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La zingara di Budapest. La sfida. Il bottino. Il mondo di Trumbo. Il giudizio finale. Fiamme dell'inferno. Il figliol prodigo. Inseguito ad ogni costo. La casa della morte. Pericolo nucleare. A pochi secondi dalla fine. La talpa. Quando lei sorride. Crescere in un attimo. Il brutto anatroccolo. Una lenta morte. Obviously, the use of the suffix -issimo with these few adjectives is never allowed.

If you are not confident with subjunctive yet, it would be better to rehearse the relevant pages paragraphs 9. Therefore, these two auxiliary verbs will be discussed first. Curiously, the pronounciation of vowel "e" is grave for the inflection of the first singular person, i. However, e is never accented in normal spelling. This topic may be completely disregarded by beginners. Try to become confident with the inflections of these two verbs, since you will need them for the past conditional tense of all the others.

When essere is used as an auxiliary verb, the following past participle is number- and gender-sensitive, requiring masculine or feminine according to the subject of the sentence. This has already been discussed with compound indicative tenses, and will be shown again in detail in the following paragraph. The past conditional tense will be illustrated with transitive verbs at first, and then with intransitive ones, to remark the difference of auxiliaries, and the consequence this brings on number- and gender-sensitivity.

Intransitive verbs have the same present conditionals as transitive ones, but their past conditional requires auxiliary verb essere. Therefore, past participles become number-sensitive and gender-sensitive, in the same way an adjective would be. For instance: if you had followed my advice, you would have arrived earlier. The first part the condition statement is a primary sentence, and in Italian it requires a subjunctive tense.

The second part the consequence is a subordinate sentence, and requires a conditional tense. If I took a degree, I would earn more money If I had taken a degree, I would have earned more money If I took a degree and If I had taken a degree are primary sentences, stating the initial condition, and in Italian they require past subjunctive and pluperfect subjunctive, respectively. I would earn more money and I would have earned more money, instead, are subordinate sentences, stating the consequence, and in Italian require present conditional and past conditional, respectively.

In certain cases, these tenses have an opposite ordering: If I were lucky, yesterday I would have won the lottery If I had bought a car, now I could travel In these cases, also the Italian tenses would have to be combined in the same reversed order: past subjunctive and past conditional first sentence , pluperfect subjunctive and present conditional second sentence. However, the primary sentence always requires a subjunctive tense, and the secondary sentence always a conditional tense.

The italian word for if, introducing most conditional sentences, is se. Other possible expressions which conditional sentences start with are qualora and nel caso che both meaning in the case that. This topic is also discussed further down in the page. It is also possible to invert the position of the primary and subordinate sentences.

In any of the two forms, it is very important to use the right subjunctive and conditional tenses, as a mismatch is commonly frowned upon, being the correct match a typical sign of good knowledge of the language. If you are not confident yet with past and pluperfect subjunctive tenses, it would be better to rehearse them again in paragraphs 9. Especially in spoken language, when subjunctive is followed by a conditional tense, personal pronouns io and tu I and you may be omitted.

As mentioned in paragraph 9. In written language, instead, both pronouns are often used, especially if the language level is formal. Also other pronouns 3rd singular, and all plural ones may be either used or omitted. We would have visited the place, but we would have stayed there only a short time. This kind of sentence is completely different from the ones discussed so far. Conjunction "but" simply links two short individual sentences, none of which is a consequence i. I would have lunch with you - I am late for work We would have visited the place - We would have stayed there only a short time The first part always requires a conditional tense, since it expresses something hypothetical which might happen, or might have happened in the past.

The former can be used in any case, so to avoid any doubt you might prefer to use ma. A third kind of sentence in which conditional tenses are used is to express wishes or expectations, such as: I would like this house to be a castle We would have liked her to become a professional His boss would have liked him to stay In Italian, this form is always turned into "I would like that my house was a castle", or "we would have liked that she had become a professional", etc.

In these sentences, that is always translated che. The second part of the sentence, introduced by that, requires either a past subjunctive or a pluperfect subjunctive if you don't feel confident with them, see again paragraph 9. These are samples showing the aforesaid forms with both a transitive and an intransitive verb, in present and past tenses. Gradiresti un bicchiere di birra? No grazie, preferisco un po' di whisky. No grazie, preferirei un po' di whisky. Voglio una camicia verde della mia taglia. Vorrei una camicia verde della mia taglia. Questa va bene? Questa andrebbe bene?

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In asking for something in a shop, a store, etc. I would like However, be aware that the verb volere means to to want, and it is used for actual requests, while verb piacere to like gives the previous expression a different meaning, more or less as I wish it was so, or I feel like having In this case, piacere is used again in reflexive form piacermi, piacerti, piacergli, ecc.

Also verb andare to go , when used in reflexive form, has a similar meaning of to feel like having When the verbs piacere and andare express wishes, personal pronouns have to be used to turn the verb into its reflexive form, as explained in paragraph 8. In Italian, a specific imperative inflection only exists for singular and plural 2nd persons. In particular, imperative would rarely be used for the 1st plural person i. Note that the use of conjunction che has to be used to express an imperative meaning of subjunctive tenses.

Without mentioning che, the same inflection would sound more like an actual subjunctive. This remark only concerns the spoken language, as in normal spelling no accent at all is used, except in very few cases where imperative may be mistaken with some other tense. In written language, imperative inflections such as these ones are sometimes spelled with an accented vowel, not to be mistaken.

This other example, instead, shows personal pronouns used as an object of the verb: 2nd conjugation - prendermi to catch me, or to take for me, to fetch me singular 1st person che io mi prenda may I catch myself [1] 2nd person tu prendimi catch me! In other words, if a pronoun is used as an object, the action of the verb is always received by the same object, i.

Instead, in reflexive forms, the action expressed by the verb is received by the same subject who does it: for each person a different pronoun is required i. I help myself; you help yourself; he helps himself; etc. Only for the 2nd singular person a change occurs: imperative is replaced by infinitive. All other persons form the negative imperative in the same way other tenses do, i. Note how in these cases it is useless to repeat the personal pronoun, placed in brackets in the previous forms, because it would be redundant.

Bob alfabeti treno - ABC in italiano per bambini - Italian ABC Train - Bob The Train - ABC Train

Any of the two may be freely chosen, in spoken language as well as in written language: they are equivalent. In the latter case, English often softens the invitation with please. Although prego please can be used in Italian, as well, it is often omitted: what makes the expression sound as an offer, a more "pushy" request, or a command, is especially the voice's pitch and intonation. Sometimes the same verb leaves no doubt about the imperative's meaning: mettiti comodo! Saying entra! A more polite invitation to come in would be avanti!

In fact, entra! Therefore, according to a specific context, imperative may have different meanings. Another way of softening an invitation is to use pure. Pure means also, even, but when it follows an imperative it gives it a meaning of feel free of In the case the command is positive not negative , both of them may be adopted, although the infinitive one is surely more common. Notice how in this case the reflexive pronoun -si oneself is used to address a command to everybody, i. See also paragraph 8.

The other impersonal imperative form is a bit more complicated, but less used than the previous one, because it sounds rather formal i. It requires either one or two pronouns. Pronoun si same as above is always required, followed by present subjunctive, 3rd singular person. In the case of a reflexive verb, a further pronoun is required before si: pronoun ci, usually meaning us as an object , to us, for us, or, in non-imperative reflexive forms, meaning ourselves as an object , to ourselves, for ourselves, etc.

The simple level is used with children, with one's relatives and with friends. It is also used among young people, as a standard. The formal level is used with strangers or people with whom a more superficial relation exists i. The use of the simple level where the formal one would be more appropriate is frowned upon as unpolite, except in the case of non-local natives, whose first language is not Italian, or uncultured people, whose poor knowledge of the language would account for this.

The invitation to use a simple level of speech, where the formal one would be required, is almost as saying "let's be friends". In fact, once the simple level of speech has been used with somebody, it may be used again in any further occasion of conversation. To swap back to a formal level, in most cases would mean that the relation, friendship, etc.

The simple level of speech needs no further explanation: it's the "plain" form of Italian language, discussed so far in the previous pages. The formal language only differs from the "plain" one when talking to somebody, i. Addressing the 2nd singular person, formal language requires the use of the 3rd singular feminine one, while addressing the 2nd plural person, the 3rd plural masculine should be used.

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This change involves the verb, but also the pronoun if any. These samples show the same verbs as above, referred to a plural you. Generally speaking, the use of formal speech in 2nd singular person is very common, used in everyday's language, and should be practiced throughoutly.

The same formal speech in 2nd plural person, instead, is less frequent: it could almost be considered as "very formal", thus it is often disregarded, without sounding unpolite. Actually, not many native speakers would ever use it at all, although it is advisable for the student at least to be aware that such a form exists for the 2nd plural person. The use of lei for the 2nd singular person is a recent custom: originally, ella was used i. In simple speech, lei should refer to the feminine 3rd person only as a direct object. But in the past few decades, ella has become more and more unused, and it is rarely heard today: lei has taken its place also as a subject, in both simple and formal speech, although the former is the "true" correct form.

Although using a 3rd person for an actual 2nd person gives the sentence two possible meanings see further examples , very rarely misunderstanding occurs in spoken language: when talking to somebody, the use of lei is obviously referred to the same person, not to somebody else, unless a third female person was involved by the topic or by the circumstance. In most other cases, the ordinary 2nd plural person would be used, still being polite, and much more common. Apparently, these sentences may be translated in two different ways, but in a great majority of cases, the context in which they are used leaves little doubt about their meaning.

Once again, these sentences are very rarely misunderstood, because they would be addressed to the person next to the speaker not to a third person. Furthermore, in the case they are referred to a man masculine adjective , lei would obviously mean "formal you" in all cases, never she.

Remember, though, that the gender of these pronouns has to be referred to the object possessed by the subject, not to the subject itself see paragraph 5. In Italian, the main ones are: quale?

The second one, che, may also come in these other two forms: che cosa? In fact, the literal meaning of che cosa? In these cases they are typical pronouns, because the noun they refer to is not mentioned. For instance, what did you hear? This often happens with avere, as well; remember that the inflections beginning with a mute h are phonetically treated as if the word began with vowel a. In modern Italian, this elision is often limited to the present indicative tense, either used alone or as an auxiliary verb in forming the passato prossimo tense with other verbs.

With all the other tenses of avere, instead, the elision is now less common: che cosa ho per cena? This is not a strict rule, and not spelling the elision would not be considered a real mistake, although it is very common to use it. In spoken language, instead, the elision is obviously not spelled, but in pronouncing the two vowels a Let's see an example with che: che avete udito? In fact, in che cosa, the first part che is already an adjective of cosa thing , although the whole expression is used as a pronoun, so that no other noun may follow it.

The same rule applies to cosa alone, since it is a short form of che cosa. Also quanto and quale are often used as adjectives. Also quale may take feminine inflections, as well, but since adjectives ending with -e have identical inflections for masculine and feminine, the difference is somewhat disguised. Furthermore, when used as an adjective, the English equivalent of quale is no longer which one, but which For instance, looking at a nice picture our comment could be either beautiful! These pronouns are the same ones used for interrogative sentences.

In Italian the following pronouns express an exclamation: quanto! A verb that frequently follows quanto is essere to be : quanto era povero! When the sentence contains an adverb, in a few cases the latter may be moved in front of the verb, but more often it stays at the bottom: quanto mangiano poco! When quanto is used as a pronoun, as in the aforesaid examples, it is invariable i. Exclamative pronouns should be considered adjectives when a noun follows them. In this case the English equivalent of che is what a Note how in English an indefinite article is needed for such singular forms what a lovely house!

In Italian also the plural forms alone are used, which in English are not too common: che sbagli! The noun may be followed by a "real" adjective: che sbaglio brutto! In paragraph 2. In these cases che would be an adjective in Italian and a pronoun in English, although the meaning of the exclamation is absolutely the same iin both languages. As seen in the aforesaid examples, also when che is followed by a noun, i. Quanto, instead, used as an adjective has to match the gender and number of the following noun: quanto vino!

Also in this case a "real" adjective may follow or come before the noun: quanto vino rosso! Note how both quanto and the real adjective match the noun's gender and number: quanto-rosso; quantabella; quanti-nuovi; quante-terribili because terribile, singular form, ends with -e. For phonetic reasons, when quanto, quanta, quanti, quante are followed by a noun that starts with the same last vowel of the adjective, the latter may be dropped and replaced by an apostrophe i. For instance, the boy who came here is your brother links together the boy is your brother primary sentence and he came here subordinate sentence, because it connects to the former one by means of who.

In a relative clause different relations are possible between the primary sentence and the subordinate one. They may share either the subject, or the object, or other parts of the sentence. Note that relative pronouns are referred to as a subject or as an object according to which is their position in the subordinate sentence not in the primary one.

English pronouns used as a subject are who whose use is normally limited to humans and that for a more general purpose. Students can do well enough by using che in all sentences that match case A. Now let's see what happens in case B i. In this case no comma should be placed before the relative pronoun.

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In the same way, the boy saw all the swallows, and the fact that they were flying low is an additonal detail. We may think that only the actor who received an award will work in the next movie not those who have not been awarded , or that the many women who were patiently waiting lined up in a queue but some others did not. So this informs us that the actor will work in the next movie anyway the fact of winning an award is an additional piece of information , and that all the many women were queuing the fact of patiently waiting is another extra piece of information.

To summarize this, we may say that a full pronoun il quale, la quale, etc. But to obtain the same effect, the full form may still be replaced by the short one, provided that a comma is placed before the relative pronoun in the written language ; this also sounds more colloquial in the spoken language. RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS AN OBJECT cases C and D The following examples will focus again the difference between relative pronouns used as a subject and as an object: the thief who broke in stole the jewels the train reached the station that had two platforms the thief that the police caught had stolen the jewels the train reached the station that you had mentioned Now let's split the primary and subordinate sentences into two separate periods; to do so is a very useful excercise for focusing which part is shared by both sentences: the thief stole the jewels the train reached the station A B the thief broke in the station had two platforms the thief had stolen the jewels the train reached the station D the police caught the thief you had mentioned the station Notice the relations between the primary sentence and the subordinate one, that always share one noun.

By dividing a period containing a relative clause in its basic parts, it will be very easy for the student to tell whether the pronoun acts as a subject or as an object. In the aforesaid examples, C and D are the sentences in which the pronoun acts as a direct object of the subordinate sentence. In these cases, English uses either whom for humans or that, and often the pronoun may even be omitted. Italian, instead, always uses the pronoun che. Case D is when both the primary and the subordinate sentences share a common object. Briefly summarizing the four cases discussed so far, che is very handy in all cases: it is always used as an object, while as a subject it may replace the full forms il quale, la quale, etc.

As far as now, we discussed relative pronouns referred to nouns i. There are sentences in which the relative pronoun refers to an indefinite person, expressed by a personal pronoun. For instance: he who touches the fire will get burnt, or I will give this book to those whom I see first. In the first example, the subject of the primary sentence is the pronoun he he will get burnt , though not referring to anybody in particular, because until the fact takes place we cannot tell who he is. In the second example the dative of the primary sentence is to them I will give the book to them , whom we do not know.

Another example is: those who drink should not drive. Once again, we don't know who those actually are. Quite obviously, similar sentences only refer to 3rd persons either singular or plural ; when a 1st or 2nd persons are involved, the subject is always definite and throughoutly defined. For similar sentences, Italian does not use the ordinary personal pronouns discussed in paragraph 4. The personal pronoun may be either the subject or the object or any other case of the primary sentence, but it is always indefinite i.

The short pronoun chi may also refer to masculine and to feminine alike. But the other parts of the sentence which are gender-sensitive nouns, adjectives, past participles, etc. When a preposition is needed, the full pronoun can no longer be replaced by che, but by cui, whose function is identical i.

Since il quale, la quale, etc. Using cui, instead, the simple preposition is required. Using the short form cui, instead, no specific match is needed. Also note how in English the preposition often shifts to the bottom of the subordinate sentence i. At the end of the previous paragraph When prepositions are added to these relative pronouns, as in the many cases discussed in this paragraph i.

For instance, the boy who lives next door is my friend clearly refers to a specific person the boy. But he who wins the lottery will become rich refers to an indefinite person, because the winner is not known. A similar case is he who reaches points wins the game, which could also be turned into whoever reaches points wins the game.

In Italian this situation requires specific personal pronouns colui, colei, coloro , used only in the case of a relative clause, followed by the standard relative pronouns. In some other cases, as shown in the aforesaid examples, the use of a full form would not be correct, or it would sound very strange. However, the student should note how full forms provide a greater amount of information. Therefore, for who is learning the language it is important to know that these forms exist, but chi will surely be much easier to memorize, and more handy to use.

These "double pronouns" may also be used in all other cases not only subject and object , in which case a preposition will be needed in front of the relative pronoun. The following examples show one sentence for each preposition, with all the possible forms.

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For the sake of a good knowledge of the relative clause, the student should focus well the difference between the forms discussed in this page and the ones dealt with in paragraph But in this case colui is completely detached from il quale it stands after the preposition per. Thus, this sentence belongs to the forms discussed in the previous paragraph: colui is the subject, and per il quale introduces the relative clause.

But la quale comes after the preposition a, so colei is the subject and alla quale introduces the relative clause. Pronouns such as colui, colei, coloro, are only used with human beings. Instead, when the pronoun refers to something more generic, which no specific noun can replace, the English form would be what Nouns indicating people of a city, a region, etc.

Only people from a given continent are sometimes spelled with a capital letter, as those from a country. Prepositions eventually used in the address name require a small letter. Such titles are usually spelled between quotation marks, or in italics. Mario Rossi or Sig. Mario Rossi sig. Franco Bini or Dott. Franco Bini prof. Chiara Petri or Prof. Chiara Petri rev. Giulio Monti or Rev. A few of them may be referred to with different names.

For instance, blu blue is commonly used for deeper shades of blue, while azzurro is more often preferred for medium and light shades of the same colour. Marrone is the most common word for brown, although in some compound names as will be said further on bruno is sometimes used. Also arancio orange is often called arancione, same colour. Many more shades can be described by using the two adjectives chiaro pale, light and scuro deep, dark.

Many colours have a specific name taken from a fruit, an animal, a gem, or anything else in nature which may recall the particular shade. But when the shade's name might be misunderstood, it is better to use color colour in front of it: color aragosta, color limone, color mogano, etc.


Color is the same word colore, shortened for phonetic reasons when it is followed by the name of a shade. The article is needed since the name refers to the word colore colour , masculine, usually omitted for the most common ones. In Italian, as well as in English, it is also possible to use plural forms, which indicate the different shades of a given colour, i. In fact, a word cannot be freely split, having this to be done specifically between two syllables: dividivisdivisidivisiodivisione sione ione one ne division [correct] [wrong] [wrong] [correct] Phonetically speaking, the syllable is the smallest fraction of a word, pronounced as a single sound.

There are general rules according to which syllables are defined: the following table should be used as a reference or, even better, learned. Any two consonants followed by a vowel belong to the same syllable: treno train tre - no scivolare to slide, to slip sci - vo - la - re sovrano sovereign so - vra - no ladro thief la - dro chimica chemistry chi - mi - ca segnare to sign, to mark se - gna - re In these cases, the first consonant is always from group A guttural, palatal, dental, labial , sometimes forming with the second consonant a special cluster, i.

Diphthongues are formed by the combination of different kinds of vowels: o i and u are called "semivowels", because they have a weaker shorter, less sharp sound; o a, e and o are called "strong vowels". Diphthongues are never split, and belong to the same syllable: buono good buo - no viale avenue via - le chiodo nail chio - do Claudio Claude Clau - dio quadro picture, painting qua - dro schiavo slave schia - vo Other combinations have to be split; also in this case vowels alone may form an individual syllable, in any part of the word, to accomplish this rule: idea idea i - de - a reato offence re - a - to paese country pa - e - se Colosseo Colosseum Co - los - se - o cooperativo cooperative co - o - pe - ra - ti - vo linee lines li - ne - e When a word begins with a diphthongue, its first syllable contains both vowels.

Also in these cases the aforesaid rules are applied, although they appear less evident. In the first case, the break occurs between two strong vowels, while the remaining three, two weak ones and one strong, may stay together a - iuo. The latter three form a triptongue, i. In the second case the break occurs between two diphthongues ua - io. There are many monosyllabic words, which cannot be split since they are made of only one syllable.

Also some short words whose origin is not Italian are monosyllabic: the last consonant or consonants they end with cannot be left without a final vowel, thus they cannot be separated from the rest of the word: tram tramway bar bar, cafe sport sport golf golf, or pullover gong gong smog smog sprint sprint, stamina The Italian gerund is very easy, modelled on the inflection In English this verb is always to be I am staying, he was watching, etc. Stare can be simply translated to be, though it has a specific meaning of to be present, to exist either for a given condition or for a physical object.

Stare is used with the gerund tense of both transitive and intransitive verbs. As in English, the gerund's auxiliary verb may be take the present tense and the past tense imperfect in Italian , thus obtaining a present gerund and a past gerund. The following tables show both of them for the verb pensare to think.

It is required to express either the lapse of time during which an action is carried out, or by which means the other action occurs. It indicates who carries out the action expressed by the verb, either temporarily or continuously i. To obtain the present participle, the standard inflections English has no matching tense, so that the Italian present participle may be translated in most cases either with a noun whose suffix is For instance, dormire to sleep has both dormente and dormiente, while nutrire to nourish has nutriente, much more common than nutrente regular participle.

The same for partorire to give birth, to deliver a baby , whose form partoriente is always preferred to the regular one. The use of present participles in modern Italian is somewhat limited; many of the ones still found come from archaic verbs no longer used i. In any case, when a participle is used as a noun or as an adjective, it will have singular and plural forms. Both masculine and feminine will be similar, because they are nouns and adjectives ending with Therefore, these concepts will be only summarized once again in this page.

The most common past participle inflections for the three conjugations are: 1st conjugation The other auxiliary verb, essere to be , does not have its own, and borrows it from the verb stare, recently discussed, whose meaning is similar: stato, which acts as the past participle of both verbs stare and essere. Some verbs in particular, belonging to the 2nd and 3rd conjugations do not follow this scheme, since other past participle inflections do exist.

A sample of each is shown below, but for more examples see again paragraph 6. They all come from Latin forms, whose inflection was regular The few irregular inflections are marked in red. The irregular inflections only concern some persons and some tenses, which are marked in red. The irregularities may consist of a change of vowel, or the use of accented vowels in place of simple ones, or the same root may be different.

Therefore, before memorizing these verbs be sure you are confident with the ordinary conjugations, described in chapter 4. In some cases two different inflections are possible: in this case they are shown in square brackets. All regular tenses are simply mentioned in a row. Irregular verbs are indeed difficult to memorize, but some of the changes found in their roots are repeated: for instance, the same changes found in the 1st singular person are also found in the 3rd plural one, and all the ones found in the present indicative also belong to present subjunctive, and the future indicative tense has similar changes to the present conditional.

Keeping in mind these relations, it should be slightly easier to memorize them. BERE to drink This verb is not really irregular; due to the Latin verb it comes from bevere , traces of the old root remained in most tenses, except the infinitive. Therefore, many of the irregular inflections are regular if referred to the latter form: try to think of the root as bev Only the future and the present conditional tenses contract the..

As for bere, previously discussed, also in this case many of the irregular inflections are regular ones of the 2nd conjugation which survived the verb's change i. In particular, the letter v often turns into a double b, sometimes with a change of vowel too. The future and conditional tenses, instead, are basically regular, but the inflections start with vowel.. In several inflections the syllable.. In some tenses, the syllable.. Also in this case some tenses have a double l or a double r, as a contaction of the central syllable, I buy an apple, thus the apple is bought by me; if the bird eats a worm, obviously the worm is eaten by the bird; and so on.

The single parts which form the active sentence are reversed in the passive form: in particular, the object of the former sentence becomes the subject of the latter. This is a full sample table of passive tenses of the same verb. Who instead carries out the action, specified in English by preposition by, in Italian is introduced by preposition da, which according to the following noun has to be used either in its simple form or compound form i.

Therefore, it is very important to be confident with the latter see paragraphs 4. It has been previously said that Italian past participles are case- and gender-sensitive, which means that they behave exactly as adjectives, and have to be matched with the subject of the sentence. Obviously, only transitive verbs may have a passive form. Intransitive ones, such as to sleep, to laugh, to die, to sit, to come, etc. Transitive verbs, instead, can always be turned into passive forms. Passive looks very similar to the same verb's active compound tenses, except that the auxiliary verb used is no longer avere to have but essere to be.

However, they can be told by the meaning of the verb. This occurs especially when the present and simple past tenses are used i. For instance, this paper is crimpled, or the chicken was cooked, or that banknote is torn. Crimpled, cooked and torn might be either considered past participles or adjectives. In such cases, to stress the fact that the sentence describes an action, and not a condition, i.

Instead essere is less emphatic, and what follows may be translated either as a past participle i. The Commission is fully aware of the serious incident concerning the PIP breast implants. It is not up to the Commission to set up a committee of inquiry. However, it is examining the incident in detail together with the Member States and third parties. In addition, the Commission is analysing the incident to identify possible shortcomings in the current regulatory framework so that they can be addressed as part of the revision of the medical device legislation already planned for The possible compensation of women who were implanted with PIP breast implants is a matter to be decided at national level.

Testimoni hanno riferito che negli scontri erano coinvolte le forze del governo provvisorio, che avevano cercato di riprendere possesso dell'edificio, occupato dai miliziani dopo l'arresto di uno di loro. I gruppi rivali si sono affrontati a colpi di armi automatiche e mitragliatrici di grosso calibro. Witnesses reported that the fighting involved provisional government forces, which had attempted to retake the building occupied by the militia after one of them was arrested.

The rival groups exchanged automatic weapons and heavy machine gun fire. In light of the facts above, would the Commission please answer the following questions:. Can it provide a general overview of European sanctions currently in place in relation to Libya and indicate the impact of these measures on the African country?

The EU is aware of the recurrent security incidents in Tripoli and other Libyan cities resulting from the presence of armed brigades and from a lack of national army and structured national security forces. The EU will respond as quickly as possible to further changes to UN listings and its autonomous measures are kept under constant review. This assistance covers civil society, media, public administration capacity building, education, migration, support for war wounded and democratisation. Humanitarian assistance currently provided brings support to the Libyan displaced population through non-food items, food items, and shelter assistance.

The EU is also engaged in a dialogue with the authorities regarding further support across a range of sectors including on security issues. Oggetto: Sequestro di un'imbarcazione italiana in Oman ad opera di pirati. A bordo ci sono 18 persone, sei delle quali italiane. Gli altri marinai sono cinque ucraini e sette indiani. Partita da Fujairah negli Emirati Arabi, era diretta verso il Mediterraneo. Il cargo era in navigazione al largo delle coste yemenite quando si sono avvicinati alcuni barchini con presunti pirati a bordo.

Il Golfo di Aden e il Mar Arabico restano aree ad alto rischio per il transito dei mercantili. Its member crew included 6 Italian nationals, together with 5 Ukrainians and 7 Indians. The shipping company was informed about the attack at 5. It was cruising off the coast of Yemen when it was approached by small boats believed to have pirates aboard. In that case, a military helicopter flying over the area was enough to drive the two motor boats away. There was no EU involvement in the incident or subsequent follow up. Open source reporting of the incident is available.

The Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea remain high threat areas for transiting merchant vessels. The EU Operation ATALANTA, along with NATO and other counter-piracy forces, coordinates military response to pirate activity to provide, where possible, within means and capabilities, protection to all ships regardless of their flag and transmit all relevant information to the national authorities. All merchant vessel owners and operators are encouraged by the International Maritime Organisation IMO to take necessary steps to avoid being hijacked.

However, the Commission and the Operation ATALANTA are not involved in ransom negotiation as any interference of a military force into negotiation would lead to additional pressure and danger put on the hostages' lives. Nella maggior parte dei casi quelle dimissioni vengono tirate fuori nel momento in cui la lavoratrice dichiara di essere rimasta incinta. Le statistiche parlano di oltre mila donne incinte costrette ad abbandonare il posto di lavoro.

Pertanto, se licenziano donne in stato di gravidanza utilizzando lettere di dimissioni in bianco prefirmate, i datori di lavoro violano la legislazione nazionale. La Commissione non dispone degli strumenti giuridici per avviare procedure di infrazione in caso di comportamento illecito da parte di singoli cittadini dell'UE. Blank resignation letters are, unfortunately, still a widespread phenomenon in Italy. In practice, when a female candidate is recruited, she is asked to sign the employment contract together with a blank resignation letter which, being updated, can be enforced by the employer whenever he or she might decide.

Resignation letters of this kind are mostly brought out when an employee informs her employer that she is pregnant. Is the Commission aware of the use of blank resignation letters for pregnant women? If so, what measures will it take to stem this phenomenon and protect pregnant women, by restoring their equal opportunities and dignity at the workplace? Therefore, if employers use pre-signed blank resignation letters to dismiss women in case of pregnancy they act in breach of national law. The Commission has no legal means to start infringement procedures in case of individual illegal behaviour of EU citizens.

Women concerned by this practice are encouraged to make these illegal habits public and take their employers to the national courts. In Afghanistan, nella cittadina di Tarinkot, l'improvvisa esplosione di un ordigno ied improvised explosive device ha provocato una strage di bambini. Sei bimbi, tra i 4 e i 9 anni, hanno perso la vita mentre giocavano tra i rifiuti. La bomba, infatti, era stata ben occultata tra l'immondizia. Non soltanto alla luce dell'ultima strage, la situazione in Afghanistan desta molte preoccupazioni. Le truppe alleate presenti nel paese, inoltre, stanno subendo numerosi attacchi con mine anticarri e ied.

In the city of Tarinkot in Afghanistan, the sudden explosion of an improvised explosive device has caused a massacre of children. Six children, aged between 4 and 9, lost their lives whilst they were playing amongst urban waste. The bomb was well hidden in the rubbish. The situation in Afghanistan arouses many concerns, not just in view of this latest massacre.

Furthermore, the Allied troops in the area are subject to numerous attacks using anti-tank mines and IEDs. Can she provide a general overview of European efforts in the Asian country and of the safety of the Allied forces in the region? Gli enti territoriali, quali Comuni e Province, sono tra i primi possibili beneficiari dei fondi diretti programmati ed erogati dalle Direzioni generali della Commissione europea.

In caso affermativo, quali sono i progetti che hanno avuto accesso a fondi europei e con quali risultati suddetti programmi sono stati portati a termine? Regional authorities, such as municipalities and provinces, are amongst the first possible beneficiaries of direct funding planned and allocated by the Commission's Directorates-General. It served as basis for a first sketch of future tourist routes and supported the publication of study documents to help defining the suggested routes.

Furthermore it facilitated the exchange of scientific-cultural information and experience, thus creating a cooperation network at European level. For the time being only the project is closed. The project led to a structured intercultural dialogue to enforce mutual understanding and diversity. No other application for direct funding by the City or Province of Brindisi has been recorded. In Nigeria non si fermano gli attacchi omicidi a danno dei cristiani. Gli attacchi in motocicletta sono uno dei segni caratteristici del modus operandi dell'organizzazione che nelle ultime settimane ha intensificato gli attentati, alternando gli assalti a mano armata alle bombe.

Di fronte al numero crescente di atti di intolleranza e di discriminazione religiosa in tutto il mondo, l'Unione ha reagito fermamente, anche a livello dei ministri degli esteri dell'UE. Il Consiglio ha manifestato il forte impegno dell'UE a intensificare gli sforzi per la promozione e la tutela dei diritti delle persone appartenenti a minoranze religiose in qualsiasi parte del mondo. In effetti, ultimamente le condizioni di sicurezza si sono ulteriormente deteriorate fino a includere attacchi a luoghi di culto, una tendenza preoccupante che, se non gestita con attenzione, potrebbe produrre una situazione di violenza settaria generalizzata.

In base a tutte le informazioni a nostra disposizione, il numero di persone coinvolte nei recenti atti di violenza pare essere limitato. Il gruppo terroristico noto col nome di Boko Haram sembra essere intenzionato a infondere insicurezza nella popolazione e a destabilizzare il paese con tutti i mezzi a sua disposizione. The attacks on Christians in Nigeria are continuing unremittingly. This is but one of the many violent acts that have been carried out by the militia group, which killed over people in Motorcycle attacks are among the methods typically used by the organisation, which has stepped up its operations during recent weeks, alternating between armed assaults and bombings.

Boko Haram has issued an ultimatum for all Christians to leave the North of the country which is mainly Muslim. If so, what is involved? Are there any local associations for the defence of religious freedom? If so, what action are they taking? The EU has firmly responded to the increasing number of acts of religious intolerance and discrimination across the world, including at the level of EU Foreign Ministers. The Council expressed the EU's strong commitment to step up its efforts to promote and protect rights of persons belonging to religious minorities wherever in the world.

Generally speaking, Nigeria is a secular state. Religious freedom is enshrined in its Constitution. Nevertheless, and as in any other country, religion may at times be instrumentalised for political purposes. The security situation has indeed deteriorated further of late to include attacks on places of worship, which is a worrying trend that could result in widespread sectarian violence, unless managed carefully.

According to all information at our disposal the number of persons involved in the recent spate of violence is limited. The terrorist group known as Boko Haram appears at all accounts to be intent by any means at their disposal to unsettle the population and destabilise the country. Their activities have been condemned by religious leaders of all observations and Islamic scholars have described their claims to be acting on behalf of Muslims as bogus.

In this situation, we believe one of our priorities should be to assist the authorities in promoting inter-faith dialogue to help avoid this being seen as a conflict between religious groups. Oggetto: Fuga di aziende italiane verso la Svizzera. Da mesi sulla linea di confine tra Lombardia e Canton Ticino si susseguono grandi movimenti. Il sistema elvetico propone insomma condizioni di lavoro migliori rispetto all'Italia. Qualunque sia la loro dimensione, le imprese competitive costituiscono il principale motore di una solida crescita economica. Per poter prosperare, le imprese necessitano di un contesto operativo favorevole.

Tramite la pubblicazione annuale di raccomandazioni specifiche per paese, la Commissione sostiene gli Stati membri nel loro sforzo volto a promuovere la crescita e l'occupazione. There has been a great deal of activity on the Lombardy and Canton Ticino border for months. During the number of workers living in Italy but working in Switzerland rose by 7. The main drivers of strong economic growth are competitive firms of all sizes.

Businesses need a favourable operating environment to thrive. The Commission supports the Member States in delivering growth and jobs by publishing country-specific recommendations every year. The overall recommendation of the Commission has been that fiscal consolidation should be carried out in a way that protects growth and jobs as much as possible, but the design of policies has to be determined by the Member State governments.

La rivoluzione sta ormai raggiungendo il cuore vitale del Paese, sono svanite le zone franche e Damasco diventa la prima linea con il conseguente intensificarsi della violenza. Il fronte rivoluzionario li accusa di essere burattini del regime, legittimandone l'esistenza invece di chiedere le dimissioni immediate di Bashar. Le iniziative intraprese dall'UE erano intese a contribuire al raggiungimento di un cambiamento delle politiche del governo siriano che comportasse la sospensione delle repressioni, l'attuazione delle riforme annunciate e la promozione di un dialogo nazionale credibile, autentico e inclusivo.

The revolution is starting to reach the heart of the country, there are no longer any free zones, and Damascus is now in the front line, with the consequent escalation of violence. The EU also will not take further steps with regard to the Association Agreement that had been negotiated with Syria.

Since then, the Commission has suspended the participation of Syrian authorities to its regional programmes and the EIB has suspended all its loan operations and technical assistance to Syria. However, not all cooperation has stopped, as several projects are still ongoing in the field of support to Non State Actors, the Syrian civil society, and the refugees. Tempus and Erasmus programmes with Syrian students and universities are also continuing.

The Commission stands ready to work together in identifying actions to support the Syrian people and mobilise financial assistance in favour of a genuine democratic transition. Si tratta dell'ultimo avviso alla controparte, con la speranza che la crisi rientri in extremis. Se questo si rivelasse impossibile e se l'Iran persistesse nella sua politica di armamento nucleare, l'Italia sarebbe pronta a sostenere tutte le nuove sanzioni imposte dall'Europa, incluso l'embargo petrolifero all'Iran.

This is intended as a last warning to Iran, issued in the hope that the crisis may be resolved at the last minute. Italy has declared itself ready to play its part by encouraging an open and transparent dialogue with Iran. Should this be impossible and should Iran continue to pursue its nuclear weapons policy, Italy would be willing to support all new sanctions imposed by Europe, including an embargo on Iranian oil. Which Member States have already stated their support for such action against the regime In Iran?

In Nigeria proseguono gli attacchi terroristici a danno dei fedeli cristiani. In Nigeria le tensioni durano da oltre dieci anni. Nel si erano verificati massacri di fedeli cristiani a Jos. I recenti attentati terroristici in Nigeria hanno preso di mira, oltre alle chiese, edifici del governo e di sicurezza, mercati, scuole e civili innocenti senza distinzioni. Terrorist attacks on Christians are continuing to take place in Nigeria. On Christmas day, 35 people were killed in three coordinated attacks — 27 of them in a single church in Abuja, where the explosion occurred during mass.

The Boko Haram group has claimed responsibility. In , Christians were massacred in Jos. The spokesmen for the Boko Haram terrorist group have issued an ultimatum to the Christian communities in northern Nigeria, where there is a Muslim majority, to leave the area as soon as possible. The EU delegations in Abuja have already launched diplomatic initiatives with the Nigerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs aimed at condemning the violence;. What steps does she consider should be taken to address the latest emergency triggered by the ultimatums issued to the Christian communities in this African country?

The recent attacks by terrorists in Nigeria have targeted government and security buildings, markets, schools and innocent civilians of all kinds as well as churches. The EU is working together with Nigeria to help it tackle the challenges of creating durable security and dealing with the multiple socioeconomic and political factors conducive to radicalisation.

The EU has already reoriented parts of its cooperation programme with Nigeria to the North of the country to accelerate action against poverty and deprivation there. Oggetto: Armonizzazione delle politiche fiscali fra gli Stati membri. L'ente infatti sosteneva che l'azienda tedesca dovesse al Fisco italiano ben 1,4 miliardi di euro, ritenendo come non pagate tasse dal Per contro, la Bosch sosteneva di aver versato i contributi dovuti al Fisco tedesco.

Appare quanto mai urgente arrivare a una forma di chiarimento, se non di armonizzazione, dei rapporti fra le regolamentazioni fiscali degli Stati membri. I risultati della consultazione consentiranno di determinare e di elaborare la risposta politica adeguata. The Italian revenue service has recently reached a tax assessment agreement with the German company Bosch GmbH, an agreement which ironed out a long dispute. On the other hand Bosch claimed to have paid the taxes to the German exchequer. But this leading vehicle component manufacturer, with numerous investments in Italy, had apparently already announced that it was intending to claim a tax reimbursement in Germany.

It would appear that a form of clarification, if not harmonisation, of the relationship between the various taxation systems of the Member States is urgently needed. Does not the Commission consider it necessary to clarify the relationships between the taxation systems of the Member States? Does not the Commission consider that the launch of a harmonisation procedure between the taxation systems is urgently necessary, which would guarantee certainty for both the legitimate requests of the Member States and investments by companies?

The Commission is not aware of the specific case referred to by the Honourable Member. However, in the absence of common corporate tax rules, the interaction of national tax systems may lead to double taxation or double non-taxation. One of the benefits of the CCCTB is to help avoiding double taxation and double non-taxation within groups.

The Commission intends to work on evaluating and developing the possible options set out in this communication, in particular the creation of a Forum on double taxation for purely EU tax matters, a proposal for a code of conduct on double taxation and the feasibility of an efficient dispute resolution mechanism, with a view to determining the most effective ways to remove double taxation. In addition, the Commission is about to launch a fact-finding consultation procedure on double non-taxation, in order to establish the full scale of this phenomenon.

The results of this consultation will be used to identify and develop the appropriate policy responses. Furthermore, by the end of the Commission intends to adopt a communication on strengthening good governance in the tax area with a view to address, inter alia , mismatches between tax systems. Era stata arrestata in occasione delle manifestazioni dell'opposizione contro la contesta rielezione del presidente Mahmoud Ahmadinejad nel giugno The EU considers that the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms must remain an essential pillar of the EU's present and future relations with Iran.

This includes the case of Faezeh Rafsanjani. People in the province of Bari have been particularly hard hit since the beginning of the year by the problems of loneliness and poverty and a fear of being unable to continue to lead a dignified life. This is borne out by the figures given in a Caritas report, according to which one in two families are unable to cope with unexpected expenses for instance, in the event of an electrical appliance breaking down , The Commission also plans to publish the follow-up report on the implementation of the Commission recommendation on active inclusion by looking specifically at the measures taken by Member States in the three pillars of active inclusion: adequate income support, inclusive labour markets, and access to quality services.

The ESF can not provide direct income support to poor households. However, it can target people below the poverty threshold through initiatives that reinforce the social inclusion of disadvantaged people with a view to their sustainable integration in employment.

Oggetto: Suicidi nelle carceri di Trani e Torino. In tutto il , inoltre, sono stati 59 i detenuti a togliersi la vita e ben hanno tentato, senza riuscirci, il suicidio dato triplicato rispetto all'anno precedente. Per ogni posti disponibili, infatti, ci sono in media ,2 detenuti. A year-old inmate took his own life in Trani prison only a few hours after another suicide took place in Turin prison. The number of suicides in Italian prisons is alarming. In , a total of 59 inmates committed suicide and there were unsuccessful suicide attempts these numbers are three times higher than those for the previous year.

In addition, a study recently carried out by the Council of Europe shows that the rate of overcrowding in Italian prisons is among the highest anywhere. There is an average of Is the Commission aware that, in Italy, foreign nationals account for a very large proportion of the prison population and that the same applies throughout the EU? The Commission is aware of the problem of overcrowded conditions in Italian prisons. The responsibility for the construction and management of prisons lies with the Member States and it is therefore a matter for the Italian authorities.

In line with the Stockholm Programme, the Commission is reflecting on ways to strengthen mutual trust and mutual recognition in the area of detention, in accordance with and within the limits of EU's competence. To that effect, the Commission has published a Green Paper on the application of EU criminal justice legislation in the field of detention COM of The Commission received over replies from Member States and stakeholders and will carefully analyse all responses before deciding on what appropriate action can and should be taken at the European level.

Ad Alice chiude la Italcarta. Quindici dipendenti hanno perso il posto di lavoro e anche gli ammortizzatori sociali. La Italcarta era un'azienda attiva da oltre 25 anni con forte impatto sul mercato. In forza del regolamento del FEG, oltre ad altri criteri, occorrono almeno licenziamenti, a petto dei 15 licenziamenti menzionati dall'onorevole deputato, per attivare il sostegno del Fondo. Italcarta is winding up its operations at Alife Caserta, Italy. Fifteen employees have lost their jobs, as well as social support payments. Italcarta, on the other hand, had been liquidated. The problems first started in , with the death of one of the two partners.

Has the Italian Government applied for assistance under the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund in order to help employees to find new jobs or retrain? The Commission was not aware of the closure of the Italcarta company. In the light of the information provided by the Honourable Member and despite the seriousness of the potential impact of the closure on the individual workers concerned, the latter do not appear to qualify for assistance from the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund EGF. L'Iran ha emesso sentenza di condanna a morte per l'americano di origine iraniana Amir Mirza Hekmati, arrestato a dicembre con l'accusa di spionaggio per la CIA.

La famiglia di Hekmati, giovane 28enne ex-marine, ha affermato dalla California che il giovane si trovava in visita a parenti. Questo ennesimo atto di Teheran rappresenta un'autentica sfida all'Occidente e al governo degli Stati Uniti. In Iran migliaia di persone, tra cui Amir Mirzai Hekmati, rischiano ancora di essere giustiziate. From California, the family of Hekmati, a year-old ex-marine, said that the young man was visiting family.

This latest action by Tehran is a true act of defiance against the West and the Government of the United States. The EU holds a strong and principled position against the death penalty. Thousands of individuals remain at risk of execution in Iran, including Amir Mirzai Hekmati. This includes the case of Amir Mirzai Hekmati. L'iniziativa ha ribadito l'apprensione dell'Unione per la situazione nel monastero di Kirti, dove si dice siano rimaste solo poche centinaia di monaci mentre la maggior parte sono stati mandati via o incarcerati.

Tulku Sonam Wangyal, a monk from Qinghai a region in the area of historic Tibet , recently immolated himself after dousing himself in paraffin oil and swallowing several mouthfuls. The demarche noted that the fact that a growing number of Tibetan monks are choosing to take such tragic steps demonstrates the profound and continuing depth of feeling among many Tibetans that their religious, linguistic and cultural rights are not being respected.

The EU urged the Chinese authorities to allow the resumption of normal religious observance, to withdraw government officials, to release monks who have been detained and to allow all monks who wish to do so to return to the monastery. The demarche expressed concern that restrictions on religious, linguistic and cultural rights throughout the Tibetan areas have increased recently.

The EU urged the Chinese authorities to address the root causes of the self-immolations, and in particular the perceived lack of genuine participation by the Tibetan population in the development policy of the region. The EU used this opportunity to raise human rights issues, including the issue of Tibet with the Chinese authorities. Subiect: Importuri cu urme de fungicid din Brazilia. The US Department of Agriculture has announced that it has found traces of the fungicide carbendazim in oranges imported from Brazil.

Can the Commission clarify whether checks have been or will be carried out on the matter in the Member States, and, if checks have already been made, what the results are? However at this stage, the Commission does not recommend the Member States to significantly increase their tests. Conform Deciziei nr. Biblioteca V. European Heritage Label is an action open to the participation of the Member States on a voluntary basis, strengthening European citizens' sense of belonging to the Union on a basis of shared elements of history and cultural heritage.

The pre-selection at national level will be carried out under the responsibility of the Member States. Various media reports state that one of the options being considered by the Spanish Government in order to reduce its deficit and meet its EU commitments to budgetary stability is the privatisation of public enterprises that are economically profitable. This decision may bring liquidity in the short term, but it means giving up structural revenues and public control of strategic infrastructures or services. Member States are not obliged to inform the Commission about their intentions regarding the privatisation of public enterprises.

The Commission is therefore not in a position to confirm whether the Spanish Government intends to privatise the enterprises mentioned by the Honourable Member. Cuotas participativas are instruments equivalent to equity which are devised specifically for Spanish savings banks.

They constitute, like other equity such as securities, a risk-absorbing financial instrument. As for the second question, the Commission does not have a specific opinion regarding the issuance of those shares by CAM in The Commission would like to recall that it lies within the competence of the national authorities to ensure that investors, in particular retail investors, are fully aware of the risks they undertake when investing in financial products.

The government itself insists that all citizens who receive healthcare in Catalonia will be required to pay, regardless of their level of income, work situation or state of health. For the first time, this law will break with one of the governing principles of the healthcare system in Catalonia, which is access to healthcare that is public, universal and free of charge.

The healthcare costs for all EU citizens who receive treatment with their European health insurance card are reimbursed to the citizens who have received that treatment. Does the Commission think that this measure is timely, fair and equitable, bearing in mind the current economic situation? In the case of citizens with a European health insurance card, will they be reimbursed for the cost of this tax?

If that is to be the case, who is going to take responsibility for the total budgetary amount involved? Member States, or their regional authorities, are responsible for the management of health services and medical care, the allocation of resources assigned to them and the conditions for obtaining such care. Monitoring of social protection policies including health branch is organised at EU level and the Commission is regularly informed of projects or proposals such as the one mentioned by the Honourable Member. The EU also promotes the coordination of national healthcare policies through the Open Method of Coordination.

This means the person should be treated under the same conditions, but also that they pay any patient fees that might apply. The healthcare provider is reimbursed for the full cost of treatment via a payment system between Member States. If a patient has had to pay for the full cost of a treatment and has been unable to claim a refund while staying abroad, he or she can contact the competent institution when returning home to claim reimbursement.

The companies included came from all industry sectors. The threat of cybercrime is also confirmed by recent reports by uscollegeresearch. Does the Commission plan to adopt measures under which companies in EU Member States could implement control measures to mitigate security risks associated with the introduction of modern technology? The Commission looks seriously at the growing threats to security related to the take-up of modern technologies also taking into account their potential to negatively affect the prosperity of our economies and society.

In , the Commission will propose a European Strategy for Internet Security, which will put in place a robust line of defence against cyber attacks and disruptions in order to boost network resilience and citizens' trust, thus contributing to the smooth functioning of the single market. Security is a shared responsibility of all stakeholders. As the private sector owns or runs most of the networks and infrastructure, the forthcoming Strategy will provide incentives to foster a risk management culture, adequate investments in the security of products and services and the adoption of good security practices.

The EU is also engaged with private sector in raising awareness of security risks, to ensure that state-of-the-art security measures are in place and used throughout the whole chain of Internet actors. What is the Commission's opinion on such a procedure, the result of which will be a rise in electricity bills that places a further burden on Greek citizens?

The reform of the Greek energy sector is a key element in the Commission's ongoing discussions with the Greek authorities. The Commission intends to help Greece undertake the necessary reforms to ensure that the financing of the Greek electricity sector is viable. These reforms must not impose an excessive burden on the electricity bills of Greek citizens, or jeopardise renewable energy growth and the achievement of the targets.

The Environment Commissioner recently warned that the overuse and waste of valuable natural resources threatens to cause a fresh economic crisis. He linked the current economic crisis in the euro area with potential future crises which could be caused by the wastage and consequent lack of key resources, including energy and raw materials.

According to him, this applies to energy raw materials and minerals, as well as water and food. Among the actions, which need to be undertaken in the short and medium term, the Roadmap envisages launching participatory processes to ensure that stakeholders at all levels are mobilised and involved in the debate on the necessary economic transformation. Active dialogue with businesses will be a key part of this. Resource efficiency issues will also feed in the deliberations of many existing forums, such as the Retail Forum or the Food Round Table.

Moreover, the right incentives need to be put into place to steer consumer behaviour. Market-based instruments are an effective means of getting prices to reflect more accurately the real value of resources and thereby better guide their allocation and use; therefore the Commission is encouraging Member States to use them via the Annual Growth Strategy. The law places the independence of the Hungarian Central Bank in jeopardy. The Hungarian Central Bank itself said that the new law and other laws that allow banks to be linked to the financial regulator seriously compromise the interests of the country and allow the government to influence the decisions of the Central Bank.

It allows the Prime Minister to appoint a third deputy governor, thereby weakening the position of the governor. It introduces a merger between the Central Bank and the Hungarian Financial Supervisory Authority PSZAF , which would mean the emergence of a new body and an opportunity for the government to remove the governor of the Central Bank by demoting him to deputy governor of the new institution. Does the Commission plan to impose some kind of sanctions on Hungary in this respect?

This is the first step in an infringement procedure. In the meantime, the Hungarian government has sent its reply and Commission services are assessing it. Within the framework of an infringement procedure, the Commission has no right to impose sanctions on Member States. The political parties in Bosnia have recently agreed to create a central government. The stalemate situation has long caused unease in both the European Union and the United Nations, and has made it impossible for the country to take further necessary democratic reforms.