Manual IFA F8 & F9. Two Stroke Cars from East Germany. (TWO STROKE CAR SERIES. Book 3)

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It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in after World War II , established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States , the United Kingdom and France , its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs.

Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin ; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the — German Empire.

It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council , West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy.

The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer , who remained in office until , had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in , there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.

Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in , symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall , there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in , its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land.

They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October , raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany ; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the s and s. This changed once under its constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In , official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit.

On 31 May , the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. ISO alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.

The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. On 4—11 February leaders from the United States , the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated. The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.

Engine An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium—the root of the word ingenious.

Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery , were not mechanical engines but pumps. In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses.

In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers.

The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons , the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source. However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel.

A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure.

Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan , windlass or treadmill , with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece , as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder , treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.

By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo , a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events.

In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water.

Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors. Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour.

In , al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in and by Giovanni Branca in In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder , this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe ; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he.

Duroplast Duroplast is a composite thermosetting plastic, a close relative of formica and bakelite. It is a resin plastic reinforced with fibers making it a fiber-reinforced plastic similar to fiberglass. Duroplast was used by the German Democratic Republic state owned automobile manufacturer called VEB Sachsenring Automobilwerke Zwickau from to until , just after German Reunification , it was the material used to produce the body of the Trabant.

Duroplast is strong, it is made of cotton waste and phenol resins. Because it can be made in a press similar to shaping steel, it is more suitable for volume car production than fiberglass. Similar to fiberglass, Duroplast has limited possibilities for efficient disposal; as discarded Trabants began to fill junkyards, creative solutions sprung up for disposing of them. One of these was developed by a Berlin biotechnology company, which experimented with a bacterium to consume the body in 20 days.

Urban legends, depicted in the movie Black Cat, White Cat and described in a song by the Serbian band Atheist Rap , described recycling Duroplast by feeding the cars to pigs and other farm animals. In the late s, the same Trabant factory in Zwickau developed a solution for disposing of the Duroplast shells by shredding them and using them as an aggregate in cement blocks for pavement construction; this was featured in an episode of the program Scientific American Frontiers on the American PBS TV channel. The use of Duroplast in Trabants and subsequent GDR jokes and mockery in western auto magazines such as Car and Driver gave rise to an urban myth that the Trabant is made of corrugated cardboard.

The small DKWs were among top selling small cars in Germany in the s, regular model updates were part of the company's strategy for maintaining commercial success in this growing market sector. With its all steel body designed by Guenther Mickwausch the F9 would have represented a greater step forward than the F8 had done: it appears that the F9 was under development in , two years before launch of its F8 predecessor. Several prototypes were built during the period.

A Cd factor of 0. For the first time, a three cylinder engine was specified. In other respects, DKW traditions were respected; the engine was still a two stroke unit, the driven wheels were still the front wheels. The chassis was still of box frame construction. Had the war not intervened it is believed that the F9 would have replaced the F8 in In the event, production of the F8 Meisterklasse was prolonged until when passenger car production at Zwickau came to an end. However, after the war the car reappeared as the IFA F9 and was offered for sale by the Zwickau plant's new controllers between and Commonly referred to as the "Ur-Quattro" the " Ur- " prefix is a German augmentative used, in this case, to mean "original" and is also applied to the first generation of Audi's S4 and S6 sport sedans, as in "UrS4" and "UrS6" , few of these vehicles were produced all hand-built by a single team , but the model was a great success in rallying.

Prominent wins proved the viability of all-wheel drive racecars, and the Audi name became associated with advances in automotive technology. In , as the Passat-based Audi 80 was beginning to develop a kind of "grandfather's car" image, the type 89 was introduced.

This completely new development sold extremely well. However, its modern and dynamic exterior belied the low performance of its base engine, and its base package was quite spartan even the passenger-side mirror was an option. In , Audi put forward a new and very elegant Audi 90 , which had a much superior set of standard features. In the early s, sales began to slump for the Audi 80 series, and some basic construction problems started to surface. This decline in sales was not helped in the USA by a 60 Minutes report which purported to show that Audi automobiles suffered from "unintended acceleration".

The 60 Minutes report was based on customer reports of acceleration when the brake pedal was pushed. Independent investigators concluded that this was most likely due to a close placement of the accelerator and brake pedals unlike American cars , and the inability, when not paying attention, to distinguish between the two. In race cars, when manually downshifting under heavy braking, the accelerator has to be used in order to match revs properly, so both pedals have to be close to each other to be operated by the right foot at once, toes on the brake, heel on the accelerator; a driving technique called heel-and-toe.

This did not become an issue in Europe , possibly due to more widespread experience among European drivers with manual transmissions. Audi had contemplated withdrawing from the American market until sales began to recover in the mids. In the early part of the 21st century, Audi set forth on a German racetrack to claim and maintain several World Records, such as Top Speed Endurance. This effort was in-line with the company's heritage from the s racing era " Silver Arrows ".

Currently, Audi's sales are growing strongly in Europe. Record figures were recorded from 21 out of about 50 major sales markets. In March of , Audi is building its first two dealerships in India following its high increase in sales in the region. Their worldwide sales have been released as , vehicles sold, yet another record for the brand. It is predicted that in , they will pass the 1 million unit mark.

This comes amid criticism of BMW's iDrive control, essentially a rotating control knob designed to control radio, satellite navigation, TV, heating and car controls with a screen. MMI has been generally well-received, as it requires less menu-surfing with its mass of buttons around a central knob, with shortcuts to the radio or phone functions.

The screen, either colour or monochrome, is mounted on the upright dashboard, and on the A4 new , A5, A6, A8, and Q7 , the controls are mounted horizontally. Just call or text us and our friendly Service Consultant will answer any question you may have. E-mail: service dynarev. Mundelein , IL Holding in July Porsche AG Dr. Ducati Motor Holding S. SEAT, S. Founded in Berlin in by Prof.

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Hermann Appel as a university-affiliated research institute, the company employs over 5, members of staff, and supplies automobile manufacturers and component suppliers. The company and brand is one of the ancestor companies of the modern day Audi company as one of the four companies that formed Auto-Union. That year he attempted to produce a steam-driven car, called the DKW. He put a slightly modified version of this engine into a motorcycle and called it Das Kleine Wunder[3] — "the little wonder" the initials from this becoming the DKW brand: by the late s, DKW was the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer.

Wanderer Wanderer was a German manufacturer of bicycles, motorcycles, automobiles, vans and other machinery. After re-launching the Audi brand with the introduction of the Audi F series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in , thus creating the present day form of the company. The company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of the founder, August Horch. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union.

Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Advancement through Technology". Audi is among the best-selling luxury automobiles in the world. History Birth of the company and its name Originally in , automobile company Wanderer was established, later becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which also later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, and later supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler.

On 14 November , August Horch — established the company A.

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Three years later in he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. His former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht Supreme Court in Leipzig eventually determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company. Since August Horch was banned from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends, Paul and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau, Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.

Audi oversees worldwide operations from its headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was quietly studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he finally blurted out, "Father — audiatur et altera pars The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting.

Audi started with a 2, cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3, cc model, as well as 4, cc and 5, cc models. These cars were successful even in sporting events. The first six-cylinder model Type M, 4, cc appeared in August Horch left the Audiwerke in for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September , Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive.

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Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder the "four" with a Peugeot engine models were manufactured.

Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. It was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. This badge was used, however, only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems.

The technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated increasingly on smaller cars through the s, so that by the company's DKW brand accounted for After the final few Audis were delivered in the "Audi" name disappeared completely from the new car market for more than two decades. Overrun by the Soviet Army in , on the orders of the Soviet Union military administration the factories were dismantled as part of war reparations.

Following this, the company's entire assets were expropriated without compensation. With no prospect of continuing production in Soviet controlled East Germany, Auto Union executives began the process of relocating what was left of the company to West Germany. A site was chosen in Ingolstadt, Bavaria to start a spare parts operation in late , which would eventually serve as the headquarters of the reformed Auto Union in The former Audi factory in Zwickau restarted assembly of the pre-war-models in The Zwickau plant manufactured the infamous Trabant until , when it came under Volkswagen control—effectively bringing it under the same umbrella as Audi since The reformed company was launched 3 September and continued DKW's tradition of producing front-wheel drive vehicles with two-stroke engines.

It was only ten years later, after the company had attracted an investor that funds became available for construction of major car plant at the Ingolstadt head office site.

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However, small two-stroke cars were not the focus of Daimler-Benz's interests, and while the early s saw major investment in new Mercedes models and in a state of the art factory for Auto Union's, the company's aging model range at this time did not benefit from the economic boom of the early s to the same extent as competitor manufacturers such as Volkswagen and Opel. The decision to dispose of the Auto Union business was based on its lack of profitability. Ironically, by the time they sold the business, it also included a large new factory Eighteen months later, Volkswagen bought complete control of Ingolstadt, and by were using the spare capacity of the Ingolstadt plant to assemble an additional 60, Volkswagen Beetles per year.

Two-stroke engines became less popular during the s as customers were more attracted to the smoother four-stroke engines. In September , the DKW F was fitted with a four-stroke engine and a facelift for the car's front and rear. Volkswagen dumped the DKW brand because of its associations with two-stroke technology, and having classified the model internally as the F, sold it simply as the "Audi. Initially, Volkswagen was hostile to the idea of Auto Union as a standalone entity producing its own models having acquired the company merely to boost its own production capacity through the Ingolstadt assembly plant - to the point where Volkswagen executives ordered that the Auto Union name and flags bearing the four rings were removed from the factory buildings.

Fearing that the Volkswagen had no long term ambition for the Audi brand, Auto Union engineers under the leadership of Ludwig Kraus developed the first Audi in secret, without Nordhoff's knowledge. When presented with a finished prototype, Nordhoff was so impressed he authorised the car for production, which when launched in , went on to be a huge success. With this, the resurrection of the Audi brand was now complete, this being followed by the first generation Audi 80 in , which would in turn provide a template for VW's new front-wheel-drive water- cooled range which debuted from the mids onward.

NSU then focused on new rotary engines based on the ideas of Felix Wankel. In , the new NSU Ro 80 was a car well ahead of its time in technical details such as aerodynamics, light weight, and safety. However, teething problems with the rotary engines put an end to the independence of NSU. The Neckarsulm plant is now used to produce the larger Audi models A6 and A8. The Neckarsulm factory is also home of the quattro GmbH, a subsidiary responsible for development and production of Audi high-performance models: the R8 and the "RS" model range.

Volkswagen introduced the Audi brand to the United States for the model year. That same year, the mid-sized car that NSU had been working on, the K70, originally intended to slot between the rear-engined Prinz models and the futuristic NSU Ro 80, was instead launched as a Volkswagen. Ultimately, the Audi 80 and progenitors of the A4 and A6, respectively became the company's biggest sellers, whilst little investment was made in the fading NSU range; the Prinz models were dropped in whilst the fatally flawed NSU Ro80 went out of production in , spelling the effective end of the NSU brand.

Production of the Audi had been steadily moved from Ingolstadt to Neckarsulm as the s had progressed, any by the appearance of the second generation C2 version in , all production was now at the former NSU plant. Neckarsulm from that point onward would produce Audi's higher end models. Commonly referred to as the "Ur-Quattro" the "Ur-" prefix is a German augmentative used, in this case, to mean "original" and is also applied to the first generation of Audi's S4 and S6 Sport Saloons, as in "UrS4" and "UrS6" , few of these vehicles were produced all hand-built by a single team , but the model was a great success in rallying.

Prominent wins proved the viability of all-wheel drive racecars, and the Audi name became associated with advances in automotive technology. At the same time the company's headquarters moved back to Ingolstadt and two new wholly owned subsidiaries; Auto Union GmbH and NSU GmbH, were formed to own and manage the historical trademarks and intellectual property of the original constituent companies the exception being Horch, which had been retained by Daimler-Benz after the VW takeover , and to operate Audi's heritage operations.

In , as the Passat-based Audi 80 was beginning to develop a kind of "grandfather's car" image, the type 89 was introduced. This completely new development sold extremely well. However, its modern and dynamic exterior belied the low performance of its base engine, and its base package was quite spartan even the passenger-side mirror was an option.

In , Audi put forward a new and very elegant Audi 90, which had a much superior set of standard features. In the early s, sales began to slump for the Audi 80 series, and some basic construction problems started to surface. In the early part of the 21st century, Audi set forth This effort was in-line with the company's heritage from the s racing era Silver Arrows. This began with the release of the Audi V8 in Most obvious was the new grille that was now incorporated in the bonnet.

Although the five-cylinder engine was a successful and robust power plant, it was still a little too different for the target market. With the introduction of an all-new Audi in , Audi introduced a 2.

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The five-cylinder was soon dropped as a major engine choice; however, a turbocharged hp kW version remained. The engine, initially fitted to the Quattro 20V of , was a derivative of the engine fitted to the Sport Quattro. These two models were the beginning of the mass- produced S series of performance cars. Audi unintended acceleration allegations Sales in the United States fell after a series of recalls from to of Audi models associated with reported incidents of sudden unintended acceleration linked to six deaths and accidents.

A 60 Minutes report aired 23 November , featuring interviews with six people who had sued Audi after reporting unintended acceleration, showing an Audi ostensibly suffering a problem when the brake pedal was pushed. Subsequent investigation revealed that 60 Minutes had engineered the failure — fitting a canister of compressed air on the passenger-side floor, linked via a hose to a hole drilled into the transmission. Audi contended, prior to findings by outside investigators, which the problems were caused by driver error, specifically pedal misapplication.

Subsequently, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA concluded that the majority of unintended acceleration cases, including all the ones that prompted the 60 Minutes report, were caused by driver error such as confusion of pedals. CBS did not acknowledge the test results of involved government agencies, but did acknowledge the similar results of another study. In a review study published in , NHTSA summarized its past findings about the Audi unintended acceleration problems: "Once an unintended acceleration had begun, in the Audi , due to a failure in the idle-stabilizer system producing an initial acceleration of 0.

These accelerations could not be the sole cause of [ long- duration sudden acceleration incidents SAI ], but might have triggered some SAIs by startling the driver. The defective idle-stabilization system performed a type of electronic throttle control. Significantly: multiple "intermittent malfunctions of the electronic control unit were observed and recorded Later repairs, of , cars dating back to , added a device requiring the driver to press the brake pedal before shifting out of park.

A legacy of the Audi and other reported cases of sudden unintended acceleration are intricate gear stick patterns and brake interlock mechanisms to prevent inadvertent shifting into forward or reverse. It is unclear how the defects in the idle-stabilization system were addressed. Audi subsequently offered increased warranty protection and renamed the affected models — with the becoming the and in — and only reached the same sales levels again by model year A BusinessWeek article — outlining possible parallels between Audi's experience and — Toyota vehicle recalls — noted a class-action lawsuit filed in by about 7, Audi model owners remains unsettled and is currently being contested in county court in Chicago after appeals at the Illinois state and U.

Model introductions In the mid-to-late s, Audi introduced new technologies including the use of aluminum construction. Produced from to , the Audi A2 was a futuristic super mini, born from the Al2 concept, with many features that helped regain consumer confidence, like the aluminum space frame, which was a first in production car design. In the A2 Audi further expanded their TDI technology through the use of frugal three-cylinder engines. The A2 was extremely aerodynamic and was designed around a wind tunnel. The Audi A2 was criticized for its high price and was never really a sales success but it planted Audi as a cutting-edge manufacturer.

However, the A2 was discontinued in and Audi decided not to develop an immediate replacement. The next major model change came in when the Audi A4 replaced the Audi The new nomenclature scheme was applied to the Audi to become the Audi A6 with a minor facelift. This also meant the S4 became the S6 and a new S4 was introduced in the A4 body.

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The S2 was discontinued. The Audi Cabriolet continued on based on the Audi 80 platform until , gaining the engine upgrades along the way.

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The engines available throughout the range were now a 1. Further engines were added along the way, including a 3. Audi AG today Audi's sales grew strongly in the s, with deliveries to customers increasing from , in to 1,, in China in particular has become a key market, representing , out of , cars delivered in the first three quarters of Audi manufactures vehicles in seven plants around the world, some of which are shared with other VW Group marques although many sub-assemblies such as engines and transmissions are manufactured within other Volkswagen Group plants.

In fact none were tested. Along with other precautionary measures, the full-body zinc coating has proved to be very effective in preventing rust. The body's resulting durability even surpassed Audi's own expectations, causing the manufacturer to extend its original year warranty against corrosion perforation to currently 12 years except for aluminum bodies which do not rust. Space frame Audi introduced a new series of vehicles in the mids and continues to pursue new technology and high performance.

An all-aluminum car was brought forward by Audi, and in the Audi A8 was launched, which introduced aluminum space frame technology called Audi Space Frame or ASF which saves weight and improves torsion rigidity compared to a conventional steel frame. Prior to that effort, Audi used examples of the Type 44 chassis fabricated out of aluminum as test-beds for the technique. The disadvantage of the aluminum frame is that it is very expensive to repair and requires a specialized aluminum body shop.

The weight reduction is somewhat offset by the quattro four-wheel drive system which is standard in most markets. Nonetheless, the A8 is usually the lightest all-wheel drive car in the full-size luxury segment, also having best-in-class fuel economy. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to design and build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in , he noticed an aluminum paperweight and thought that aluminum might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons. In August , W. Ex—Royal Flying Corps officer, Clive Gallop, designed an innovative 4 valves per cylinder engine for the chassis.

By December the engine was built and running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June , but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September The durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brook lands.

Bentley's first major event was the Indianapolis , a race, dominated by specialized cars with Duisenberg racing chassis. They entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. Hawkes completed the full miles and finished 13th with an average speed of In , he acquired his first Bentley, a 3-litre.