This can usually be seen on an engine with a performance chip at the highest power setting and maybe an intake or exhaust upgrade. Under these conditions, the stock turbo is running on borrowed time.
When the modifications get more serious, a bigger turbo is a must have to compliment even more fuel. In order to decide on the appropriate turbocharger for your diesel engine, the very first thing that needs to be established is the power target. Since turbochargers are sized by how much air they can deliver and airflow is proportional to engine power, a realistic horsepower goal is critical to make the right choice.
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The concept of a realistic goal needs to be stressed in order to ensure maximum performance and satisfaction. Sure, everyone would like to have a mega-horsepower vehicle but past a reasonable limit, as the power goes up, the reliability, drivability and day-to-day utility is diminished. Things are more likely to go wrong, wear out and break down as the output climbs.
Turbocharging to Save Gas, Instead of to Go Fast
Most project vehicles can fall into one of the following general categories:. The first step is to read the Turbo Tech Expert section.
This article explains the reading of a compressor map and the equations needed to properly match a turbo. The examples given, however, are for gasoline engines, so we are going to work some additional examples here using those same equations but with a diesel engine. This includes vehicles up to HP over stock.
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But wait, this power level can be accomplished with just a chip or tuning module. So why bother with a new upgrade turbo? An upgrade turbo will enhance the gains made by installing the chip and other upgrades. The extra air and lower backpressure provided by the upgrade turbo will lower EGTs, allow more power with less smoke and address durability issues with the stock turbo at higher boost pressures and power levels. Because this will be a mild upgrade, boost response and drivability will be improved across the board.
I have a 6. I would like to make wheel hp; an increase of wheel horsepower. So we will need to choose a compressor map that has a capability of at least Next, how much boost pressure will be needed? So now we have a Mass Flow and Manifold Pressure. We are almost ready to plot the data on the compressor map. Next step is to determine how much pressure loss exists between the compressor and the manifold. The best way to do this is to measure the pressure drop with a data acquisition system, but many times that is not practical.
For our examples we will estimate that there is a 2 psi loss. Therefore we will need to add 2 psi to the manifold pressure in order to determine the Compressor Discharge Pressure P 2c. To get the correct inlet condition, it is now necessary to estimate the air filter or other restrictions. In the Pressure Ratio discussion earlier we said that a typical value might be 1 psi, so that is what will be used in this calculation.
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Also, we are going to assume that we are at sea level, so we are going to use an ambient pressure of We will need to subtract the 1 psi pressure loss from the ambient pressure to determine the Compressor Inlet Pressure P1. For the 2. We now have enough information to plot these operating points on the compressor map.
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First we will try a GTR. This turbo has an 88mm tip diameter 52 trim compressor wheel with a As you can see, this point falls nicely on the map with some additional room for increased boost and mass flow if the horsepower target climbs. For this reason, the GT37R turbo family is applied on many of the Garrett Powermax turbo kits that are sized for this horsepower range. This category is for daily driven vehicles that have up to horsepower over stock or wheel horsepower. Looking at the previous map, the compressor does not flow enough to support this requirement, so we must look at the next larger size compressor.
Another option that could also be considered is the GTR which has a slightly larger inducer compressor and the next larger frame size turbine wheel. This category is for real hot rod vehicles that have up to horsepower over stock and owners that are willing to give up some of the daily utility in order to achieve higher power gains.
For this flow and pressure ratio, the GTR is appropriate and is shown below. Since this is approaching a pressure ratio of 4-to-1, we are about at the limit of a single turbo on an engine of this size. The final case is the Competition category. Since this is a special case and there are so many ways to go about an ultimate power diesel application, it is not possible to cover it adequately in this article.
There are, however, some general guidelines.
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At this power level, as stated above, it is a good idea to consider a series turbo application. This is a situation where one turbo feeds another turbo, sharing the work of compressing the air across both compressors. The low-pressure compressor feeds the high-pressure compressor which then feeds the intake. On the turbine-side the exhaust first passes through the high-pressure turbine and then on to the low-pressure turbine before being routed out through the tailpipe. We can still calculate the required mass flow, but the pressure ratio is more involved and questions should be discussed with your local Garrett Powermax distributor.
To calculate the required mass flow, we use the normal equation. This time the power target will be wheel horsepower over stock, for a total of wheel horsepower. The truth is that undocumented immigrants contribute more in payroll taxes than they will ever consume in public benefits. Take Social Security. As the baby boom generation ages and retires, immigrant workers are key to shoring up Social Security and counteracting the effects of the decline in U.
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The reason, according to the U. Chamber of Commerce, is two-fold. For one, removing millions of undocumented workers from the economy would also remove millions of entrepreneurs, consumers and taxpayers. The economy would actually lose jobs.
Turbocharging to Save Gas, Instead of to Go Fast
Second, native-born workers and immigrant workers tend to possess different skills that often complement one another. According to Griswold, immigrants, regardless of status, fill the growing gap between expanding low-skilled jobs and the shrinking pool of native-born Americans who are willing to take such jobs. By facilitating the growth of such sectors as retail, agriculture, landscaping, restaurants, and hotels, low-skilled immigrants have enabled those sectors to expand, attract investment, and create middle-class jobs in management, design and engineering, bookkeeping, marketing and other areas that employ U.
America's unions support the president's executive action. But under current immigration laws, there are very few options for legal immigration, the costs are increasingly prohibitive and the wait for any kind of status can be long and frustrating. Related: I created 7 jobs and the US tried to deport me.