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The small extent of country which I see, is all cultivated like a garden. Indeed, the plain presents nothing but gardens, full of green trees, loaded with oranges, lemons, citrons, and bergamots, which make a delightful appearance. If you examine them more nearly, you will find plantations of green pease ready to gather; all sorts of sallading, and pot-herbs, in perfection; and plats of roses, carnations, ranunculas, anemonies, and daffodils, blowing in full glory, with such beauty, vigour, and perfume, as no flower in England ever exhibited.

The gallies, to the number of eight or nine, are moored with their sterns to one part of the wharf, and the slaves are permitted to work for their own benefit at their respective occupations, in little shops or booths, which they rent for a trifle. There you see tradesmen of all kinds sitting at work, chained by one foot, shoe-makers, taylors, silversmiths, watch and clock-makers, barbers, stocking-weavers, jewellers, pattern-drawers, scriveners, booksellers, cutlers, and all manner of shop-keepers.

They pay about two sols a day to the king for this indulgence; live well and look jolly; and can afford to sell their goods and labour much cheaper than other dealers and tradesmen. At night, however, they are obliged to lie aboard. When you arrive at Rome, you receive cards from all your country-folks in that city: they expect to have the visit returned next day, when they give orders not to be at home; and you never speak to one another in the sequel. This is a refinement in hospitality and politeness, which the English have invented by the strength of their own genius, without any assistance either from France, Italy, or Lapland.

No Englishman above the degree of a painter or cicerone frequents any coffee-house at Rome; and as there are no public diversions, except in carnival-time, the only chance you have of seeing your compatriots is either in visiting the curiosities, or at a conversazione. DEAR SIR — I am at last in a situation to indulge my view with a sight of Britain, after an absence of two years; and indeed you cannot imagine what pleasure I feel while I survey the white cliffs of Dover, at this distance.

Not that I am at all affected by the nescia qua dulcedine natalis soli , of Horace. That seems to be a kind of fanaticism founded on the prejudices of education, which induces a Laplander to place the terrestrial paradise among the snows of Norway, and a Swiss to prefer the barren mountains of Solleure to the fruitful plains of Lombardy. I am attached to my country, because it is the land of liberty, cleanliness, and convenience: but I love it still more tenderly, as the scene of all my interesting connexions; as the habitation of my friends, for whose conversation, correspondence, and esteem, I wish alone to live.

Spector [ 99 ] et John F.

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Les textes de F. Furet sur la question sont loin de rejeter une telle conception. Le 9 Thermidor marque le passage, selon F. Gueniffey fait une distinction plus nette entre la violence populaire et la Terreur, notamment sur le nombre de protagonistes en jeu. Enfin, il a une fonction justificative.

On retourne donc les effets de la peur sur les ennemis du peuple. Le discours sur la conspiration comporte ainsi une dimension fortement justificatrice. Le renvoi de Necker confirme, selon la population parisienne, les pires craintes qui circulent depuis quelques jours. Dans Keith Michael Baker dir. Louis VI. Le Oros , , founded a palace on the site of the Louvre. Louis VII. Le Jeune , Suger, abbot of St. Denis, the king's minister. Philip II. Auguste , , considerably extended the city and surrounded it with a wall and turrets.

Third Crusade, The English, Flemish and German troops defeated at Bow vines , Louis VIII. Le Lion. Lours IX.

Table of contents

Louis , Crusades to Egypt and Tunis. Paris obtains various municipal advantages. The University foun- ded by Robert Sorbon, Philip III. LeHardi , Philip IV. Le Bel , , founded several courts of justice. Louis X. Le Hutin , Philip V. Le Long , Charles IV. Le Bel , , died without issue. The House of Valois succeeds. War with England, Battle of Cricy, John II. Le Bon , ; defeated and taken prisoner by the English at Maupertuia, Peace of Bretigny, Charles V. Le Sage. The city extended and re-fortified. The English expelled by Bertrand du Ouesclin.

Charles VI. The French conquered by Henry V. Paris occupied by the English, The siege of Orleans raised by Joan of Arc, The English expelled. Paris desolated by famine and plague. Louis XL, Introduction of printing and establishment of post-offioe. Louis XII. Having quarrelled with the latter, he was defeated by them on the Oarigliano In , on which occasion Bayard was present.

The League of Cambrai formed for the purpose of expelling the Venetians from the main- land of Italy. The Venetians conquered at AgnadeUo , The French defeated at Ravenna, Francis L, The city was probably more consider- ably altered and improved in this than in any of the preceding reigns. Numerous new edifices erected , churches repaired and fortifications extended. Palace of the Louvre and Hotel de Ville commenced. Wars with the emperor Charles V.

Francis defeated and taken prisoner at Pavia, Henry II. Final expulsion of the English. Francis II. Charles IX. The Tuileries erected. Massacre of St. Bartholomew, August 24th. Henry HI. Cloud by Jacques Clement, a Dominican friar. Henry IV. Sully his minister. Religious toleration granted by the Edict of Nantes. Henry divorced from Margaret of Valois in The metropolis greatly embellished during this reign. The Pont Neuf completed, additions made to the Louvre and Tuileries. Louis XIII. Richelieu his minister d. English fleet defeated at Rhe, ; La Rochelle taken from the Huguenots.

New bridges, quays and streets constructed. Jardin des Plantes laid out. Louis XIV. Ministers: Mazarin d. Generals : Turenne d. War of the Fronde against the court and Mazarin. Conde defeated the Spaniards at Rocroy, , and at Lens in Holtand in Submission of the Fronde. Peace of the Pyrenees, Louis married Maria Theresa, Part of Flanders con- quered, Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of Nymwegen, Strasbourg occupied, Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Devastation of the Palatinate.

The French fleet conquered by the English at La Hogue, Peace of Ryswyk, Spanish war of succession, ; the French frequently de- feated by Marlborough and Prince Eugene. Peace of Utrecht and Rastadt, During this reign upwards of eighty new streets and thirty- three churches were constructed. Hotel des Invalides, Observatory and the colonnade of the Louvre completed. College Mazarin, Gobelins, triumphal arches etc.

Fortifications converted into boulevards. Louis XV. Polish and Austrian wars of succession. Seven years' war with England. Jardin des Plantes extended. Louis XVI. Assembly of the States General at Versailles, May 5th. Formation of the National Assembly, June 17th. Storming of the Bastille, July 14th. Confiscation of ecclesiastical property, Nov. National fete in the Champ de Mars.

The Emigration. The king and royal family escape from Paris, but are intercepted at Varennes, June 20th. War with Austria, April 20th. Storming of the Tuile- ries, Aug. The king arrested, Aug. The National Convention opened and royalty abolished, Sept. Republic proclaimed Sept. XIX Republican reckoning of time introduced, Sept. Reign of Terror. The queen beheaded, Oct. Worship of Reason introduced, Nov. Loss of Belgium.

Robespierre's fall and execution, July 28th. Jourdan's victory at Fleurus. Belgium reconquered. Conquest of Holland by Pichegru. Bonaparte commander of the troops of the Convention against the Royalists under Da- nican, Oct. Directory established, Oct. Peace of Campo Fortnio. Change in the Directory caused by the "Revolution of 18th Fructidor", Sept. Bonaparte in Egypt. Victory of the Pyramids, July 21st. Defeated by Nelson in the battle of the Nile, Aug.

Bonaparte invades Syria. Acre defended by Sir Sidney Smith. Victory of Aboukir, July 25th. Fall of the Directory Nov. Bonaparte First Consul, Dec. Bonaparte's passage of the St Bernard, May 13th. Vic- tories at Piacenza, Montebello and Marengo. Moreau victorious at Hohenlinden, Dec. Peace of Lune'ville with Germany, Feb. Peace of Amiens with England, March 27th. Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed Emperor, May 18th.

Renewal of war with Austria. Battle of Austerlitz, Dec. Peace of Pressburg, Dec. War with Prussia. Battles of Jena and Auerstaedt. Entry into Berlin, Oct. War with Russia and Prussia. Battles of Eylau and Friedland. Treaty of Tilsit, July 8th. War in Spain. Conquest of Saragossa. Renewed war with Austria. Battle of Eckmuhl Vienna entered, May 13th. Battle of Wagram. Peace of Vienna, Oct. At the close of the year there were 5 Jours comptetnentaires , Sept. Renewed war with Russia. Battles of Smolensk and the Moshowa.

Moscow entered, Sept. Retreat commenced Oct. Passage of the Beresina — "Wellington's victory of Salamanca. Battles of Lutzen, Dresden, Leipsic, Hanau etc. Entrance of the allies into Paris, March 31st. Ab- dication of the emperor, April 11th. Departure for Elba, May 4th. First Treaty of Paris, May 30th. The frightful scenes of devastation which were enacted during the revolution, especially in , need hardly he adverted to; they were, however, beneficial in sweeping away the overgrown conventual establishments, which occupied the best sites and one- third of the area of the city.

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  4. Under the Directory the museum of the Louvre was commenced. Vast improvements were effected under Napoleon ; the mean buildings which formerly occupied the Place du Carrousel were demolished; the N. Napoleon's return from Elba. Battles of Ligny and Waterloo. Second entrance of the allies into Paris, July 7th. Napoleon banished to St. Helena where he died May 5th, Spanish campaign. Charles X. Conquest of Algiers.

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    Revolution of July. Louis Phi- lippe elected king, Aug. Revolution of February. Sanguinary con- flicts in Paris , June 23rd to 26th. Louis Napoleon elected President. Dissolution of the Assemble'e Legislative, Dec, 2nd. Under Louis Philippe they were resumed with fresh vigour. Many handsome new streets were opened, churches and public edifices completed, vast works un- dertaken for the drainage of the city, new bridges and quays con- structed, gardens and squares laid out etc.

    Napoleon III. Probably no city in the world has ever witnessed such gigantic improvements as Paris under the present regime. XXI of houses and numerous tortuous streets have been replaced by broad boulevards, spacious squares and palatial edifices. Public works of colossal magnitude have been undertaken, whilst those commenced in former reigns have been brought to a successful completion. Embellishments on the most extensive scale have been effected in the public parks and gardens, and, what is of incalculable importance, the city is now thoroughly well drained, lighted, paved and supplied with water.

    According to the latest census Paris contains 1,, , in souls, of whom 80, are Germans and English. About one-third of the births are illegitimate. The number of Protestants is estimated at 62,, Jews 20,, dissentient 30,, the remainder being Roman Catholics. The circumference of Paris is upwards of 21 miles; its area 19, acres, or about 30 sq. The Boulevard de. Sevastopol, the longest street, is about 2 M. The budget of the city of Paris for amounted to ,, fr.

    The following items deserve mention. For educational purposes 4,, fr. Paris at present contains elementary schools, of which are conducted by lay and by ecclesiastical superintendents. The number of pupils amounts to 94, The inner boulevards, one of the most frequented thoroughfares in Paris, are daily traversed by 24, horses, and 32, daily pass through the former Barriere de l'Etoile , leading to the Bois do Boulogne.

    A sum of 4,, fr. The total receipts of the five years — 64 amounted to ,, fr. The annual interest of the civic debt was 13,, fr. Distribution of Time. A sojourn of a fortnight or three weeks in Paris may suffico to convey to the visitor a superficial idea of the innumerable ob- jects of attraction which the city contains, whilst a residence ol several months alone would enable him thoroughly to explore its vast treasures of art and industry. The following plan, which is topographically arranged, will be found to facilitate the move- ments and economize the time of the visitor.

    General survey p. Walk in the boulevards p. Vendome column p. Germain l'Auxerrois p. Second visit to the Louvre. Place Napole'on and Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel p. Morgue p. Roch p. Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers p. Euftache p. Palais de l'Industrie p. Chapelle St. Ferdinand p. Place Royale p. Library of Ste. Genevieve p. Etienne du Mont p. Hotel des Monnaies p.

    Germain des Pre"s p. Sulpice p. Walk through the Quartier Latin p. Clotilde p. Blind Institution p. Champ i, de Mars p. By omnibus to St. Denis p. Vincent de Paul p. Cloud and Sevres p. Germain-en- Laye p. If the elements be unusually propitious at the commencement of the stranger's sojourn , he should at once embrace the oppor- tunity of visiting the beautiful environs of Paris days 12—16 ; or these excursions may be interspersed among the other sights according to circumstances.

    Excursions to Versailles, St. Cloud, Sevres and St. Germain-en- Laye may also thus be combined. On the way to Versailles rive gauche , an hour may be devoted to Sevres ; in returning rive droite , the park of St. Cloud may be visited from the Ville d'Avray station, after which the stranger proceeds on foot to the bridge at Boulogne, whence omnibuses start every 10 min.

    If a second visit be paid to Versailles, Paris should be quitted by the first train in the morning, in order to allow time for the inspection of the gardens and the Trianons before the opening of the museum. Omnibus from Versailles to St. The evening may then be most agreeably spent on the terrace of St. Germain, where a military band frequently plays. The appended list indicates the days and hours when the different collections etc. The early morning and the afternoon may be most suitably devoted to the churches and cemeteries which are open the whole day, to the Champs Elyse"es, the Jardin des Tuileries, the Jardin des Plantes and the Jardin du Luxembourg; the evening to the theatres, concerts etc.

    Mon- day may generally be spent in this way, as the principal col- lections are then closed. The animated scene presented by the boulevards may best be witnessed from 4 to 6 in the afternoon, before dinner. It is a wise precaution never to sally forth without a pass- port, or at least visiting-cards, which ensure admission to the collections on days when the public are excluded. The days and hours enumerated below , though at present correct, are liable to occasional variations.

    Strangers are there- fore referred to Oalignani's Messenger, the Saturday number of which also affords information respecting the Church of England and other Protestant services. Collections etc. Bibliotheque Ste. Cloud p. Deaf and Dumb Institution p. Exchange p. Military mass on Sundays at 12, followed by parade. Iardin d'Acclimatation p. Closed on Mondays. Muse"e d'Artillerie p. Palais du Corps Legislatif p. Muse"e Historique p.

    To be compared with the preceding alphabetical list. J Daily. Menagery in the Jardin des Plantes 10—6, in winter 11 till dusk. Gene- vieve 10—3 and 6 — 10 p. Louvre and Luxembourg 10—4. Jardin des Plantes; hothouses, by ticket 10—2 and 3—6. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 10 — 22 with pass- port or card.

    Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 15 — 12 with passport or card.

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    Versailles 11 — 5. Louvre and Luxembourg 10—4 10 — 12 with passport or card. Louvre and Luxembourg 10 — 4 10 — 12 with pass- port or card. Weights and Measures. In use since The English values of the French weights and measures are given approximately. Are square de'cametre — sq. The thermometers commonly used in France are the Centi- grade and Reaumur's. General Remarks on N. The majority of visitors to Paris will find comparatively little to interest them in the provinces of N.

    The scenery is seldom of so attractive a character as to induce a prolonged sojourn, whilst the towns are on a small scale mere repetitions of the metropolis.

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    The taste of the present day for improvement, which has been so strongly developed and so magnificently gratified in Paris, has similarly manifested itself in the provincial towns. Broad and straight streets with attractive shop-windows are rapidly superseding old and crooked lanes ; whole quarters of towns are demolished, and large, regular squares take their place; ramparts of ancient fortifications are converted into boulevards, faintly resembling those at Paris.

    Admirably adapted as this utilitarian bias doubtless is to the requirements of the 19th century, it cannot but be profoundly regretted that the few characte- ristic remnants of antiquity which survived the storms of the wars of the Huguenots and the great Revolution, and have hitherto resisted the mighty centralizing influence of the metropolis, are now rapidly vanishing.

    The towns of France generally present less variety than those of most other countries. They almost invariably rejoice in their boulevards, glass-arcades, jardins des plantes, theatres and cafe's, all feeble reproductions of the great Parisian models. Each also possesses its museum of natural history, interesting perhaps to the professional visitor, its collection of casts and antiquities and its picture-gallery, the latter usually consisting of a few modern pictures and a considerable number of mediocre works of the 17th and 18th centuries.

    The magnificent churches, however, which most of these towns possess, offer attractions not to be disregarded by even the most hasty traveller. The Gothic style, which originated in France has here attained a high degree of perfection, especially in Nor- mandy, a district of so great importance in the middle ages. Architects will here find abundant material for the most attractive studies, and even the amateur cannot fail to be impressed by the gems of Gothic architecture, such as St. Ouen at Rouen or the cathedral of Chartres, notwithstanding the alterations which most of them have undergone.

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    The Huguenots made deplorable havoc in the interiors of the churches, and the Revolution followed their example and converted the sacred edifices into "Temples of Reason. A complete network connects Paris with the most important provincial towns. The trains from Paris run on the left, those to Paris on the right line ef rails. It should also be observed that passengers always alight on the left side. The fares per English mile are approximately: 1st cl. The first class carriages are inferior to those of other parts of the continent and resemble those on most of the English lines ; the same remark generally applies to the second class also.

    Smoking is prohibited if any one of the passengers object, unless, as rarely happens, the coupe' is specially set apart for the purpose. Tickets for intermediate stations are given up at the "sortie" ; those for termini, before the station is entered. Luggage to the weight of 30 kilogrammes 66 Engl, lbs.

    The railway-porters facteurs are not entitled to remuneration, but it is usual to give a few sous for their services. Public omnibuses convey passengers to and from the Parisian stations, to which a few only of the hotels send their own vehicles. Fare 30—40 c, luggage 20—30 c. The traveller's taste for light literature may be gratified by a purchase at the book-stalls at the stations.

    The Petit Journal and Journal pour Tous cost 5 c. Hotels of the highest class and fitted up with modern acces- sories to comfort are encountered only in such towns as Havre, Rouen, Dieppe, Tours etc. In other places the inns generally retain their primitive provincial characteristics, which, were it not for the frequent absence of cleanliness, would prove rather an attraction than otherwise. Usual charges at houses of the latter description : R. As a rule the table d'hote dinner 3 — 4 fr. The dejeuner IV2— 2 fr. A slight luncheon at a cafe, which may be partaken of at any hour, thus leaving the traveller entire master of his own time, will be found far more convenient and expeditious.

    In southern districts, as on the Loire, wine is usually included in the charge for dinner. In Normandy a species of cider is frequently drunk in addition to, or as a substitute for wine. The usual fee for attendance at hotels is 1 fr. At the cafe's also the waiters expect a trifling gratuity, but the obnoxious system is not carried to such an extent as in the metropolis. The Churches, especially the more important, are open the whole day. As, however, divine service is usually celebrated in the morning and evening, visitors will find the middle of day or afternoon the most favourable time for their inspection.

    The attendance of the sacristan, or "Suisse", is generally superfluous; usual gratuity V2 fr. The Museums are open to the public on Sundays and Thursdays from 12 to 4 o'clock and are often crowded. Visitors may always obtain access at other times for a gratuity 1 fr. Catalogues may be borrowed from the concierge.


    The most trustworthy information with regard to the depar- ture of trains is contained in the Indicateur des Chemins de Fer, published weekly and sold 40 c. Railway time is always that of Paris, whkh in many places differs considerably from the real time. Thus the Strasbourg time is 23 min. Considerable English communities are resident in many of the towns mentioned in the following pages and opportunities of attending English churches are frequent e. On arriving at the railway-station the traveller is recommended at once to secure a fiacre "restez pour attendre les bagages" , as the number of these vehicles is sometimes limited.

    It should be observed that the driver expects 25 c.