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While the time required continent interiors. However, that accompanied the formation of most supercontinents. However, in this study, as in most numerical models, the continental an investigation into the effect of continental insulation in 2D and blocks are assumed to be rigid.

But a more recent numerical study 3D mantle convection models indicates that subduction patterns de- by Yoshida allows the modeling of mobile, deformable conti- termined by continental width play the dominant role in enabling nents, including oceanic plates, and successfully reproduces conti- the formation of subcontinental mantle upwellings Heron and nental drift similar to the processes and timescales envisaged in the Lowman, Subcontinental plumes develop as a consequence Wilson Cycle.

The process of supercontinent assembly induces a tem- of subduction patterns rather than continental thermal insulation perature increase beneath the supercontinent due to thermal insula- properties. Time sequence of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continents. White spherical surface indicates core—mantle boundary.

Su- percontinent is composed of the four continental fragments A—D surrounded by weak continental margins light orange , and is instantaneously imposed on well-developed mantle convection with temperature-dependent rheology. The elapsed times are scaled by an Earth-like timescale. From Yoshida and Santosh a. Details of the numerical methodology and model parameters can be found in Yoshida and further explanation of the model in Yoshida and Santosh a.

The formation whereas subcontinental mantle temperatures beneath dispersed conti- of degree-one convection seems to be integral to the emergence of nents can be lower than those of the suboceanic mantle, supercontinents periodic supercontinent cycles Yoshida and Santosh, a. Hence, they argue that melting and magmatic activity below and consequent temperature increase beneath the supercontinent continents are episodic processes, which could account for the Fig. Mantle geological time spans.

The 4. The result suggests that Australia, Eurasia, North America and tinent cycle on the Earth's long-term secular trends. According to Africa will gather in the northern hemisphere to form the next super- Eriksson et al. By ca. In addition, supercontinent amalgamation may be indirectly istence of large landmasses and free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere responsible for the formation of superplumes.

The assembly of super- allowed for global red bed sedimentation and the full spectrum of Phan- continents involves the peripheral subduction of large volumes of erozoic sedimentary environments. Collected in this fashion, the recycled oceanic lithosphere is possible onset of the supercontinent cycle, and at ca. The associat- Condie, The rapidly record is not as obviously consistent with the breakup of Nuna unfolding relationship between the supercontinent cycle and mantle Columbia , the assembly of Rodinia, or the breakup and assembly dynamics may therefore provide the key to our understanding of of Pannotia.

Acknowledgments 5. Their efforts of from the initial and inevitably simplistic ideas of the s to our behalf are greatly appreciated. Canada Discovery and improvements in zircon geochronology and isotope geochemistry, Research Capacity grants for continuing support. This work is a contri- the advent of mantle tomography, and ever-more sophisticated nu- bution to IGCP and contributes to the Talent Award to M. Although the cycle appears References to be less periodic than originally envisioned by Worsley et al.

Anderson, D. Hotspots, polar wander, Mesozoic convection and the geoid. Two Neoarchean supercontinents? Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic. Sedimentary Geology , 75— Before Pangea: the geographics of the tinents, at least from the Paleoproterozoic, just as they advocated. Paleozoic world.

American Scientist 68 1 , 26— Supercontinent cycles and the distribution of metal many cases, poorly constrained, it is clear that their amalgamation deposits through time. Geology 20, — Barron, E. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 74, — The assembly of super- Bell, R. Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Parkville, Victoria, introversion closure of interior oceans formed by supercontinent pp. Special Publication of the International Asociation of Sedimentolo- orogens and a high-standing landmass, the rapid erosion of which gy, 1, pp.

The Late Archean record: a puzzle in ca. Lithos 71, 99— Breakup of a supercontinent between Ma and Ma: new evidence and implications for continental histories. This close coupling between climate, nutrient surplus and Bradley, D. Passive margins through earth history. Earth-Science Reviews 91, oxidation is likely to have had a profound effect on the evolution of 1— Bradley, D.

Secular trends in the geologic record and the supercontinent cycle. Brito Neves, B. Main stages of the development of the sedimentary basins of South There is also growing evidence for a strong coupling between the America and their relationship with the tectonics of supercontinents. Gondwana supercontinent cycle and mantle dynamics. Dynamic models with Research 5, — Geology 21, — Duality of thermal regimes is the distinctive characteristic of plate rapid assembly of continental blocks with consequent temperature tectonics since the Neoarchean. Geology 34, — Metamorphism, plate tectonics, and the supercontinent cycle.

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Interview with the Super Continent: The Pangea Chronicles

Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper, 20, pp. A 90o spin on Rodinia: possible causal links Hoffman, P. United plates of America, the birth of a craton: early Proterozoic between the Neoproterozoic supercontinent, superplume, true polar wander and assembly and growth of Laurentia. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences low-latitude glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , — Geology I. Pease, V. Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out? Precambrian Research , Science , — Hoffman, P.

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Was Pangaea’s “Piñata” Struck From the Outside?

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The Emergence of Animals: The Earth? Cambrian Breakthrough. Columbia University Press, New York pp. Ilyin, A. Proterozoic supercontinent, its latest Precambrian rifting, breakup, McWilliams, M. Paleomagnetism and Precambrian tectonic evolution of Gondwana. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. Geology 18, — Meert, J. Growing Gondwana and rethinking Rodinia: a paleomagnetic Jordan, T. The continental tectosphere. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics perspective. Gondwana Research 4, — Paleomagnetic evidence for a Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent, Karlstrom, K.

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Reading the Archive of Earth's Oxygenation, Frontiers of Science overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean The Palaeoproterzoic of Fennoscandia as Context for the Fennoscandian ca. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, K. Geological Society pp. Mertanen, S. Paleo-Mesoproterozoic assemblages of continents: Powell, C. McA, Are Neoproterozoic glacial deposits preserved on the margins of paleomagnetic evidence for near equatorial supercontinents.

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Pre-1 Ga pre-Rodinian ophiolites: their tectonic and environmental: Rino, S. The Grenvillian and implications. Geological Society of America Bulletin , 80— Pan-African orogens: world's largest orogenies through geologic time, and their Morel, P. Tentative paleocontinental maps for the early Phanerozoic implications on the origin of superplume.

Gondwana Research 14, 51— Journal of Geology 86, — Roberts, N. Increased loss of continental crust during supercontinent Mukherjee, A. Anorthosites, granulites and the supercontinent cycle. Rogers, J. A history of continents in the past three billion years. Journal of Murphy, J. Model for the evolution of the Avalonian—Cadomian Geology , 91— Geology 17, — Supercontinent model for the contrasting character of supercontinent Columbia? What kind of water? Highly pressurized water! If water is running out of those mid oceanic rifts today , how about in the past?

If there is still so much water below the crust today as these black smokers testify, is that water then merely a residue of water that used to be there before in greater quantities? It sure could be, considering the cracks! Sure it does! Did they identify which water it was with artificial coloring or something? Why such a theory! Giant termites? Big Foot? Or New Age Aliens? Below is what mainstream History. Could water have been the culprit? Pent-up, wedged below the pristine single crust cap of the primary Earth? A natural radioactive nuclear explosion perhaps?

A formation of asteroids falling precisely in an unbroken line breaking through the crust in one go? But how about the back of the planet then! How could that kind of fault-line ever have joined up with its beginning at the other side, as precise as the perfect rendezvous tunnel-builders arrange, drilling from both sides of a mountain? Yes that would work! Coincidence over a very long period of time has explained lots of inexplicable phenomena!

We use that explanation all the time! Millions of years!! But alas, this cracking process could not have taken much time at all. It could only have been produced globally by an instant catastrophic event, definitely no longer than the extinction event of the dinosaurs! It would have been a repetitious cracking phenomenon everywhere , without a need to join up with each other! How much is the present pressure of black smokers? Is that OK? Ah there is more! Because before it exploded it must have been collecting, no?

Oh I found this…. How fitting! SUPER- critical it says. Some are active and, in shallow water, disclose their presence by blasting steam and rocky debris high above the surface of the sea. Many others lie at such great depths that the tremendous pressure from the weight of the water above them prevents the explosive release of steam and gases.

So even depth itself is the cause of and a cap over S uper C ritical W ater within the oceans. Well then, how about that super-heavy rock shelf denser and heavier than ocean water! That ought to be more than enough pressure to keep it down there in an increasing supercritical state! So not magma, not gas! It could only have been the then-still-present layer of Super-Critical Water, above the Moho below the global crust. It suddenly found an outlet, a weakness, either via the impact of some asteroid hit, or from the gravitational pull of a fly-by-night close planet perhaps, or merely by a growing weakness built-up in the crust itself from SCW pressure which caused it to escape, blow and rip open a crack all over the globe!

It must have rained quite a bit on Panku and flooded those Pangaeans! They must at least have gotten their socks wet, or was there more to it? I guess that would depend on the amount of SCW that escaped from that 65, kilometers long crack all around the globe! For that must have taken quite a bit of water, even to initially cause the crack! And the crack must have eroded quite a bit, enough space to eventually allow the mantle to actually begin to bulge up inside of it! Because seeing the oceanic mid-rifts, that is what obviously happened! Correct me if I am wrong.

I do not want to jump to conclusions. I have no mechanical engineering degree, but I would say wider than multiple tens of meters at least, right?

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That would total to 2. And that is only the amount of rock annihilated to open up a rather small ten meter wide, 35 km deep, 65, km long cleft! That much crustal granite got initially blasted into space by an at least identical volume of water, but of course much much more than that afterwards, all that water spouting through that resultant 65, km long cleft! Even such a conservative estimate of a ten meter wide crack, translates into a huge amount of rock and water shooting out of the Earth, obviously into the air and landing on all those poor Pangaean people! They got more than their socks wet, I wot.

That warm or hot rain must have dropped down pretty hard on them on their mono continent. But the water through the cracks in the continent must have shot up extremely high and also taken lots of debris up with it into the air! Realise that that 10 Meters was our conservative estimate, but that the crack eventually widened enough to cause the basalt Mantle to rise up into it after the downward pressure of the crust had vanished into thin air! So that would have accounted for much much more water plus much more debris spouting up!

Oh my! That must have caused mayhem! I wonder if there is any historical record of such an event, because it obviously happened when you observe those global cracks! I wonder if anyone survived at all. I mean water? Like in a water-park or surfing, if a ton of water falls on you, you can swim through it perhaps and find some ground to stand on. You would be wiped off your feet by such a flood into the ocean or rivers. Oh poor people! That must have been disastrous! Even if they had time to write down a record of it, it would have flooded away and be buried under the mass of rock debris coming out of those cracks.

To enable a rocket to climb into low Earth orbit, it is necessary to achieve a speed, in excess of 28, km per hour. A speed of over 40, km per hour, called escape velocity, enables a rocket to leave Earth and travel out into deep space. I wonder if they reached speeds of over 40, km per hour! In that case it would indeed have been thrust into space and become asteroids! Perhaps it even hit the moon! I always wondered how the moon got so many mares and craters on the Earth side.

I understand the backside would have many more because it is turned to space! It would have gotten loads of asteroids and meteorites that bombarded that side. But we are supposedly in the way for those asteroids and meteorites on the Earth-side of the moon! And if the moon was still young in those days it had perhaps magma inside.

And if one of those rocks hit the moon it would crack the surface and the magma would flow out, the moon having less gravity, and fill an entire pool of it. Did you realise that there is very little evidence in recorded history of even one huge visible comet or asteroid strike on the Moon? Maybe I never heard of one. OH and that is why they are coming back here because they got into some kind of orbit that brings them back here. It sounds like these weird fundie Creationists.

Oh No! Shut that line of thought quick. What if it really happened as they say! But how could there have been any record of it! Nobody would have survived a disaster like that, especially having only one continent. That continent was soaked and tsunamis to the bone! No one could have survived and talked about it. But then they always have these myths, and legends. They say there are more than of them.

Could anyone have survived and told the story? Oh this is getting weird. They did have some survivors according to these stories and this guy.. O no, you mean that Noah was a real person and actually did survive on that boat with all those animals? Man my paradigm is capsizing. If I had known where this would lead I would have ignored it as well. But now it does make sense like never before! It makes my head spin! They lost the resistance of the crust and started to expand into the cracks and to lift up the fragments of continental crust.

And if there was indeed water under the crust they could have begun hydro-planing away from the bulging of the rifts. I am sure that when most of the water had been jettisoned into the air, that a lot of it had become non-critical water that fell back in the cavities that the super-critical water came from, and so that was the gliding medium for the fragments to begin moving away. South Australian government astronomer George F. His work, which gained worldwide recognition, is commemorated by a plaque on the site of the old observatory on West Terrace, Adelaide.

He did an investigation of summer solstice studies at ancient sites, such as Stonehenge, Amon Ra, Eodoxus, and so on.

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  6. In late , Dodwell wrote to Professor Arthur J. Brandenberger , professor of photogrammetry at Ohio State University, outlining his theory in the following manner;. And you were thinking that all this Deluge Denial- ism happened only this last century? Oh no! Thousands of years! And of course for the very same reason! What reason?? Oh come on… did you receive the correction your father gave you?! Whereas the ones who did remember their Primo-Patriarch Noach and the other family members, were wise enough to avoid death or exile by shutting up! Rhodes W. He realised that this would have resulted in massive, worldwide flooding and catastrophic geological effects.

    The date of this event, from his curve of observations, is BC — about 4, years ago. There is a clear pattern of recovery since BC that has not been disrupted. This points to a disaster of devastating worldwide proportions around BC, from which all the processes of nature have since been recovering, including the cracked crust of the Earth! Only a massive fast asteroid striking the Earth at a favorable angle would tilt the axis this much, however the resulting pressure pulse throughout the entire atmosphere would have quickly killed all breathing animals!

    And so the question remains was the tilt of the earth caused by asteroid strike or for another reason? Are you sitting down? OK, get some coffee first! This graphic explains how the obliquity of the Earth could change because of centrifugal force caused by a sudden weight in the Northern atmosphere! The question is: did something develop in the Northern hemisphere after the fountains of the Earth had broken open? Of course it did! Much of the super-critical water that sprayed high into the atmosphere and even into space did not escape the gravity of the Earth and as a result fell back to Earth.

    In the Equatorial zone as rain, but around the Polar region as ice! We know from the ancient maps think Piri Reis that Antarctica was still situated in the Indian Ocean after the Flood, and thus the Southern ice fell into the water and could not accumulate! That Northern ice did not melt, so it could not move and thus it started to pack higher and higher and press the Northern continents down, as well as add new weight to the Earth there.

    That heavy weight could have tilted the Earth in a matter of months after the Flood had begun to drain. This was around the time when the continental plates had begun to move, while the ice cap was getting thicker and ocean levels began to go down M. Because there is staggering and mounting evidence of the same. But that is Wicked Pedia for you: Darwinist gatekeeper! As ice fell and accumulated during the Flood in the North, instantly burying the famous Berezovka mammoth literally crushing its legs, flattening its penis, its tusks bombarded with tiny projectiles on one side from flying flint!

    Simple hydrology dictates that the hotter the ocean the more clouds it generates. But alternative historians like Hancock are hobbled by long ages as well! So now we did not only have fallen ice up North, but also frequent heavy rains as well , that of course came down as snow in the Northern hemisphere, which began to add to the ice pack already deposited by the by now depleted fountains of the Earth! And so the Northern ice pack grew higher and thicker, and lo and behold, an instant, unique single Ice Age had arrived!

    Not or And it only lasted as long as the oceans were overheated. We can theorise if and when that ice became heavy enough to start tilting the planet. How quickly did it happen? Your guess is as good as mine! But one thing for sure… it tilted! So Earth did not have to be hit by any asteroid after all!

    That tilt may have been caused by the accumulation of the ice! In that case the actual water fountains exploding may have happened quite a while before the B. Perhaps right there where the crust blew first , before the crack ran all around the planet! I personally lean most toward this theory! C, is the most exact date of the Flood!

    Just like elephants, mammoths need about kg of plant food daily , and they can shunt me their Evolutionary theory that says that they dug it up with their long upturned curved trunks from below the ice!