponents, believing that she is completely capable of taking on anyone alone. While this has proven to be very little of a problem at all, more often than not, her overconfidence can cause her to be in jeopardy of failing her missions. Tex is a "shoot-first-ask-questions-later" type of woman. She is very stubborn and headstrong which can lead her to be quite difficult to rationalize. Tex would rather do things the hard way as opposed to going easy on someone, as her ruthlessness is one of her most defining traits.

Tex often acts this way towards many people, whether they're her friends or enemies. She seldom shows any compassion or mercy to anyone she encounters and mostly acts off her tough exterior, which can lead her to come off as very intimidating. Due to Tex's warrior demeanor, she is naturally shown to be very hostile and aggressive. She can be extremely temperamental and can be easily set off by even the smallest things, to the point of assaulting people, which is usually a surefire way to calm her down. Tex holds no tolerance to people who have an attitude towards her, using her intimidating personality to put anyone in their place, such as in New and Improved , when Tex ordered South Dakota to pick up the nametag to her locker after South broke it.

She is also known for her unyielding determination and persistence against any impossible odds, even if failure is inevitable. When comes to completing a mission, Tex does everything in her power to make sure that it goes successfully, using her resourcefulness and inability to surrender to come out victorious. Tex is also known for being no-nonsense and serious in almost every situation. She often takes things very seriously and doesn't really find anything funny, so she rarely breaks out into humor. Whenever her teammates would get into one of their shenanigans, she preferred to just stay out of it rather than get involved in something ridiculous.

She would often respond to one of idiotic antics with a dry and deadpan outlook,and has also been shown to be sarcastic as well, although there are times when she can let loose. Whenever Tex is offended with a witty insult, such as by Tucker , she naturally retaliates with an even wittier insult of her own, indicating a level humor in her personality.

Tex also tends to make clever one-liners. Tex is very determined and merciless when doing a mission or when hired to do a task. It has even been stated by Church that even prior to getting O'Malley, she was always a "rotten bitch". Despite this, Tex has a very honorable and caring personality.

The TeX system has precise knowledge of the sizes of all characters and symbols, and using this information, it computes the optimal arrangement of letters per line and lines per page. This dvi file can be printed directly given an appropriate printer driver, or it can be converted to other formats. The base TeX system understands about commands, called primitives. Knuth's original default format, which adds about commands, is Plain TeX.

Another widely used format, AMS-TeX , is produced by the American Mathematical Society and provides many more user-friendly commands, which can be altered by journals to fit with their house style. A sample Hello world program in plain TeX is:. This might be in a file myfile. By default, everything that follows a percent sign on a line is a comment, ignored by TeX. A DVI file could then either be viewed on screen or converted to a suitable format for any of the various printers for which a device driver existed printer support was generally not an operating system feature at the time that TeX was created.

TeX provides a different text syntax specifically for mathematical formulas. For example, the quadratic formula which is the solution of the quadratic equation appears as:. The formula is printed in a way a person would write by hand, or typeset the equation. Knuth explained in jest that he chose the dollar sign to indicate the beginning and end of mathematical mode in plain TeX because typesetting mathematics was traditionally supposed to be expensive. For example, the above with the quadratic formula in display math:.

The TeX software incorporates several aspects that were not available, or were of lower quality, in other typesetting programs at the time when TeX was released. Some of the innovations are based on interesting algorithms, and have led to several theses for Knuth's students.

While some of these discoveries have now been incorporated into other typesetting programs, others, such as the rules for mathematical spacing, are still unique. Since the primary goal of the TeX language is high-quality typesetting for publishers of books, Knuth gave a lot of attention to the spacing rules for mathematical formulae. Knuth looked closely at these printed papers to sort out and look for a set of rules for spacing.

For example, the spacing for Knuth's Computer Modern fonts has been precisely fine-tuned over the years and is now set; but when other fonts, such as AMS Euler , were used by Knuth for the first time, new spacing parameters had to be defined. The typesetting of Math in TeX is not without criticism, particularly with respect to technical details of the font metrics, which were designed in an era when significant attention was paid to storage requirements.

This resulted in some "hacks" overloading some fields, which in turn required other "hacks". On an aesthetics level, the rendering of radicals has also been criticized. In comparison with manual typesetting, the problem of justification is easy to solve with a digital system such as TeX, which, provided that good points for line breaking have been defined, can automatically spread the spaces between words to fill in the line. The problem is thus to find the set of breakpoints that will give the most visually pleasing result.

Many line breaking algorithms use a first-fit approach , where the breakpoints for each line are determined one after the other, and no breakpoint is changed after it has been chosen.

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In comparison, the total-fit line breaking algorithm used by TeX and developed by Donald Knuth and Michael Plass considers all the possible breakpoints in a paragraph, and finds the combination of line breaks that will produce the most globally pleasing arrangement. Formally, the algorithm defines a value called badness associated with each possible line break; the badness is increased if the spaces on the line must stretch or shrink too much to make the line the correct width. Penalties are added if a breakpoint is particularly undesirable: for example, if a word must be hyphenated, if two lines in a row are hyphenated, or if a very loose line is immediately followed by a very tight line.

The algorithm will then find the breakpoints that will minimize the sum of squares of the badness including penalties of the resulting lines. A similar algorithm is used to determine the best way to break paragraphs across two pages, in order to avoid widows or orphans lines that appear alone on a page while the rest of the paragraph is on the following or preceding page. However, in general, a thesis by Michael Plass shows how the page breaking problem can be NP-complete because of the added complication of placing figures.

If no suitable line break can be found for a line, the system will try to hyphenate a word. The original version of TeX used a hyphenation algorithm based on a set of rules for the removal of prefixes and suffixes of words, and for deciding if it should insert a break between the two consonants in a pattern of the form vowel — consonant — consonant — vowel which is possible most of the time. A list of hyphenation patterns is first generated automatically from a corpus of hyphenated words a list of 50, words. If TeX must find the acceptable hyphenation positions in the word encyclopedia , for example, it will consider all the subwords of the extended word.

The list of subwords includes all the subwords of length 1. TeX will then look into its list of hyphenation patterns, and find subwords for which it has calculated the desirability of hyphenation at each position. For each position in the word, TeX will calculate the maximum value obtained among all matching patterns, yielding en 1 cy 1 c 4 l 4 o 3 p 4 e 5 d 4 i 3 a 4. Finally, the acceptable positions are those indicated by an odd number, yielding the acceptable hyphenations en-cy-clo-pe-di-a.

This system based on subwords allows the definition of very general patterns such as 2 i 1 a , with low indicative numbers either odd or even , which can then be superseded by more specific patterns such as 1 d 4 i 3 a if necessary. In addition, a list of exceptions words for which the patterns do not predict the correct hyphenation are included with the Plain TeX format; additional ones can be specified by the user.

Metafont, not strictly part of TeX, is a font description system which allows the designer to describe characters algorithmically. Another thesis, by John Hobby , further explores this problem of digitizing "brush trajectories". This term derives from the fact that Metafont describes characters as having been drawn by abstract brushes and erasers. It is commonly believed that TeX is based on bitmap fonts but, in fact, these programs "know" nothing about the fonts that they are using other than their dimensions. It is the responsibility of the device driver to appropriately handle fonts of other types, including PostScript Type 1 and TrueType.

TeX documents are written and programmed using an unusual macro language. Broadly speaking, the running of this macro language involves expansion and execution stages which do not interact directly. The definition of a macro not only includes a list of commands but also the syntax of the call. It differs with most widely used lexical preprocessors like M4 , in that the body of a macro gets tokenized at definition time.

The original source code for the current TeX software is written in WEB , a mixture of documentation written in TeX and a Pascal subset in order to ensure portability. For example, TeX does all of its dynamic allocation itself from fixed-size arrays and uses only fixed-point arithmetic for its internal calculations. As a result, TeX has been ported to almost all operating systems , usually by using the web2c program to convert the source code into C instead of directly compiling the Pascal code. Knuth has kept a very detailed log of all the bugs he has corrected and changes he has made in the program since ; as of [update] , the list contains entries, not including the version modification that should be done after his death as the final change in TeX.

Knuth has lost relatively little money as there have been very few bugs claimed. In addition, recipients have been known to frame their check as proof that they found a bug in TeX rather than cashing it. TeX is usually provided in the form of an easy-to-install bundle of TeX itself along with Metafont and all the necessary fonts, documents formats, and utilities needed to use the typesetting system.

TeX has been the official typesetting package for the GNU operating system since There are a variety of editors designed to work with TeX :. Donald Knuth has indicated several times [47] [48] [49] that the source code of TeX has been placed into the " public domain ", and he strongly encourages modifications or experimentations with this source code. In particular, since Knuth highly values the reproducibility of the output of all versions of TeX, any changed version must not be called TeX, or anything confusingly similar. To enforce this rule, any implementation of the system must pass a test suite called the TRIP test [50] before being allowed to be called TeX.

The question of license is somewhat confused by the statements included at the beginning of the TeX source code, [51] which indicate that "all rights are reserved. Copying of this file is authorized only if This restriction should be interpreted as a prohibition to change the source code as long as the file is called tex. This interpretation is confirmed later in the source code when the TRIP test is mentioned "If this program is changed, the resulting system should not be called 'TeX ' ".

The differences in syntax between the two description languages can be overcome with the help of TeXML. TeX allowed scientific papers in mathematical disciplines to be reduced to relatively small files that could be rendered client-side, allowing fully typeset scientific papers to be exchanged over the early Internet and emerging World Wide Web, even when sending large files was difficult. This paved the way for the creation of repositories of scientific papers such as arXiv , through which papers could be 'published' without an intermediary publisher.

Knuth instructs that it be typeset with the "E" below the baseline and reduced spacing between the letters. The TeX Users Group was founded in for educational and scientific purposes, provides an organization for those who have an interest in typography and font design, and are users of the TeX typesetting system invented by Knuth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For help displaying mathematical formulae in Wikipedia, see Help:Displaying a formula.

For other uses, see Tex disambiguation. Not to be confused with LaTeX. Main article: Metafont. See also: Comparison of TeX editors. Free and open-source software portal Mathematics portal.