During the Romantic era , scholars in Germany , especially those concerned with nationalist movements—such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire —developed a more inclusive notion of culture as " worldview " Weltanschauung. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures.
In , Adolf Bastian — argued for "the psychic unity of mankind. Franz Boas — was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States. In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold — used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world.
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In practice, culture referred to an elite ideal and was associated with such activities as art , classical music , and haute cuisine. Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklore , which led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites. This distinction is often characterized as that between high culture , namely that of the ruling social group , and low culture. In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies.
Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy ; other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau , contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, other critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects.
Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. These critics considered folk music as produced by "the folk," i. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as " noble savages " living authentic and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalist systems of the West.
In the anthropologist Edward Tylor — applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture. Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture,  in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American anthropology , where it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human experiences symbolically , and to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially.
Martin Lindstrom asserts that Kulturbrille , which allow us to make sense of the culture we inhabit, also "can blind us to things outsiders pick up immediately. The sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in society. For sociologist Georg Simmel — , culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history. Culture can be any of two types, non-material culture or material culture. The term tends to be relevant only in archeological and anthropological studies, but it specifically means all material evidence which can be attributed to culture, past or present.
Cultural sociology first emerged in Weimar Germany — , where sociologists such as Alfred Weber used the term Kultursoziologie cultural sociology. Cultural sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking world as a product of the " cultural turn " of the s, which ushered in structuralist and postmodern approaches to social science. This type of cultural sociology may be loosely regarded as an approach incorporating cultural analysis and critical theory.
Cultural sociologists tend to reject scientific methods, instead hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols. As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative sociologists to the field. Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead look for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of social psychology and cognitive science.
The sociology of culture grew from the intersection between sociology as shaped by early theorists like Marx ,  Durkheim , and Weber with the growing discipline of anthropology , wherein researchers pioneered ethnographic strategies for describing and analyzing a variety of cultures around the world. Part of the legacy of the early development of the field lingers in the methods much of cultural sociological research is qualitative , in the theories a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to current research communities , and in the substantive focus of the field.
For instance, relationships between popular culture , political control, and social class were early and lasting concerns in the field. In the United Kingdom , sociologists and other scholars influenced by Marxism such as Stuart Hall — and Raymond Williams — developed cultural studies.
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Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities such as art, music, film, food , sports, and clothing. They saw patterns of consumption and leisure as determined by relations of production , which led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production.
In the United States, cultural studies focuses largely on the study of popular culture ; that is, on the social meanings of mass-produced consumer and leisure goods. From the s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with that of his colleagues Paul Willis , Dick Hebdige , Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie , created an international intellectual movement. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things such as watching television, or eating out in a given culture. It also studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices.
Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television in order to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice.
In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text includes not only written language , but also films , photographs , fashion or hairstyles : the texts of cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture. The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies. A further and recent approach is comparative cultural studies , based on the disciplines of comparative literature and cultural studies.
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Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies after the late s. The British version of cultural studies had originated in the s and s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, E. This included overtly political, left-wing views, and criticisms of popular culture as "capitalist" mass culture ; it absorbed some of the ideas of the Frankfurt School critique of the " culture industry " i.
This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: see the work of for example Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Paul Willis, and Paul Gilroy. In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition. This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt School , but especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the production of meaning.
This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts. In a Marxist view, those who control the means of production the economic base essentially control a culture. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product.
The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product. Feminist cultural analyst, theorist, and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis.
The writer Julia Kristeva is among influential voices at the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism. Petrakis and Kostis divide cultural background variables into two main groups: .
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In , a new approach to culture was suggested by Rein Raud ,  who defines culture as the sum of resources available to human beings for making sense of their world and proposes a two-tiered approach, combining the study of texts all reified meanings in circulation and cultural practices all repeatable actions that involve the production, dissemination or transmission of meanings , thus making it possible to re-link anthropological and sociological study of culture with the tradition of textual theory.
Starting from the s,  : 31 psychological research on culture influence is growing and challenges the universality assumed in general psychology. Some study explores the relationship between emotions and culture. For example, people from collectivistic culture, like Japanese, suppress their positive emotions more than their American counterpart. On the other hand, some researcher try to look for differences of people's personality across culture. Besides, cognitive tools may not accessible or function differently cross culture.
Western are motivated for their success experience. In contrast, failures motivate East Asian to work even harder than success. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about culture as used in the social sciences and humanities. For uses in the natural sciences, see Cell culture and Tissue culture.
For other uses, see Culture disambiguation. Social behavior and norms found in society. Social and political organization varies between different cultures. Celebrations, rituals and patterns of consumption are important aspects of folk culture. Human symbolic expression developed as prehistoric humans reached behavioral modernity. Religion and expressive art are important aspects of human culture.
Main article: American anthropology. Main article: Sociology of culture. See also: Social psychology , Cultural psychology , and Cross-cultural psychology. Culture portal. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. Tusculanes in French. Nismes: J. Being after Rousseau: philosophy and culture in question.
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