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Guide II consenso per servire (Saggistica) (Italian Edition)

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Monckton outside Portsmouth, England, and another in Sardinia. One of the stay-behind operatives trained at Ft. Monckton recalled, "We were made to do exercises, going out in the dead of night and pretending to blow up trains in the railway stations without the stationmaster or the porters seeing you. We crept about and pretended to lay charges on the right part of the railway engine with a view to blowing it up. Lyndon LaRouche first emphasized within hours of the Madrid train bombings of March 11, which killed and wounded thousands more, that they were not the work of "Islamic terrorists," but followed the pattern of the Bologna bombing.

Vincenzo Vinciguerra, an Italian neo-fascist terrorist who was jailed for life and who had been bitter about the secret service's "manipulation" of neo-fascist groups ever since , explained how Gladio and any sister organizations worked: "You had to attack civilians, the people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game. The reason was quite simple.

They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the State to ask for greater security. This is the political logic that lies behind all the massacres and the bombings which remain unpunished, because the State cannot convict itself or declare itself responsible for what happened. It reported in April , "Britain's role in setting up stay-behinds throughout Europe was absolutely fundamental. More crucial than the stay-behinds, were the secretive bodies which coordinated them, such as P2.

Here, too, the British led the way. Already in , the British set up a proto-P2 masonic lodge composed of House of Savoy monarchists, aristocrats, and Mussolini loyalists. A Jan. OSS official James Jesus Angleton saved Borghese in , and then set up the clandestine structure in the Italian military and secret services, which produced the Italian section of Gladio.

Angleton was a devout Anglophile and a pro-fascist, who had spent much of his boyhood in Italy, where his father, James Hugh Angleton, owned the Italian subsidiary of National Cash Register. The outspokenly pro-Hitler, pro-Mussolini senior Angleton also headed the U. Chamber of Commerce in Italy, and had extensive contacts with Mussolini's intelligence services.

Some accounts report that he was a business partner of Allen Dulles. Both he and his son were to work for the special counterespionage unit of OSS, X-2, which had been set up at the demand of the British. Though it was nominally an American organization, the headquarters of X-2 for all of Europe, and even most of the globe, was London. X-2 was trained and de facto run throughout the war by the British, as its operatives were dispatched across Europe.

From late through the first half of , Lt.

The Myth of Republicanism in Renaissance Italy | Cursor Mundi

James Hugh Angleton was X-2's liaison to Marshal Pietro Badoglio and other leaders of the Italian army, and to the army's intelligence service, building upon his excellent contacts in pre-war Italy. The junior Angleton landed in Italy as an X-2 operative in October The U.

This, naturally, set the pattern for decades to come. By age 28, he was chief of all secret activity, intelligence as well as counterintelligence, in Italy for the Strategic Services Unit, the short-lived successor to OSS, and predecessor to the operational section of the CIA, which was established in Essential to Angleton's activities, to the establishment of the first stay-behind units in Italy, and to the organization of the Vatican-linked "rat-lines" which smuggled fascists out of Europe at war's end, was the Sovereign Military Order of Malta SMOM.

The Rome-based SMOM was a nominally Catholic organization with membership drawn from the highest ranks of the European oligarchy, in particular Italy's black nobility. A member of the "Black Prince's" family, S. As Angleton rose in U. Under NSC directives issued in and , the CIA helped the Italian police set up secret units of counterinsurgency specialists, largely drawn from veterans of Mussolini's secret police.

A new military intelligence agency, SIFAR, was organized under the direction of a covert American intelligence operative, Carmel Offie, nicknamed "the godfather. On Dec. Indeed, some people in U. Greene and Massignani observe that, "Interestingly enough, the core of the future Gladio stay-behind organization started with the Osoppo partisans. In , Borghese led some MSI volunteers, among others, to launch an uprising in the north Adriatic city of Trieste, a city which was claimed by both Italy and Yugoslavia.

The neo-fascists acted on behalf of the "Committee for the Defense of Italians of Trieste and Istria," whose weapons were delivered by the Italian secret services. The following year, Trieste was returned to Italy. He was later to become one of the leaders of the "Tricolor Committee for the Italianity of the Alto Adige.

Though Italian territory, the area was German-speaking, and a fruitful area for promoting ethnic conflict. According to documents discovered in Italy in , Gladio's forces there were divided into 40 main groups, 10 specialized in sabotage, 6 each in espionage, propaganda, evasion and escape tactics, and 12 in guerrilla activities. A special Gladio training camp was set up on Sardinia, off Italy's western coast, run by the Americans and the British. That same year, , U. He began purging officers deemed not sufficiently "anti-communist," in either his eyes or or those of U.

CIA Rome station chief William Harvey, meanwhile, was recruiting "action teams" to throw bombs and attack leftists. These teams launched an attack on a peaceful demonstration in Rome in , leaving people injured and heavy damage to part of the city. The action was later linked to Gladio, in testimony by a general of the secret service. In , Borghese became president of the Banco di Credito Commerciale e Industriale, a very high-paying "ceremonial post" which was designed to build up his capabilities. The bank had been the very first one owned by the Sicilian financier Michele Sindona, a Fascist during World War II, who later laundered heroin funds for the Sicilian mafia, and then became a power in P2.

Borghese's bank was involved with a "vast sector" of conservative economic interests, including the son of Dominican Republic dictator Rafael Trujillo, Franco's Spain, and reactionary circles in the Vatican and the Christian Democratic Party. Ultimately the bank collapsed, but Borghese got off almost scot-free.

These connections extended to very high levels. It also appears that the financial wherewithal that he needed to survive may have come from such sources after the end of the war. From to , the Synarchy initiated a phase change in international affairs with the Cuban Missiles Crisis, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and Enrico Mattei , the attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle, and the launching of the war in Vietnam and the youth rock-drug-sex counterculture, among other things.

Italy was not exempt. As Prime Minister Aldo Moro in was negotiating his first government with Socialist participation, the synarchists unleashed a coup threat under the name "Plan Solo. The usual accounts of Gladio-related coup threats invariably emphasize Moro's "opening to the left" as the reason for them. However, there is another reason, internal to Italy itself in addition to the global ramifications of a coup in Italy , but one which is entirely coherent with the Synarchy's attempt to stop Italy's economic development.

This other dimension emerges clearly in the account of Plan Solo by EIR counterterrorism and Italian affairs expert Claudio Celani: "Segni, a right-wing Christian Democrat, was manipulated by an intelligence officer, Col. In reality, a few large monopolies in the hands of the same families who had supported Mussolini's regime feared that the new government would introduce reforms to break their power in real estate, energy, finance, and economic planning. Giovanni de Lorenzo, and asked him to prepare a list of political leaders to be rounded up in case of an insurgency. De Lorenzo prepared "Plan Solo," which included a list of individuals to be interned at the Gladio camp in Sardinia.

The coup did not eventuate, leaving a very "angry Borghese. In early May , a meeting took place at the Parco Dei Principi Hotel in Rome, which Italian prosecutors consider the planning meeting for the "Strategy of Tension. Present were leaders of the fascist terror groups, Avanguardia Nazionale AN and Ordine Nuovo ON , pro-fascist journalists, the military, and various secret services. One of the fascist journalists present was Guido Giannettini, also an operative of the Italian secret services, who four years earlier had taught a seminar at the U.

Delle Chiaie had probably been recruited by the UAR secret unit of Italy's Interior Ministry as early as , and was to be Borghese's chief lieutenant in the coup plot. During the s through his coup attempt in , Borghese either founded or was intimately involved in at least three fascist terror organizations: Delle Chiaie's AN; the ON; and the Fronte Nazionale FN , which Borghese founded in for the sole purpose, according to a document of SID as SIFAR was renamed after , "to subvert the institutions of the state by means of a coup.

NATO interventions were not limited to Italy. In Greece in , despite a wave of terror, the left-of-center Center Union under former Prime Minister George Papandreou was expected to return to power. On the night of April , , the Greek military pulled a coup. At least arms caches, including some at Carabinieri barracks, were at their disposal," reported Arthur E. Rowse, who has examined Gladio's Italian operations in depth. Terrorism exploded in Italy, with attacks in , another in , and peaked at 2, in Borghese's efforts were a key part of this.

In the FN, Borghese was known as "the Commander," and he established "action groups" all over the country. The FN like the AN had a two-part structure: "A" groups, which were the public side of FN, and clandestine "B" groups, whose existence was usually unknown even to the members of their respective A groups. The B groups were to be used in terrorism, in the "Strategy of Tension" aimed at producing a change in the Italian government, which exploded with the Piazza Fontana massacre on Dec. Members of the Borghese-connected ON were arrested on suspicion of the crime, but cover-ups run by P2 and the secret services ensured their release.

The terror and coup attempts escalated after U. President Nixon took office in Alexander Haig, and Gelli maintained many high-level contacts in the U. Republican Party. The synarchist Kissinger was bitterly opposed to a sovereign Italy. On June 1, , Borghese appointed Delle Chiaie to head the "B" groups, and moved forward with plans for a coup.

Ambassador Martin handled some of the funding, through his chief contact, Gen. Martin was no ordinary diplomatic appointee: The fiercely right-wing Colonel Martin had just come from the Embassy in Thailand, where he had strong-armed the Thai government into joining the United States in Vietnam, and he would leave Italy in to take up the post in Saigon. During , Martin maintained multiple liaisons with Borghese, including through FN operative Pier Talenti, who owned a bus company that would be utilized in the coup attempt, and through probable CIA operative Hugh Fenwich, who was meeting with Orlandini.

Borghese set up the political and military headquarters for the coup in Rome, the military one at one of Orlandini's shipyards. On the night of Dec. According to newspaper accounts, Angleton himself arrived in Rome just before the coup attempt, and left just afterwards. Other troops moved into place in Rome, Milan, and elsewhere, and the mafia in Calabria was scheduled to don Carabinieri uniforms and play a role.

Borghese prepared a statement to be read on TV to justify the coup, and he intended for Italian troops to be sent to Vietnam. At the last minute, he received a phone call and called off the coup. Borghese fled to Franco's Spain, where his activities until his death in remain mysterious. It is known that he and Delle Chiaie met dictator Gen.

Augusto Pinochet in Chile on April 29, Also present was the head of Chilean police intelligence, Col. Jorge Carrasco, a protagonist in Operation Condor's tortures and murder. Borghese died in Spain in Delle Chiaie said that he was poisoned, apparently because investigations into the coup were under way in Italy. After Franco's death the following year, Delle Chiaie left for Chile, to play a key role in Operation Condor, then continued that work in Bolivia, in conjunction with the infamous Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie. The extent of terrorism, assassinations, and the re-shaping of Europe's political landscape through Gladio and related, NATO-directed units is stunning.

However, a vital caveat must be added here. The apparatus behind the "strategy of tension" terror that destabilized Europe over much of the Cold War era, was first and foremost a private synarchist apparatus embedded in the NATO and national secret service organizations, including "official" clandestine agencies like Gladio.

Confusion on this point is both dangerous and understandable. When the P-2 membership list was revealed in the early s, following the death of banker Roberto Calvi, it became clear that the secret lodge had penetrated virtually the entire security apparatus and political party structures of Italy and several other countries of Europe and Ibero-America. The carnage carried out by this "parallel" apparatus was stunning. In Italy alone, the chief theater of Gladio warfare, there were 14, "acts of violence with a political motivation," according to Italian Sen.

Giovanni Pellegrino, head of the Parliamentary Committee on the Failed Identification of the Authors of Terrorist Massacres "Terrorism Committee," in operation , which looked into both Gladio and the P2 lodge. Said Guerin Serac, belying the goals of his synarchist masters, "After the OAS I fled to Portugal to carry on the fight and expand it to its proper dimensions—which is to say, a planetary dimension. Two forms of terrorism can provoke such a situation: The blind terrorism committing massacres indiscriminately which cause a large number of victims , and the selective terrorism eliminate chosen persons.

Popular opinion must be polarized in such a way, that we are being represented as the only instrument capable of saving the nation. It is obvious that we will need considerable financial resources to carry out such operations. Delle Chiaie "allegedly carried out well over a thousand bloodthirsty attacks, including an estimated 50 murders in Spain," according to Daniele Ganser.


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According to Portuguese journalists, it was involved in the assassination of Eduardo Mondlane, president of the Mozambican Liberation Front Frelimo in , and of Amilcar Cabral, national liberation leader in Guinea-Bissau in And, according to the most recent revelations from former Italian Sen. Sergio Flamigni, the "parallel" apparatus coordinated the kidnap and assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro through its Red Brigades unit on March 16, , the day on which a PCI-supported DC government under Giulio Andreotti was finally going to be sworn in.

Were the Synarchist networks infiltrated into the NATO and Gladio structures involved in other assassinations of heads of state or government, as well? The Nov. Permindex was registered in Berne, Switzerland, Dulles's old stomping grounds. These included Count Guitierez di Spadafora, former undersecretary of agriculture to Mussolini, secretary of a British-sponsored Sicilian separatist movement, and in-law of Hjalmar Schacht, the master financier of the postwar Nazi International; Carlo d'Amelio, a Rome attorney who oversaw the financial holdings of the House of Savoy, and, according to some accounts, also of the Pallavicini family, and was the founding president of the CMC; Giuseppe Zigiotti, head of the Fascist National Association for Militia Arms; several other wartime fascists; and former OSS London and SOE veteran Col.

Clay Shaw, the operations officer for the assassination. There was ample evidence of Shaw's involvement in the assassination, for which he was indicted by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison. Notably, one of the names found in Shaw's personal phone book was that of Princess Marcella Borghese, a member of the Black Prince's family. And one of the lower-level figures in the ambit of the plot, Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby who assassinated patsy Lee Harvey Oswald , charged repeatedly in letters from jail, that "the Nazis and the Fascists were behind the Kennedy murder.

Some of these funds, at least, were provided through banks which had earlier financed the Nazis, including one intimately associated with Allen Dulles from the time of his s work with Nazi cartels, through to his stint as CIA chief. NATO units were also involved in at least some of the numerous assassination attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle in , which was no doubt a factor in de Gaulle's withdrawing France from NATO's military command in Pierre Lacoste, director of the France's military secret service DGSE , admitted after Andreotti had exposed Gladio's existence in , that some "terrorist actions" against de Gaulle and his plans to liberate Algeria were carried out by groups involving "a limited number of people" from the French Gladio organization!

A five-year investigation by France's SDECE intelligence agency of a assassination plot against de Gaulle found that the assassination had been planned in the Brussels headquarters of NATO by a specific group of British and French generals, who employed former fascists for the planned wetwork. While there is no hard proof that parallel Gladio networks were involved, it has been suspected by Swedish investigative journalists. In order to discover the real authors of international terrorism, we must move into territory at which Greene and Massignani only hint. Time and again, Italian investigators of Gladio and P2 have suggested that the evidence before them was only the superficial tracings of a far-reaching, well-established power structure's activity.

For instance, Senator Pellegrino, head of the Italian Parliament's "Terrorism Committee," is convinced that P2 Grand Master Gelli was the front man for hidden circles of far greater power; that if P2 were a "port," then Gelli, who has recently resurfaced to brag that he is "running the country," would be merely the "Port Authority.

From outside the country, it is the Anglo-American synarchists. But Gladio and the embedded "parallel Gladio" could not possibly function within Italy only by recruiting leaders of secret services; its protection had to involve some of the most powerful forces inside Italy itself. In fact, the Duke was favored by many of Rome's black nobility over Victor Emmanuel III, who reigned from , and who therefore was King during the era of Mussolini, who was nominally the King's prime minister.

The recognized leader of Italy's black nobility, Princess Elvina Pallavicini, once proclaimed, "The Duke of Aosta would have been much better, but now we are stuck with Victor Emmanuel. It is certain, that aristocrats played vital roles in one of the "parallel" Gladio's most infamous operations, the kidnapping and assassination of Aldo Moro. Numerous SMOM members were also prominent in the P2 lodge; however, of the two organizations, the SMOM is incomparably the more senior and powerful; in fact, from available evidence, P2 is more appropriately thought of as an "operational" spin-off of the SMOM.

Let us briefly look at the role of these aristocrats in the Moro assassination, and then in more detail at the SMOM itself. The Gladio structure was named after the short Roman sword, gladio. When Aldo Moro was killed on May 9, , ostensibly by the Red Brigades, he was dumped outside a Roman stadium where gladiators used to fight to the death. The symbolic connection was clear, as emphasized by investigative journalist and sometime mouthpiece for elements within the SID, Mino Pecorelli.

The Red Brigades leader in charge of the operation was Mario Moretti. The Marchesa Annamaria Casati Stampa kept several neo-Fascist youth as lovers, one of whom was probably Moretti, whose high school education she paid for. Under Gladio direction, the neo-Fascist Moretti later turned into a "leftist" and headed the Red Brigades. Giorgio Bergamasco. He was also on the payroll of Allen Dulles for years for 10 million liras a month, and his Committee became another nucleus of the extended Gladio organization.

Sogno led an attempted coup in , which was foiled by Defense Minister Giulio Andreotti. Howard and his wife lived in the Caetani palace, as did one Igor Markevich, a double or triple agent of Western, Israeli, and Soviet intelligence services. He and Howard were leaders of high-level "esoteric" masonry, and, according to some accounts, had led the "negotiations" with the Red Brigades for the freedom of Moro—a convenient cover for constant liaison. British intelligence veteran Howard was also named by some as the secret head of Gladio. The account is credible. Howard was a member of one of the most powerful families in Britain, the Dukes of Norfolk, and the Catholic Howards had had intimate connections with the Italian aristocracy, particularly of Venice, since at least the 18th Century.

His mother, for instance, was a member of the powerful Giustiniani family of Venice and Genoa, which claimed descent from Emperor Justinian. One Howard had been the Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati outside Rome in the 19th Century, a post held a couple of centuries earlier by a Caetani. Although long a power in the Church—Benedetto Caetani was crowned Pope Boniface VIII at the end of the 13th Century—the Caetani were part of the nominally "enlightened" wing of Italy's aristocracy by the 20th Century, and still wielded great influence under Mussolini and afterwards.

No account of the Italian aristocracy's role in promoting fascism and terrorism can omit the role of Princess Elvina Pallavicini. As head of the integrist international association of Catholic nobility, "Noblesse et Tradition," Pallavicini was a chief sponsor, both in Rome and worldwide, of the schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who was excommunicated by Pope John Paul II in Until her recent death, the Princess was also a chief sponsor of neo-Fascist groups in Italy, including setting the stage for the emergence of former porn star Alessandra Mussolini, granddaughter of Il Duce, as the candidate for an electoral coalition of neo-Fascist parties.

John" or the "Knights of Malta. They were omnipresent in the establishment of the financial and human infrastructure of modern international terrorism already during World War II, and immediately thereafter. Karl Wolff and Allen Dulles in Berne. Ambassador to Italy Ellery Stone, who had saved Borghese, and who became a postwar vice-president of the ITT corporation, which helped organize the Sept.

Augusto Pinochet. The following year, it bestowed the Gran Croce al Merito con Placca upon Hitler's Eastern Front intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen, one of only four recipients of this award at the time. Gehlen's brother was the secretary to Thun Hohenstein, one of the five-member ruling Sovereign Council of the order.

As head of the Institute for Associated Emigrations, Hohenstein printed some 2, passports, which were used to relocate leading Nazis to safe hiding places around the world. Ortolani was a financier who, among other things, owned the second-largest bank in Uruguay, where he commanded enormous influence; the fascist Gelli had been in exile in Ibero-America until higher powers brought him back to Italy in the early s to set up what became the P2 lodge. As with any organization, not all of its members are guilty, and sometimes not even witting of the organization's crimes. In this case, however, given the nature of the beast, that would be relatively rare.

Besides the repeated surfacing of SMOM members in terrorist-related activities near the end of World War II, one of their more recent operations illustrates the organization's essential nature. LaRouche, Jr. The EMS, in the words of one West German official, was intended to be "the seed crystal of a new world monetary system. Said one senior officer of the Banque Bruxelles-Lambert, owned by the Belgian Rothschilds, "It is recognized that it was LaRouche's program that went through at Bremen.

If it goes through now, certain important financial centers are going to lose their power. A lot of people are not going to like that. Bloch, director of Warburg, Pincus investment bank, whose hands investigators discovered to be holding many of the strings of the plot, proclaimed LaRouche to be "very dangerous," and pointedly compared him to Malcolm X, assassinated in The pamphlet also noted, "A second source of power is an absolutely unmatched intelligence capability.

Its members yearn for the ultramontane world which existed before the rise of sovereign nation-states during the Renaissance, which meant a loss of power and privilege of their families. To them, that vanished world is as if yesterday. Indeed, it has by no means entirely disappeared, but lives on, centered—like the Knights themselves—on the Venetian-descended "independent central banks" of virtually every nation in the world, as LaRouche has emphasized.

The Knights of St. John were founded in the late 11th Century, and rose to prominence in the First Crusade of In , Pope Urban II officially recognized them as a military religious order, and for centuries they remained one of the most powerful military forces in Christendom, first from their headquarters on the island of Rhodes, and then on Malta, from which they were finally driven by Napoleon in the late 18th Century.

The Knights were recognized as a sovereign state by a Hapsburg Emperor in the 16th Century. They remain a sovereign state, run from their headquarters at 68 Via Condotti in Rome. They maintain their own fleet of aircraft, have diplomatic relations with 92 nations as well as the United Nations and the Holy See, and enjoy diplomatic immunity. The order is entirely Roman Catholic, and its higher ranks must document an aristocratic lineage and coat-of-arms of at least three centuries.

The Grand Master of the order is both a secular prince, and a cardinal of the Church. Reflecting its history, its membership is still heavily comprised of individuals with a military or intelligence background. The Papal Commission charged, among other things, that the Order should not have the sovereignty of a state, and ordered modifications of the SMOM "to bring them into conformity with decisions of the Holy See.

In addition to the Roman Catholic SMOM, there are four Protestant orders of the Knights, all founded within the last years or so, and all run by ruling houses of Europe. The Roman Catholic and Protestant orders effectively merged on Nov. In , the Rome-based SMOM authorized the establishment of an American chapter, whose members did not have to prove their aristocratic lineage. Its Treasurer and lay controller was John J. Another Knight, who played a profound role in Italy's postwar financial, economic and political history was Prince Massimo Spada, the leading lay financier of the Vatican's Institute for Religious Works, commonly called the "Vatican Bank.

However, in examining the Vatican, one must always be careful to ask, "Whose Vatican? That of all the modern popes? Or that of the black aristocracy? After all, as LaRouche has stressed, those "ancients" of Venice have given us the modern Anglo-Dutch parliamentary system, with its privately controlled central banks, and the Synarchy's present drive for world rule. Under Anglo-American direction, those Venetian "ancients" also brought Mussolini to power in the first place, and then organized the financial world of the Vatican, into which Ortolani, Gelli, Calvi et al.

In , the 40 or so families which controlled the vast fortunes and far-flung intelligence capabilities of Venice, split into two factions: the nuovi the "new" houses, or families and the vecchi the "old" houses. On the surface, the appellations seemed to refer to those families ennobled since the serrata, the closing of the Grand Council in , who were called the nuovi; whereas those who had already held titles of nobility, were the vecchi. In fact, the upheaval was the result of the establishment of sovereign nation-states for the first time in history, as a consequence of the Renaissance.

The city-state of Venice, never more than , people, could not stand against the new powers that were coming into being, founded to promote the Common Good of their citizenry; the sheer numbers, the science and technology, the military power, were too much for even the powerful and devious masters of La Serenissima as Venice is famously called. The nuovi realized that, notwithstanding the bloody religious warfare which Venice had unleashed in Europe following the failure of the League of Cambrai to defeat Venice in , its days were ultimately numbered.

They took several strategic actions. First, under the leadership of Paolo Sarpi, they created the philosophy of empiricism, as a sense-certainty-based fraud whose purpose was to destroy the creative method of Platonic hypothesizing. Second, also under Sarpi's leadership, they launched a fierce war against the Vatican, posing as the bastion of "enlightened" Europe against obscurantist Rome.

Third, they brought the newly emerging Protestant powers England and Holland whose rise came largely thanks to Venice itself , into what had always been the cornerstone of Venice's fortunes—its trade with the East Indies. The Venetians founded the British East India Company in from a merger of the England-based Venice Company and the Turkey Company and the Dutch East India Company in , and the wealth derived from this trade helped create or enrich a number of great aristocratic families in both countries, along the Venetian model.

Io dico no! Storie di eroica disobbedienza

And, as LaRouche has often emphasized, the British East India Company became the foremost power in the world in , in the wake of the British-rigged Seven Years' War among contending European powers, in the classic Venetian "divide and conquer" method. Fourth, they moved much of their fortunes and even some of their families north, first into Holland, and then into England, where they created what would be known in the 18th Century as "the Venetian Party. In part because of these redeployments, Venice's financial power remained huge well into the 18th Century, as did its legendary spy system, brilliantly chronicled by Friedrich Schiller in his novella Der Geisterseher The Ghost-Seer , and American intelligence operative James Fenimore Cooper in his novel The Bravo.

Napoleon Bonaparte had been partially sponsored and funded by Venetian and Genoese families: The Genoese Princess Pallavicini of that era famously punned that her family owned " la buona parte "—"the best part"—of him. His Corsican family had been retainers for the Genoese and Venetian nobility for centuries; and, as noted above, his favorite sister married a Borghese. When Napoleon's ravages had ended, Count Giovanni Capodistria, a Venetian nobleman acting as a government minister of Russia, almost single-handledly wrote the essential documents issued by the Congress of Vienna, which established the ultra-reactionary Holy Alliance.

Capodistria also pulled together the modern nation of Switzerland, in part as a repository for Venetian family funds fondi , which were also used to found several insurance companies in the late 18th Century.

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At the turn of the 20th Century, the "ancients" of Venice, although diminished, still commanded important financial and intelligence power, both on their own behalf, but also because they deployed as part of the British- and subsequently Anglo-American- dominated world which their ancestors had created. In the early 20th Century, a group of Venetian financier patricians, led by Count Piero Foscari of an ancient family of Venetian Doges, established a number of companies and banks.

Though Foscari was the undisputed leader of this Venetian group, its most active public figure was Giuseppe Volpi, later known as Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata, after his earlys rule of Italian-occupied Libya on behalf of Mussolini. Acting as the point-man for an international financial syndicate including the Bank of England, the Mellons, and the House of Morgan, Volpi organized Mussolini's rise to power, precisely as Schacht did later for those same forces in installing Hitler in Germany.

Volpi was Mussolini's Finance Minister from to July , following which he became a member of the Grand Council of Fascism, and, in , chairman of the Industrialists Association. He designed Mussolini's economic doctrine of corporatism along the model originally laid down by Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre , the founder of the Synarchy of Empire movement, and the inspiration for the Martinist freemasonic lodges through which the modern Synarchy was organized.

Nominally a tripartite pact among corporations, the state, and labor, it was basically rule by corporations, i. In , Volpi oversaw the famous Concordat between Italy and the Vatican, in which, among other things, Italy recognized the Vatican as a sovereign state, and paid financial compensation for the Papal States in central Italy which it had taken over in the second half of the 19th Century. The compensation was 1, billion liras, a sizeable sum at the time.

One Bernardino Nogara was chosen, seemingly "out of the blue," to manage this fortune. Gramsci and the Italian Road to Socialist Modernity. Fascist Modernity. After Modernity? Nationhood in the Post-Cold War Era. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book argues that Italy represents a privileged entry point into the comparative analysis of ideologies and experiences of modernity. The extent of terrorism, assassinations, and the re-shaping of Europe's political landscape through Gladio and related, NATO-directed units is stunning.

However, a vital caveat must be added here. The apparatus behind the "strategy of tension" terror that destabilized Europe over much of the Cold War era, was first and foremost a private synarchist apparatus embedded in the NATO and national secret service organizations, including "official" clandestine agencies like Gladio. Confusion on this point is both dangerous and understandable.

When the P-2 membership list was revealed in the early s, following the death of banker Roberto Calvi, it became clear that the secret lodge had penetrated virtually the entire security apparatus and political party structures of Italy and several other countries of Europe and Ibero-America. The carnage carried out by this "parallel" apparatus was stunning. In Italy alone, the chief theater of Gladio warfare, there were 14, "acts of violence with a political motivation," according to Italian Sen. Giovanni Pellegrino, head of the Parliamentary Committee on the Failed Identification of the Authors of Terrorist Massacres "Terrorism Committee," in operation , which looked into both Gladio and the P2 lodge.

Said Guerin Serac, belying the goals of his synarchist masters, "After the OAS I fled to Portugal to carry on the fight and expand it to its proper dimensions—which is to say, a planetary dimension. Two forms of terrorism can provoke such a situation: The blind terrorism committing massacres indiscriminately which cause a large number of victims , and the selective terrorism eliminate chosen persons.

Popular opinion must be polarized in such a way, that we are being represented as the only instrument capable of saving the nation. It is obvious that we will need considerable financial resources to carry out such operations. Delle Chiaie "allegedly carried out well over a thousand bloodthirsty attacks, including an estimated 50 murders in Spain," according to Daniele Ganser.

According to Portuguese journalists, it was involved in the assassination of Eduardo Mondlane, president of the Mozambican Liberation Front Frelimo in , and of Amilcar Cabral, national liberation leader in Guinea-Bissau in And, according to the most recent revelations from former Italian Sen. Sergio Flamigni, the "parallel" apparatus coordinated the kidnap and assassination of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro through its Red Brigades unit on March 16, , the day on which a PCI-supported DC government under Giulio Andreotti was finally going to be sworn in.

Were the Synarchist networks infiltrated into the NATO and Gladio structures involved in other assassinations of heads of state or government, as well? The Nov. Permindex was registered in Berne, Switzerland, Dulles's old stomping grounds. These included Count Guitierez di Spadafora, former undersecretary of agriculture to Mussolini, secretary of a British-sponsored Sicilian separatist movement, and in-law of Hjalmar Schacht, the master financier of the postwar Nazi International; Carlo d'Amelio, a Rome attorney who oversaw the financial holdings of the House of Savoy, and, according to some accounts, also of the Pallavicini family, and was the founding president of the CMC; Giuseppe Zigiotti, head of the Fascist National Association for Militia Arms; several other wartime fascists; and former OSS London and SOE veteran Col.

Clay Shaw, the operations officer for the assassination. There was ample evidence of Shaw's involvement in the assassination, for which he was indicted by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison. Notably, one of the names found in Shaw's personal phone book was that of Princess Marcella Borghese, a member of the Black Prince's family. And one of the lower-level figures in the ambit of the plot, Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby who assassinated patsy Lee Harvey Oswald , charged repeatedly in letters from jail, that "the Nazis and the Fascists were behind the Kennedy murder.

Some of these funds, at least, were provided through banks which had earlier financed the Nazis, including one intimately associated with Allen Dulles from the time of his s work with Nazi cartels, through to his stint as CIA chief. NATO units were also involved in at least some of the numerous assassination attempts on France's President Charles de Gaulle in , which was no doubt a factor in de Gaulle's withdrawing France from NATO's military command in Pierre Lacoste, director of the France's military secret service DGSE , admitted after Andreotti had exposed Gladio's existence in , that some "terrorist actions" against de Gaulle and his plans to liberate Algeria were carried out by groups involving "a limited number of people" from the French Gladio organization!

A five-year investigation by France's SDECE intelligence agency of a assassination plot against de Gaulle found that the assassination had been planned in the Brussels headquarters of NATO by a specific group of British and French generals, who employed former fascists for the planned wetwork. While there is no hard proof that parallel Gladio networks were involved, it has been suspected by Swedish investigative journalists. In order to discover the real authors of international terrorism, we must move into territory at which Greene and Massignani only hint.

Time and again, Italian investigators of Gladio and P2 have suggested that the evidence before them was only the superficial tracings of a far-reaching, well-established power structure's activity. For instance, Senator Pellegrino, head of the Italian Parliament's "Terrorism Committee," is convinced that P2 Grand Master Gelli was the front man for hidden circles of far greater power; that if P2 were a "port," then Gelli, who has recently resurfaced to brag that he is "running the country," would be merely the "Port Authority.

From outside the country, it is the Anglo-American synarchists. But Gladio and the embedded "parallel Gladio" could not possibly function within Italy only by recruiting leaders of secret services; its protection had to involve some of the most powerful forces inside Italy itself.

In fact, the Duke was favored by many of Rome's black nobility over Victor Emmanuel III, who reigned from , and who therefore was King during the era of Mussolini, who was nominally the King's prime minister. The recognized leader of Italy's black nobility, Princess Elvina Pallavicini, once proclaimed, "The Duke of Aosta would have been much better, but now we are stuck with Victor Emmanuel.

It is certain, that aristocrats played vital roles in one of the "parallel" Gladio's most infamous operations, the kidnapping and assassination of Aldo Moro. Numerous SMOM members were also prominent in the P2 lodge; however, of the two organizations, the SMOM is incomparably the more senior and powerful; in fact, from available evidence, P2 is more appropriately thought of as an "operational" spin-off of the SMOM.

Let us briefly look at the role of these aristocrats in the Moro assassination, and then in more detail at the SMOM itself. The Gladio structure was named after the short Roman sword, gladio. When Aldo Moro was killed on May 9, , ostensibly by the Red Brigades, he was dumped outside a Roman stadium where gladiators used to fight to the death. The symbolic connection was clear, as emphasized by investigative journalist and sometime mouthpiece for elements within the SID, Mino Pecorelli.

The Red Brigades leader in charge of the operation was Mario Moretti. The Marchesa Annamaria Casati Stampa kept several neo-Fascist youth as lovers, one of whom was probably Moretti, whose high school education she paid for. Under Gladio direction, the neo-Fascist Moretti later turned into a "leftist" and headed the Red Brigades.

Giorgio Bergamasco. He was also on the payroll of Allen Dulles for years for 10 million liras a month, and his Committee became another nucleus of the extended Gladio organization. Sogno led an attempted coup in , which was foiled by Defense Minister Giulio Andreotti. Howard and his wife lived in the Caetani palace, as did one Igor Markevich, a double or triple agent of Western, Israeli, and Soviet intelligence services. He and Howard were leaders of high-level "esoteric" masonry, and, according to some accounts, had led the "negotiations" with the Red Brigades for the freedom of Moro—a convenient cover for constant liaison.

British intelligence veteran Howard was also named by some as the secret head of Gladio. The account is credible. Howard was a member of one of the most powerful families in Britain, the Dukes of Norfolk, and the Catholic Howards had had intimate connections with the Italian aristocracy, particularly of Venice, since at least the 18th Century.

His mother, for instance, was a member of the powerful Giustiniani family of Venice and Genoa, which claimed descent from Emperor Justinian. One Howard had been the Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati outside Rome in the 19th Century, a post held a couple of centuries earlier by a Caetani. Although long a power in the Church—Benedetto Caetani was crowned Pope Boniface VIII at the end of the 13th Century—the Caetani were part of the nominally "enlightened" wing of Italy's aristocracy by the 20th Century, and still wielded great influence under Mussolini and afterwards.

No account of the Italian aristocracy's role in promoting fascism and terrorism can omit the role of Princess Elvina Pallavicini. As head of the integrist international association of Catholic nobility, "Noblesse et Tradition," Pallavicini was a chief sponsor, both in Rome and worldwide, of the schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who was excommunicated by Pope John Paul II in Until her recent death, the Princess was also a chief sponsor of neo-Fascist groups in Italy, including setting the stage for the emergence of former porn star Alessandra Mussolini, granddaughter of Il Duce, as the candidate for an electoral coalition of neo-Fascist parties.

John" or the "Knights of Malta. They were omnipresent in the establishment of the financial and human infrastructure of modern international terrorism already during World War II, and immediately thereafter. Karl Wolff and Allen Dulles in Berne. Ambassador to Italy Ellery Stone, who had saved Borghese, and who became a postwar vice-president of the ITT corporation, which helped organize the Sept. Augusto Pinochet. The following year, it bestowed the Gran Croce al Merito con Placca upon Hitler's Eastern Front intelligence chief Reinhard Gehlen, one of only four recipients of this award at the time.

Gehlen's brother was the secretary to Thun Hohenstein, one of the five-member ruling Sovereign Council of the order. As head of the Institute for Associated Emigrations, Hohenstein printed some 2, passports, which were used to relocate leading Nazis to safe hiding places around the world. Ortolani was a financier who, among other things, owned the second-largest bank in Uruguay, where he commanded enormous influence; the fascist Gelli had been in exile in Ibero-America until higher powers brought him back to Italy in the early s to set up what became the P2 lodge.

As with any organization, not all of its members are guilty, and sometimes not even witting of the organization's crimes. In this case, however, given the nature of the beast, that would be relatively rare. Besides the repeated surfacing of SMOM members in terrorist-related activities near the end of World War II, one of their more recent operations illustrates the organization's essential nature. LaRouche, Jr. The EMS, in the words of one West German official, was intended to be "the seed crystal of a new world monetary system. Said one senior officer of the Banque Bruxelles-Lambert, owned by the Belgian Rothschilds, "It is recognized that it was LaRouche's program that went through at Bremen.

If it goes through now, certain important financial centers are going to lose their power. A lot of people are not going to like that. Bloch, director of Warburg, Pincus investment bank, whose hands investigators discovered to be holding many of the strings of the plot, proclaimed LaRouche to be "very dangerous," and pointedly compared him to Malcolm X, assassinated in The pamphlet also noted, "A second source of power is an absolutely unmatched intelligence capability.

Its members yearn for the ultramontane world which existed before the rise of sovereign nation-states during the Renaissance, which meant a loss of power and privilege of their families. To them, that vanished world is as if yesterday. Indeed, it has by no means entirely disappeared, but lives on, centered—like the Knights themselves—on the Venetian-descended "independent central banks" of virtually every nation in the world, as LaRouche has emphasized.

The Knights of St. John were founded in the late 11th Century, and rose to prominence in the First Crusade of In , Pope Urban II officially recognized them as a military religious order, and for centuries they remained one of the most powerful military forces in Christendom, first from their headquarters on the island of Rhodes, and then on Malta, from which they were finally driven by Napoleon in the late 18th Century.

The Knights were recognized as a sovereign state by a Hapsburg Emperor in the 16th Century. They remain a sovereign state, run from their headquarters at 68 Via Condotti in Rome. They maintain their own fleet of aircraft, have diplomatic relations with 92 nations as well as the United Nations and the Holy See, and enjoy diplomatic immunity.

The order is entirely Roman Catholic, and its higher ranks must document an aristocratic lineage and coat-of-arms of at least three centuries. The Grand Master of the order is both a secular prince, and a cardinal of the Church. Reflecting its history, its membership is still heavily comprised of individuals with a military or intelligence background. The Papal Commission charged, among other things, that the Order should not have the sovereignty of a state, and ordered modifications of the SMOM "to bring them into conformity with decisions of the Holy See.

In addition to the Roman Catholic SMOM, there are four Protestant orders of the Knights, all founded within the last years or so, and all run by ruling houses of Europe. The Roman Catholic and Protestant orders effectively merged on Nov. In , the Rome-based SMOM authorized the establishment of an American chapter, whose members did not have to prove their aristocratic lineage. Its Treasurer and lay controller was John J. Another Knight, who played a profound role in Italy's postwar financial, economic and political history was Prince Massimo Spada, the leading lay financier of the Vatican's Institute for Religious Works, commonly called the "Vatican Bank.

However, in examining the Vatican, one must always be careful to ask, "Whose Vatican? That of all the modern popes?

Italian Modernities

Or that of the black aristocracy? After all, as LaRouche has stressed, those "ancients" of Venice have given us the modern Anglo-Dutch parliamentary system, with its privately controlled central banks, and the Synarchy's present drive for world rule. Under Anglo-American direction, those Venetian "ancients" also brought Mussolini to power in the first place, and then organized the financial world of the Vatican, into which Ortolani, Gelli, Calvi et al.

In , the 40 or so families which controlled the vast fortunes and far-flung intelligence capabilities of Venice, split into two factions: the nuovi the "new" houses, or families and the vecchi the "old" houses. On the surface, the appellations seemed to refer to those families ennobled since the serrata, the closing of the Grand Council in , who were called the nuovi; whereas those who had already held titles of nobility, were the vecchi.

In fact, the upheaval was the result of the establishment of sovereign nation-states for the first time in history, as a consequence of the Renaissance. The city-state of Venice, never more than , people, could not stand against the new powers that were coming into being, founded to promote the Common Good of their citizenry; the sheer numbers, the science and technology, the military power, were too much for even the powerful and devious masters of La Serenissima as Venice is famously called.

The nuovi realized that, notwithstanding the bloody religious warfare which Venice had unleashed in Europe following the failure of the League of Cambrai to defeat Venice in , its days were ultimately numbered. They took several strategic actions. First, under the leadership of Paolo Sarpi, they created the philosophy of empiricism, as a sense-certainty-based fraud whose purpose was to destroy the creative method of Platonic hypothesizing. Second, also under Sarpi's leadership, they launched a fierce war against the Vatican, posing as the bastion of "enlightened" Europe against obscurantist Rome.

Third, they brought the newly emerging Protestant powers England and Holland whose rise came largely thanks to Venice itself , into what had always been the cornerstone of Venice's fortunes—its trade with the East Indies. The Venetians founded the British East India Company in from a merger of the England-based Venice Company and the Turkey Company and the Dutch East India Company in , and the wealth derived from this trade helped create or enrich a number of great aristocratic families in both countries, along the Venetian model.

And, as LaRouche has often emphasized, the British East India Company became the foremost power in the world in , in the wake of the British-rigged Seven Years' War among contending European powers, in the classic Venetian "divide and conquer" method. Fourth, they moved much of their fortunes and even some of their families north, first into Holland, and then into England, where they created what would be known in the 18th Century as "the Venetian Party. In part because of these redeployments, Venice's financial power remained huge well into the 18th Century, as did its legendary spy system, brilliantly chronicled by Friedrich Schiller in his novella Der Geisterseher The Ghost-Seer , and American intelligence operative James Fenimore Cooper in his novel The Bravo.

Napoleon Bonaparte had been partially sponsored and funded by Venetian and Genoese families: The Genoese Princess Pallavicini of that era famously punned that her family owned " la buona parte "—"the best part"—of him. His Corsican family had been retainers for the Genoese and Venetian nobility for centuries; and, as noted above, his favorite sister married a Borghese. When Napoleon's ravages had ended, Count Giovanni Capodistria, a Venetian nobleman acting as a government minister of Russia, almost single-handledly wrote the essential documents issued by the Congress of Vienna, which established the ultra-reactionary Holy Alliance.

Capodistria also pulled together the modern nation of Switzerland, in part as a repository for Venetian family funds fondi , which were also used to found several insurance companies in the late 18th Century. At the turn of the 20th Century, the "ancients" of Venice, although diminished, still commanded important financial and intelligence power, both on their own behalf, but also because they deployed as part of the British- and subsequently Anglo-American- dominated world which their ancestors had created.

In the early 20th Century, a group of Venetian financier patricians, led by Count Piero Foscari of an ancient family of Venetian Doges, established a number of companies and banks. Though Foscari was the undisputed leader of this Venetian group, its most active public figure was Giuseppe Volpi, later known as Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata, after his earlys rule of Italian-occupied Libya on behalf of Mussolini.

Acting as the point-man for an international financial syndicate including the Bank of England, the Mellons, and the House of Morgan, Volpi organized Mussolini's rise to power, precisely as Schacht did later for those same forces in installing Hitler in Germany. Volpi was Mussolini's Finance Minister from to July , following which he became a member of the Grand Council of Fascism, and, in , chairman of the Industrialists Association. He designed Mussolini's economic doctrine of corporatism along the model originally laid down by Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre , the founder of the Synarchy of Empire movement, and the inspiration for the Martinist freemasonic lodges through which the modern Synarchy was organized.

Nominally a tripartite pact among corporations, the state, and labor, it was basically rule by corporations, i. In , Volpi oversaw the famous Concordat between Italy and the Vatican, in which, among other things, Italy recognized the Vatican as a sovereign state, and paid financial compensation for the Papal States in central Italy which it had taken over in the second half of the 19th Century.

The compensation was 1, billion liras, a sizeable sum at the time. One Bernardino Nogara was chosen, seemingly "out of the blue," to manage this fortune. No Vatican official, not even the Pope himself was allowed veto power over Nogara's decision. Nor would the banker permit any religious or doctrinal policies of the church to stand in his way. Never before in modern Church history had anyone been granted such sweeping authority by the church, not even popes themselves, with all their supposed infallibility, let alone a layman, and non-Catholic Jewish , as in Nogara's case.

Whether or not he was Jewish, the "mystery man" was no mystery at all. Nogara had been managing director for a Venetian firm run by Foscari, Volpi, et al. The British sponsored freemasonic lodges in Salonika, from which the "Young Turks" were organized to oust the Sultan.

Deuxième partie. Des mots et des images. L’édition scientifique

The freemason Volpi was intimately involved in the coup, as, undoubtedly, was Nogara. After Nogara had been chosen Delegate of the Special Administration later known as the Administration of the Holy See Patrimony to oversee the investment of the wealth flowing from the Concordat, he became vice president of the BCI, upon whose postwar premises the P2 lodge would be founded. He also promoted a cadre of uomini di fiducia, "men of confidence," Vatican lay Catholic or even non-Catholic financiers, who would oversee the enormous new Vatican holdings.

Nogara bought large or controlling interests in dozens of major banks, utilities, insurance companies, and industrial corporations, even as he reorganized previous Vatican holdings, such as the "Catholic banks" which were generally Catholic-owned, and which did business with the Church and its officials, as opposed to the "secular" banks.


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The most important of these "men of confidence" was Prince Massimo Spada a Vatican title , who had been inducted as a Knight of Malta in Spada either chaired or sat on the board of an astounding array of the holdings Nogara purchased. Spada was also a board member or executive of dozens more banks, insurance, and industrial companies.

In he was appointed Privy Chamberlain of Sword and Cape, one of the highest of all Vatican titles, one also held by his brother Filippo. With all of this enormous power, and despite his leading position in the Catholic Church, Spada sponsored the rise of Michele Sindona as one of the Vatican's "men of confidence. Reviewing the picture sketched above, we thus find that an intricate financial web originally woven by Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata and his Venetian aristocratic friends and associates such as Bernardino Nogara, had grown by to include Michele Sindona, who financed one of Gladio's most important assets, the "Black Prince" Borghese.

Sindona also "was one of the channels, perhaps one of the most important, to back up" the attempted coups of , as Greene and Massignani put it. Sindona later sponsored the rise of Banco Ambrosiano's Roberto Calvi, the P2 financier who was found hanging under Blackfriars Bridge in London in , in a ritualistic masonic murder.

The membership of the ostensibly Catholic—and therefore ostensibly anti-freemasonic—Rome-centered SMOM overlapped with the freemasonic, presumably "anti-clerical" P2 lodge; they were the "twins" of Italy's Venice-centered oligarchy. In this context, much of the superstructure of Gladio is finally being exposed by those opposed to this new fascism. But, we must go still deeper, to lift the veil from "the ancients," and through them from the Synarchy to which they have given birth, of which they remain a crucial component.

Rowse's "Gladio: The Secret U. These two articles were republished, together with overviews by LaRouche, and numerous other studies, in the Special Report, The Synarchist Resurgence Behind the Madrid Train Bombing of March 11, , issued by the LaRouche in campaign committee. Giovanni Pellegrino, who chaired the Italian parliamentary committee investigating both the Gladio-orchestrated terrorism, and how Italy's secret services covered them up, said that D'Amato "was an old Anglo-American agent, whose career started soon after the Liberation under James Angleton.

However, the Italian passages are entirely coherent with other Pentagon documents of the same general era, such as the U. Joint Chiefs of Staff's infamous Operation Northwoods plan, which called for unleashing terrorism against the domestic United States, among other clandestine provocations. These were actually used by the Synarchists to manipulate both the Western powers and the Soviets against the nation-state, toward a kind of global condominium.

It is not accidental that the "legendary" CIA counterintelligence chief Angleton somehow missed noticing that his mentor and his decades-long close friend Kim Philby was a "Soviet" read: Trust agent. Keeping up his part in the charade, Philby announced from Moscow that he had "enjoyed playing Angleton and Dulles.

The shared goal was the destruction of nation-states in favor of world imperial rule. Many of Angleton's "fascist" assets in the postwar era turned out to be Soviet assets, as well. With J. Henry Schroder, Nagy had spilled the beans on a most sensitive institution, and the bank was quick to deny his claim. See William F. Wertz, Jr. EIR maintained a close relationship with Garrison until his death in Its European-wide cultural warfare and espionage system was also still highly effective, as evidenced in the international campaign of the Paris-based Venetian Abbot Antonio Conti to attempt to destroy the reputation of the great scientist Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

An agent of Venice's ruling Council of Ten, Count Cagliostro Joseph Balsamo organized the "Affair of the Queen's Necklace," the scandal which, as Napoleon observed, was the opening act of the French Revolution, an event financed and run out of Britain. Still another notorious Venetian spy of the same era was Casanova, who reported directly to the inner Three of the hooded, black-robed Council of Ten. The scarlet-robed chief of the Three was known as the Inquisitor, and in Venice it was understood that "The Ten will send you to the torture chamber, but the Three will send you to your grave.

Schiller chose to set his masterful portrayal of the methods of the Venetian intelligence service, as well as its Europe-wide reach, in the 18th Century; he clearly was not writing of a merely "historical" matter, nor was the patriotic American intelligence agent James Fenimore Cooper, in his portrait written several decades later, though Cooper set his tale centuries earlier. During the American Revolution, Venice put its still-considerable fleet at the service of the British. Generali has been ruled ever since by a kind of central committee of Europe's financier and aristocratic oligarchy.

Had the coup been successful, the plotters planned to install Cesare Merzagora, chairman of Generali from Bernheim's daughter married Prince Orsini. Generali and RAS are merely two important strands of a much larger web of families and finance, but they illustrate the directions in which one must look to discover the "port" behind the "Port Authority" guarded by P2 boss Licio Gelli, as Senator Pellegrino insightfully put it.

The day of the Madrid train bombings, March 11, Lyndon LaRouche issued a statement rejecting the idea that the terrorist attacks had been carried out either by the Basque terrorist group ETA or by "Islamic terrorism," and commented that the modality of the Madrid atrocity reminded him of the Bologna, Italy train station bombing and, in general, of the terrorist "strategy of tension" in Italy in the s.

In the following days, several experts interviewed by EIR, as well as some newspaper commentators, independently pointed to the same analogy. The name "strategy of tension" indicates the period roughly from to , when Italy was hit by a series of terrorist bombings, some of which caused large numbers of civilian deaths. The beginning of the strategy of tension is officially marked by the Dec. The end of the strategy of tension, strictly considered, is marked by the bomb on the "Italicus" train Aug.

The largest terrorist massacre, however, was six years later, on Aug. The Bologna bombing, from the standpoint of its timing and the strategy behind it, does not belong, strictly speaking, to the "strategy of tension"; it was not connected to a plan for a military coup, or a government policy change of some sort. However, the terrorist organizations involved were leftovers of the "strategy of tension" period which had gone underground and reorganized themselves. As in the Piazza Fontana and other cases, a massive cover-up was carried out by certain synarchist networks inside intelligence and military forces.

Today, several judicial and parliamentary investigations have established that a red thread goes through the "strategy of tension," from Piazza Fontana, to the Italicus bombs, to the Bologna massacre. The most important ones are the official Bologna investigation, the most recent investigation on Piazza Fontana started by prosecutor Guido Salvini in in Milan, and the findings of the Parliamentary Committee on the Failed Identification of the Authors of Terrorist Massacres "Terrorism Committee" , which operated from to The Bologna trial ended with the conviction of neo-fascists Valerio Fioravanti and Francesca Mambro as the perpetrators, and of freemasonic puppet-master Licio Gelli, his associate Francesco Pazienza, and several military intelligence officials for obstructing the investigation.

The Milan trial produced life sentences for three neo-fascists, Delfo Zorzi, Carlo Maria Maggi, and Carlo Rognoni, later overturned on appeal—as if it were a signal, that appeal result was announced March 12, , the day after the Madrid bombings. The case is now going to the Supreme Court. The Parliamentary Committee under chairman Giovanni Pellegrino has done a considerable amount of work, including input from the Bologna and the Milan investigations, in addition to the work of its own experts, taking testimony from important witnesses, etc.

All three bodies have converged in establishing, albeit with slight differentiations of political analysis, a quite truthful picture of the structure controlling and deploying terrorism in Italy, especially as concerns "black" right-wing terrorism. Pellegrino's committee has also explored the other side of the coin, the so-called "red" terrorism, and come to the conclusion that both were run by the same structures. The committee identified the report has having been on the mark concerning the kidnapping and murder of leading Italian politician Aldo Moro as early as September , four months after Moro's murder.

The public resurfacing of synarchist puppet-master Licio Gelli in September see the next article ; the upgrading of the international coordination of Falangist organizations including Italy's Forza Nuova, successor to the neo-fascist Third Position disbanded in the aftermath of the Bologna massacre ; the deployment of Benito Mussolini's granddaughter, Alessandra Mussolini, as a "brand name" in support of such networks; these and other signals had suggested a level of alert well before the Madrid bombs went off.

Already, in August , Lyndon LaRouche had suggested keeping watch on the "friends of Mussolini's granddaughter," after U. Vice President Dick Cheney predicted that new atrocities would justify an expansion of the "war on terrorism. Terrorism does not pop up overnight, like mushrooms in the woods; it has a background and a history.

Looking at the history of the "strategy of tension" in Italy will be useful for our readers, in order to draw the possible parallels and avoid naively giving support to the usual witchhunts, launched to cover for the real perpetrators. The technique adopted for the Madrid atrocity, of placing bombs on several trains simultaneously, is not new.

The Piazza Fontana massacre was preceded by a series of "demonstrative actions" starting during the night of Aug. Eight of the bombs, low-potential devices, went off. Those bombs were actually placed by a neo-fascist organization called Ordine Nuovo, but investigators were led to believe that it was left-wing anarchists who did it. More such "demonstrative actions" followed until, on Dec. A series of high-potential bombs went off in Milan's Piazza Fontana and also in Rome, where three bombs wounded 13 people. Luckily, another bomb in the center of Milan, at Piazza Scala, did not explode.

Immediately, prosecutors were led to look for the perpetrators in the leftist camp. Two known anarchists, Pietro Valpreda and Giuseppe Pinelli, were arrested. Pinelli died that same evening, by jumping out of the window of the police station where he was being interrogated. The official investigation concluded that his death was a suicide. Valpreda was kept in prison for several years, before being cleared of all charges.

The anarchist connection was a cover-up, organized by the hidden structure protecting the Ordine Nuovo right-wing terrorists. For instance, they had even arranged to have a "black" fascist extremist who looked like Valpreda, take a taxi after the bomb exploded, as if fleeing from the scene, in order to manipulate the taxi driver into testifying against Valpreda. The taxi driver, however, did not live to testify at trial; he and eight other witnesses died under circumstances that were never clarified.

The cover-up came mainly from the Interior Ministry, which is in command of the police, and specifically from an office called Ufficio Affari Riservati UAR , a sort of domestic intelligence bureau, whose chief was Federico Umberto D'Amato. Milan prosecutor Guido Salvini had established that Delfo Zorzi, the neo-fascist whose conviction for having placed the Piazza Fontana bomb was recently overturned, had been recruited by D'Amato as late as Salvini has found out much more.

One witness, Carlo Digilio, decided in to collaborate with the investigation, and revealed that he had worked as an infiltrator in Zorzi's group for U. Digilio's superiors in that U. Digilio's superior, U. Navy Captain David Garrett, claimed, however, that the deal was that all actions had to be "demonstrative. The third one, Giancarlo Rognoni, was a member of the Milan ON organization, who provided logistical support. In , two members of Ordine Nuovo, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested in the Piazza Fontana investigations, as well as in connection with other minor terrorist actions.

However, when the two Milan prosecutors, Gerardo D'Ambrosio and Emilio Alessandrini, came close to uncovering the whole network, the investigation was "stolen" from them, and moved to the southern city of Catanzaro, where both Freda and Ventura were acquitted. Today, Salvini's investigation has assembled several witnesses who make clear that it was Freda who bought the timers used for building the bombs, and that it was Ventura who made them.

But neither Freda nor Ventura can be tried for this, because they have been already tried once for this crime, and acquitted. It has been established that the strategy of tension aimed at taking control of the government, in a semi-totalitarian way. The best formula, according to the plotters, would be a technocratic Cabinet supported by a public pronouncement of the Armed Forces, South American-style; or, as an alternative, a straight military coup.

The chances of success for a military coup in Italy were been small, especially because of the presence of a large militant organization, the Communist Party, which was organized for partisan warfare. However, plans for a military coup were made and almost executed; if anything, they functioned as a threat, helping to force the desired political results.

Consider that, in , democratic Italy was surrounded by dictatorships in Portugal, Spain, Yugoslavia, and Greece, where a coup had just occurred in The plan in , as reported by several witnesses, was to create widespread public tension and fear, which would lend support to the declaration of a state of emergency by Christian Democratic Prime Minister Mariano Rumor, who would exclude the Socialists from the government and seek support from the MSI, the official neo-fascist party. However, Rumor did not deliver. He was prevented by fellow Christian Democrat Aldo Moro, then Foreign Minister; Moro confronted State President Giuseppe Saragat, who was in favor of declaring the state of emergency, and finally prevailed.

There was a long government crisis, and it was three months before Rumor was able to put together another Cabinet.