Mohr's circle for a 3D state of stress. Three dimensional state of strain. Infinitesimal stain tensor. Principal values and directions of the strain tensor. Compatibility equations. Strain energy. Constitutive equations: Various types of material behaviour. Material constants and their determination. Constitutive equations for isotropic materials. Constitutive equations for orthotropic materials. Failure criteria for isotropic materials: The onset of failure.
Yield criteria: Huber-Mises-Hencky criterion. Tresca criterion. Fracture criterion of Coulomb- Mohr. Stability of struts: Stable and instable states of equilibrium. Stability of spring-rigid rod systems. Stability of elastic rods: Euler's formula. Geometrical and load imperfections. Generalization of the Euler formula. Stability of rods in elasto-plastic range Introduction to design of simple structural elements: Allowable stress versus limit states design philosophy.
Dimensioning of simple structural elements tension elements, shafts, beams and columns. Recommended textbooks for MM1 :. Jr : Mechanics of Materials. Ability in MM. Proficiency in plotting diagrams of shear forces and bending moments in beams. Proficiency in calculating stresses and strains in struts and beams subjected to simple and combined actions.
Proficiency in calculating displacements in beams. Ability to design a section of an element subjected to simple actions. Review of the basic concepts: Types of structures.
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Modelling of supports. Kinematic stability and instability External actions—dead and live loads, change in temperature, settlements of supports. The concept of internal forces. Plotting the internal forces diagrams for statically determinate beams. Displacements in statically determinate structures: The Principle of Virtual Work for elastic bodies.
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Determination of the displacement of a point in a structure by the Principle of Virtual Work: Effect of external loads. Effect of change in temperature. Effect of support settlements. Determination of the deflected shapes of various structures. Deflected lines for beams review of the material given by a Mechanics of Materials , Deflection of frames.
Deflection of arches. Deflection of upper and lower chords of trusses. Influence lines for statically determinate structures: The concept of an influence line. Determination of the influence lines by the static method. Influence lines for beams. Influence lines for trusses. Influence lines for arches. Static analysis of statically indeterminate structures: Force method: basic concept of the method, application of the force method for the analysis of statically indeterminate trusses, beams, frames and arches.
Displacement method: basic concept of the method, classical version of the method — application of the method for the analysis of statically indeterminate beams and frames. Matrix version of the method - application of the method for the analysis of statically indeterminate trusses, beams and frames. Moment distribution method: basic concepts of the method, iteration process for non-sway frames, iteration process for sway frames, effect of settlements of supports and changes in temperature.
Frames with non-prismatic members. Displacements in statically indeterminate structures: Determination of the linear displacements of points and angular displacements of sections: effect of external loads, effect of settlements of supports, effect of changes in temperature. Determination of the deflected shapes of structures: simple one-span beams, continuous beams, frames, trusses. Influence lines for statically indeterminate structures: Static approach: influence lines for one-span beams, influence lines for continuous beams, influence lines for frames, influence lines for trusses.
Kinematic approach: influence lines for beams, influence lines for frames, influence lines for trusses. Plastic analysis of structures. Basic concepts: plastic moment of resistance, ultimate load and collapse mechanisms. Theorems of plastic collapse: static or lower bound theorem, kinematics or upper bound theorem, uniqueness theorem.
Methods of plastic analysis: static method, method of mechanisms. Stability of structures: Stability criteria: energy criterion, stiffness criterion. Stability of simple systems with one degree of freedom: bifurcation of the equilibrium path, snap-trough phenomenon. Stability of complex struts: struts with complex support conditions, struts with stepped moments of inertia. Stability of plane frames: stability functions, numerical methods for determining the critical loads for frames.
Dynamics of structures: Dynamics of SDOF systems: free vibrations, forced vibrations, response to harmonic loading, response to arbitrary loading, response to ground excitation. Dynamics of MDOF systems: free vibrations, forced vibrations. Bending of thin plates: internal forces and moments in thin plates, displacement-strain relations, equilibrium equations.
Differential equation of deflected plate, some particular thin plate solutions. Basics of thin shell theory: internal forces and moments in thin shells, displacement - strain relations, equilibrium equations, some particular thin shell solutions. Finite element method: General idea of the method, Idealisation of structures. Analysis of two-dimensional elements: triangular element, rectangular element. Analysis of an entire structure: assembly of the structure stiffness matrix, determination of the nodal displacements and the element stresses.
Recommended books: 1. Chajes A. Ability in SM. Proficiency in calculation of inner forces as well as displacements in statically indeterminate structures, familiarity with numerical methods used in analysis of structures, knowledge of fundamentals of theory of plates and shells and of FEM. Fluids Mechanics. Basic principles. Properties of fluids. Pressure and its measurement. Forces on surfaces. Buoyancy and stability. Kinematics of fluids.
Ideal fluids. Stream function and Potential. Bernoulli equation. Dynamics of real fluids. Mass conservation. Equations of momentum and energy.
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Navier-Stokes equations. Laminar and Turbulent flows. Characteristics of Turbulence and turbulence models. Friction losses. Laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe. Boundary layers. Steady flow in closed conduits. Moody diagram. Secondary losses. Energy and piezometric lines.
Pipes in series. Parallel Pipes. Equivalent Pipe. Reservoirs and basic problems. Pumps and turbines. Steady flow in open channels. Uniform flow. Manning's equation. Compound sections. Efficient hydraulic section. Specific energy and force. Critical depth. Control sections.
Gradually varied flow. Rapidly varied flow. Hydraulic jump. Jump in a horizontal bed. Location of jump. Weirs and orifices. Groundwater Hydraulics and Hydrology. Darcy's law. Continuity equation. The mathematical model. Boundary conditions. Computations by means of the finite-difference method. Ditches and wells. Method of images. Infiltration force and the phenomenon of piping. Anisotropic and non-homogeneous aquifers. Analogue and physical models. Hydrologic cycle and balances. Measurement and analysis of precipitation and overland flow.
Hydrologic parameters for engineering works. Floods and droughts. Simulation of watersheds. Proficiency in theory of Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics. Units of measurement of geodetic parameters. Theory of errors. Concepts of the operation of classic and modern geodetic instruments. Geodetic instruments and methods for the measurement and computation of lengths, angles and height differences. Instruments and methods for the control of high structures. Systems of geodetic projections. Fundamental geodetic problems. Trigonometric determination of points. Polygonometric determination of points. Calibration, adjustment and maintenance of geodetic instruments.
Surveying of small and big land areas. Digital terrain models. Surveying of buildings, monuments and archaeological sites. Area and volume computations. Setting out of land properties and buildings. Setting out of roads and transportation works, tunnels and bridges. Setting out of port, hydraulic and drainage works. Setting out of dams. Cadastral and technical projects. Setting out of city plans.
Expropriation and compulsory purchases. Recent developments in Geodesy. Photogrametry and Geoinformation Systems. Fundamentals of mathematics and physics for Photogrammetry. Stereoscopy, photography and other kinds of images.
Photogrammetric takings, equipment, organisation. Photogrammetric instrumentation.
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Automated systems. Rectification, orthophotography, aerotriangulation. Close range, terrestrial, satellite and other kinds of Photogrammetry. Photogrammetry and digital terrain models, cartography. Geoinformatjon systems. Photogrammetry and Geoinformatjon systems GIS. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Understanding in S1, S2, S3. Proficiency in capture and exploitation of the geographical information as well as in topographic and photogrammetric methods.
Familiarity with the use of topographic instruments. History of evolution of technology of building Materials. Criteria of the selection of building materials. Physicochemical, mechanical thermal and acoustic properties of materials. Quality control and standardization.
Testing the properties of rocks. Causes of deterioration. Protection of stones and marble. Crushing of rocks. Origin, production, treatment. Properties of aggregate, sieve analysis. Tests for suitability of aggregates for concrete and road construction. Modulus of elasticity of sand and fine aggregates. Raw materials, manufacture, ceramic bricks and roof tiles. Expanded clay - light aggregate for concrete.
Classificatjon, production, mechanisms of setting and hardening. Sorel binder. Anhydrite Resins. Manufacture, mechanism of setting and hardening. Testing of properties of cement. Categories of cement. Propertjes characteristics. Criteria for suitability of mortars. Laboratory exercises: Sieve analysis of aggregates. Apparent specific density of coarse aggregate.
Bulk density. Granulometric synthesis of aggregates. Measurement of fineness of cement by blaine : Manufacture and test of cement mortars. Categories of concrete. Properties of fresh concrete. Tests of workability of concrete. Ready mixed concrete. Design of concrete mixtures. Properties of hardened concrete, compressive, flexure, tensile and biaxial actions. Lightweight concrete materials. Concrete bond by pull out test.
Metallic building materials. Steel for reinforcement of concrete. Manufacture tests of steel quality. Corrosion of steel. Laboratory exercises: Design of concrete mixture. Manufacture of the designed concrete mixture. Testing of compressive and flexural strength measurement of steel. Stress strain curve and measurement of modulus of elasticity. Test of steel in tension. Yield point and ultimate elongation. Timber and manufactured boards — properties, durability, protection, products and their application.
Thermal and acoustical insulating materials — properties, application. Properties and application. System concept and performance applied to domestic, industrial and commercial buildings. Modular coordination in building construction. Basic concepts in building design. Functional process and space planning. Buildings presentation in technical drawings: scale and conventions. Actions on buildings. Loads: permanent loads, live loads, climatic loads. Seismic action. Agents acting on buildings.
Design fundamentals. Design codes. Structural planning and typical solutions. Dimensioning methods for structural elements. Seismic analysis. Typical solutions for ductility enhancement. Building infrastructure: basements and foundations. Geotechnical conditions and foundations depth. Typical foundation solutions. Waterproofing of basements and foundations. Buildings with cast-in-place and precast concrete structure: shear-wall structures and dual structures. Buildings with masonry structural walls: layout, materials. Buildings with frame structures.
Seismic behaviour. Typical solutions. Principles of design. Structural solutions for concrete and steel floor plates. Arches, vaults, domes. Vertical transport: stairs, ramps. Types of roofs. Roofing works. General characteristic of wood and wooden structures. Cold and warm roofs. Thermal insulation of roofs. Attics and roof lights. Rainwater discharge. Openings and shutters in structural and partitioning walls. Floors: tasks, layout. Floor finishing. Suspended ceilings. Partitions walls. Plastering and walls finishing. Energy saving in the buildings. Thermal insulation of partitions.
Water insulations. Hygrothermal comfort. Acoustical comfort and protection. Fire protection of buildings. Basic concepts for building services. Water supply, drainage and sanitary systems. Electromechanical installation. Heating systems. Ability in BC3 and BC4. Conception of a building structure. Design components and requirements.
Design coordination. Building project layout. The course presents the role and objectives of structural design within a process of civil and building design as well as the general rules of structural design. Designing as a creative human activity. Project elements: architectural project - structural project - sanitary systems - construction - cost calculation. Aims and parts of a structural design. Modelling of a structural bearing system in 3D space of a building. Basic information about bearing systems.
Partition of a building into independent segments; dilatation. Three dimensional, plane and linear structural systems. Subdivision of a structural system into structural elements. Structural stability and stiffness with reference to different types of structures reinforced concrete cast in situ and precast, steel, timber, masonry. The course regards to the theoretical basis of the reliable structural design. General principles of structural design: basic requirements, limit state design.
Uncertainties in the building process. Basic variables. Structural reliability analysis: geometrical and behavioural idealization of structures. Development of the structural reliability concepts: deterministic, semi-probabilistic the Partial Factor Method , simplified probabilistic Reliability Index Method , full probabilistic. Reliability measures. Models of structural loads: classification of loads, statistical parameters, methods of loads combination. Models of structural resistance: statistical parameters of materials and structural elements, references for models of resistance.
Definitions of failure. Analytical, numerical integration and simulation methods in structural reliability and safety analysis. Reliability index: general, mean value, Hasofer-Lind. Uncorrelated and correlated basic random variables. Reliability analysis using simulation. Target values of reliability measures. Calibration of partial safety factors. Probabilistic design of structural elements and simple structures. National Standards and Euro-Codes. Examples of calculations. The course regards to structural systems reliability, special problems and advanced methods of structural reliability assessment.
Elements and systems reliability. Series, parallel and mixed systems. Reliability bounds for structural systems. Time-variant reliability methods: transfer into independent systems, out-crossing approach, spectral analysis. Design and assessment of deteriorating structures. Life-cycle probabilistic design. Testing based design.
Illustrative examples. Development of reliability-based design codes: European standards. Human errors: classification, error surveys, approach to errors. Advanced versions of simulation procedures.
Stochastic Finite Element Method — brief introduction. Proficiency in the knowledge of the behaviour of the most habitual structures as well as familiarity with the methods of conventional analysis. The course provides an introduction to fundamentals of Geology.
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The Earth zones. Geological processes of internal and external origin. Absolute and relative age of rocks. Geological time table. Tectonic movements of Earth crust. Folding and faulting. Seismic zoning and micro zoning. Geological activities of wind. Eolian deposits. Water erosion. Sheet erosion. Geological work of rivers. Alluvial deposits Glaciers. Civil engineering is a broad field divided into several specializations with differing educational and certification options. Here are six of the civil engineering subfields with brief descriptions:.
According to Career InfoNet , civil engineers may assume such job titles as bridge or structure inspection leader; structural engineer; county engineer; city engineer; railroad design consultant; water engineer; design engineer; project administrator; chief engineering officer; or chief technical officer, among others. Common options include the bachelor of science B. E ; or a specialized B.
Electives and specialized civil engineering coursework round out this base of core engineering and general education classes. Typical classes include:. Students can pursue on-campus or online degrees in civil engineering. Online programs can be especially appealing to working professionals advancing their educations or satisfying continuing education requirements for credentialing see below. Graduate civil engineering program admissions requirements vary, but typically include the following:.
Please note that some civil engineering graduate programs require applicants to answer supplemental questions or sit for interviews. Real examples from Stanford University include:. The curriculum typically includes some variation of the following classes:. The FE exam is available in the following disciplines:. Readers can visit the Council online to review all options and eligibility requirements. In addition to the EIT, there is a wide range of state, national, and board-issued credentialing available for civil engineers.
According to the National Society of Professional Engineers , all states regulate professional civil engineering standards. For example, most states require civil engineers to obtain licenses before assuming formal titles such as general engineering contractor, structural engineer, and erosion specialist, among others. The professional exam, licensing, and other civil engineering requirements vary by state and specialization.
Most employers prefer or require candidates with PE licenses, which verify advanced knowledge and experience. Some tasks can only be completed by PEs. Even if not required, PEs usually enjoy better earnings, employment rates, and advancement potential. According to the NSPE, most states require PEs to meet certain continuing education standards to maintain their licenses.
Many professional civil engineering organizations and the NSPE offer online continuing education courses, sometimes at no charge. A revision of the classic reference covering all important principles and techniques needed by practicing civil engineers. The 5th Edition incorporates changes in design and construction practices, especially in design specifications for construction materials, buildings and bridges, safety and health concerns, and the most current codes changes including ACI, AISC, ASTM, NDS for wood structures, etc.
The Handbook covers systems design, community and regional planning, the latest design methods for buildings, airports, highways, tunnels and bridges. It includes sections on construction equipment, construction management, materials, specifications, structural theory, geotechnical engineering, wood, concrete, steel design and construction. Beyond Failure presents the circumstances of important failures that have had far-reaching impacts on civil engineering practice.
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Each case study narrates the known facts: design and construction, the failure, subsequent investigation or analysis, and, where appropriate, additional issues such as technical concerns, ethical considerations, professional practice issues, and long-term effects. The case studies are organized around eight common topics of undergraduate engineering courses and include teaching points and a reading list, so this book is useful to engineering faculty and students.
With more than 40 full cases, including the Silver Bridge collapse in Point Pleasant, WV; the levee breaches in New Orleans, LA; and the Challenger space shuttle explosion, this book will also appeal to practicing engineers with an interest in forensic investigations or the analysis of historic failures. Davidson Publisher : Greenwood Press, Building the World comprises detailed entries on over forty of the most important engineering projects in world history, such as the city of Washington D.
The rich illustration program includes 66 photographs and 30 illustrations, maps, and drawings that document the most important structures ever built. Each entry includes a detailed history of the planning and construction of the project, and a discussion of its subsequent importance. A unique feature of the encyclopedia is an extensive primary source collection that illustrates how the decision to create such a structure came to be, demonstrating the importance of individuals in imagining, planning, and building some of the most famous engineering landmarks in the world.
Civil Engineer's Handbook of Professional Practice focuses on the business and management aspects of a civil engineer's job, providing students and practitioners with sound business management principles Addresses contemporary issues such as permitting, globalization, sustainability, and emerging technologies Offers proven methods for balancing speed, quality, and price with contracting and legal issues in a client-oriented profession Includes guidance on juggling career goals, life outside work, compensation, and growth From the challenge of sustainability to the rigors of problem recognition and solving, this book is an essential tool for those practicing civil engineering.
Civil Engineering Formulas by Tyler G. Hicks This link opens in a new window. Updated and including over new formulas, this book offers a single compilation of all essential civil engineering formulas and equations in one easy-to-use reference. Follow the calculation procedures and get precise results with minimum time and effort. Up-to-date techniques for solving any civil engineering problem Perform complex design and construction calculations quickly and accurately with help from this thoroughly revised guide. Handbook of Civil Engineering Calculations, Third Edition, features more than logically organized calculations that align with the latest practices, codes, and standards.
You will get start-to-finish calculation procedures for load resistance factor design LRFD , anti-terrorism components, enhanced building security, green construction, safe bridge design, and environmentally sound water treatment. All-new steps to improve indoor air quality and protect structures from hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and waves are also discussed in this on-the-job resource.
Bridge Engineering covers highway bridge planning, design, construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. This thoroughly revised reference contains cutting-edge analytical, design, and construction practices, the most current information on new materials and methods, and proven, cost-effective maintenance and repair techniques. Real-world case studies and hundreds of helpful photos and illustrations are also included in this practical resource. Earthquake Engineering teaches how to analyze the behavior of structures under seismic excitation and features up-to-date details on the design and construction of earthquake-resistant steel and reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, and isolated systems.
Advanced chapters cover seismic isolation, synthetic earthquakes, foundation design, and geotechnical aspects such as liquefaction. Tunneling provides a robust solution to a variety of engineering challenges.