Steck, L. Salles, I. Matioli, A. Kovaleski, R. Sugayama, S. Ovruski, M. Condon, F. All these people deserve credit for advancing fruit fly systematics, biology, ecology, and behavior in Latin America, and in this regard, they should all be considered true pioneers in their fields. The fact of the matter is that after years of research, most agricultural practitioners in Latin America and the Caribbean still resort to chemicals and McPhail traps or modifications thereof to control and monitor flies because these are the only accessible and cost-effective tools available.
Further, too often do growers or government agencies still approach the problem from a very narrow perspective. Most, if not all efforts are concentrated at the orchard level as opposed to the more appropriate, area-wide view close to or during the harvest season, with little attention paid to the biology, ecology and behavior of the pest. Why haven't we, as researchers, been able to break this vicious cycle? Part of the reason is that we have paid too little attention to fruit flies and their enemies in nature, and as mentioned before, our approaches have been too rigid and schematic.
With few exceptions, it is symptomatic that most of the baseline information on the biology of fruit flies we use today still comes from studies carried out at the beginning of the century! Unfortunately, after that period of relatively rapid advancement e. Reyes - pers. Growers and government agencies, having easy access to such effective and cheap post-harvest treatments, neglected doing field work. Breaking this heavy dependency and narrow outlook has and will not be easy because it requires a concerted effort by managers and research leaders.
The message needs to be clearly stated and understood: when it comes to managing fruit fly problems nothing is more effective than prevention i. Now that we are on the threshold of a new millennium, the time seems appropriate to follow those early pioneers and once again push forward our understanding of fruit fly biology, ecology and behavior. I hope that the next century will be just as full of breakthroughs and new ideas as were those earlier days of scientific discovery. To achieve this, we need to foster creative thinking among our students as well as within the next generation of fruit fly researchers.
Fruit flies are just as mysterious and therefore deserve more creative attempts to unravel their secrets. We need to also approach the problem from multiple perspectives. For example, we need to give the comparative approach greater acceptance e. In my opinion, the reductionist, single species and pest-only approaches have too many shortcomings to remain as the dominant modes of investigation. We need to expand our horizon and view the problem from many more angles than we have done so far.
Finally, and most importantly, we ought to be more humble: fruit fly systems are far too complex and sophisticated to be treated in a superficial way. Before moving on, and at the risk of sounding naive, I would like to take this opportunity to express a deeply felt concern. I do not want to come across as arrogant or uninformed. I can only ask the reader in advance to consider the good intentions behind my statements, indulge my personal idiosyncrasies, and accept my sincerest apologies should I inadvertently offend any one. But given this unique opportunity to write on fruit flies without any preconditions or limitations, I felt the urge to play the devil's advocate and "challenge" the status quo in an attempt to motivate the new generation of Latin American fruit fly researchers and hopefully young scientists from other parts of the world to study these wonderful organisms with an open mind and with greater freedom of thinking.
To preface my point, let me draw attention to the following. In the last 80 years, literally hundreds of scientific articles, abstracts published in congresses or special meeting proceedings and unpublished reports on fly traps and population fluctuations have been produced. Yet, in our quest to fabricate the perfect trap or identify the key components that drive population fluctuations, we have been left with relatively few defining moments.
Why has this been so? In my opinion, and with few recent exceptions e. In particular, we have paid far too little attention to the natural history and behavior of fruit flies in nature, and therefore, we have seriously underestimated the complexity of fruit fly biology and ecology. In this article, I will argue that too little effort has been devoted to the study of fruit flies in nature and that too much attention has been paid to a few pest species, or in the case of parasitoids, exotic species. At the risk of sounding old-fashioned especially at a time in which "molecular" is the buzzword , I strongly argue in favor of more natural history studies and of widening our approach to consider non-pest species.
I also advocate studies of the areas surrounding or adjacent to commercial orchards because it is here that fly populations increase before invading orchards.
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Further, I argue in favor of longer-term studies i. Particularly in the case of research on population dynamics, the current short term approaches will shed little further light on what really drives fruit fly populations Aluja et al. Finally, I make a plea to strengthen the theoretical and ecological underpinnings of fruit fly research in Latin America, to take more seriously the comparative approach i.
For example, many Anastrepha , Rhagoletis , Toxotrypana , Blepharoneura and Hexachaeta species to name but a few genera are severely threatened by deforestation. Are we sufficiently aware of this and have we used our credibility as scientists to enter the public debate on this issue? Some of these apply perfectly to the examples I will present here. A famous myth that strained the commercial relationship between Mexico and the United States of America for as many as 80 years, was the idea supported by several interest groups mainly California avocado growers that Hass avocados could be infested by several Anastrepha species.
Indeed, the supposition that Hass avocados were hosts of the genus Anastrepha was a notion "based more on tradition or convenience than on fact", an "imaginary story" and "a half-truth". As indicated during my testimony at public hearings related to the importation of Mexican Hass avocados into the U.
Aluja , supporters of the belief that avocados were hosts of flies in the genus Anastrepha never defined what they meant by "avocado". Even though Bush reported Anastrepha infestations in avocados, he was reporting on a semi-domesticated, soft skinned variety of avocado that is not grown commercially, and he never specified the species of Persea he was studying.
But surely, this report was not related to Persea americana var. Such was also likely the case with all interceptions of infested avocados at the Mexico-U. There are many wild and cultivated plants called avocados, and furthermore, there are many avocado varieties. Which plants were interest groups referring to when relating them to infestations of Anastrepha? As indicated by Aluja the genus Persea Clus. Lauraceae is divided into two subgenera: Persea within which all avocados are classified and Eriodaphne. In addition, the literature indicates that there are more than fifty species of Persea Kostermans , Kopp , Gamma-Campillo Allen, P.
Was Persea americana var Hass a host of Anastrepha? The answer, as demonstrated by Enkerlin et al. These authors indicated that Hass avocados exhibit mechanical resistance to the attack of A. They also showed that Hass avocados can indeed be infested, but only under extreme laboratory conditions.
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In addition, based on the natural history and behavior of the three Anastrepha species under consideration, as well as the packing-house conditions for Hass avocados, these authors point out that the likelihood of an infestation is almost zero. In conclusion, the concern that Hass avocados were hosts of the genus Anastrepha was proven untrue.
This incident represents, in my opinion, a classical "fruit fly myth": the consequence of insufficient scientific information, backed by powerful commercial interests, with an unfortunate outcome for an important Mexican agricultural sector as well as Mexico-U. Supporters of such a myth or half-truth, never addressed or wanted to address the real question: what species and variety of avocado were they talking about?
It will be interesting to follow this story now that the most important Hass avocado packing houses in Mexico are being bought or managed by U. The lessons from all the above, at least to the scientific community in Latin America are twofold: 1 we need to stand firm and not allow commercial interests to twist reality and 2 we need to generate solid knowledge and produce high quality science, published in high impact, refereed journals, to help support our countries as they negotiate international agreements.
In other words, we need to consider the practical impact of our research in much more serious terms. To avoid generating new myths or perpetuating the prevailing ones, it is necessary to substantiate all host plant records from field collections i. Furthermore, when reporting a commercial fruit species as a host, it is necessary to always refer to the variety or cultivar. In my opinion, this rigorous, scientific approach should be the only acceptable basis for any official host plant list and should also be the only valid negotiating basis in international plant protection protocols such as those sponsored by the North American Plant Protection Organization, NAPPO.
Neither commercial interest groups nor government protectionist policies should have any place in this scientific arena. Related to the above, many people working in government-funded fruit fly programs, and thus influenced by the "pest-species syndrome", have the preconception that fruit flies are exclusively frugivorous and pulp feeding.
It is my contention that this has biased field workers in their collection efforts and would explain, in part, why the hosts of so many fruit flies of economic and non-economic importance are still unknown. When in search of new host plants, much of our efforts are involved in collecting visible, pulpy fruits. Obviously, this can steer us away from exiting new discoveries because little attention is paid to galls, shoots, seeds or flowerheads. For example, upon encountering a ripe, "uninfested" i.
Aluja - unpubl. The problem is that our "early imprinting" and "fixed search image" leads us to pay little attention to the seeds, where the larvae of A.
In addition, because of the preconception that only ripe fruit bearing fully developed larvae are worthy of attention, many times we fail to collect unripe fruit. In the case of L. It turns out that A. Another interesting myth is represented by A. In my opinion, such a conception has been adopted by many without even a timid challenge. Even though there is unequivocal evidence that A. In a recent study, Aluja and collaborators Aluja et al. These authors showed that even under no-choice conditions, females rarely accepted citrus as an oviposition substrate in the laboratory and when such was the case, no larvae eclosed.
Importantly, under seminatural conditions i. Referring back to the definition of myth I have adopted, the idea that A. Anastrepha fraterculus in Mexico is restricted to the Myrtaceae and a few other wild or non-economically important fruit trees in the families Combretaceae, Rosaceae, Sapotaceae and Ulmaceae. Why then call it a pest of citrus in this country?
Another widely held myth, at least among certain local government officials and growers, is that the origin of fruit fly populations is within the orchard itself. In my opinion, and with few exceptions, there are no endemic orchard populations. Unfortunately, this misconception has guided local management approaches for too many years. The focus of attention has been the orchard, when in fact it should be the surroundings and periphery, or even more appropriately, the entire fruit-growing region.
Such a process can be seasonal or daily. Based on this knowledge, management strategies should incorporate the idea of intercepting or killing flies in the area surrounding the orchard by means of traps, trap crops or, when dealing with extremely high population levels, by applying bait sprays in orchard borders. In sum, fruit fly management in the tropics should be ideally approached with an area-wide view and be part of a broad pest and disease management program i.
Unfortunately, and quoting Aluja , so far and with few exceptions, "fruit fly management has been viewed from a narrow perspective". Based on pioneering ideas by Geier et al. His model contemplates the following four levels of integration: 1 integration of multiple management tactics within a single class of pests which is, by the way, the approach usually followed with fruit flies , 2 integration of multiple management tactics across all classes of pests, 3 integration of combined pest management procedures with an entire system of crop production, and 4 blending the concerns of all groups having a vital interest in pest management.
To illustrate, the focus in a semi-arid or desert region with low abundance of native hosts, would be to establish a pest-free area. In contrast, the focus in a region with abundant wild hosts and backyard gardens, would be to decimate fly populations before the commercial fruiting season begins, primarily through the release of parasitoids and sterile flies. Once the fruit starts to ripen, then the focus should shift to the interception of flies in orchard borders.
Mapping orchard system dynamics, using tools such as geographic information systems, would be highly recommendable Nestel et al. The McPhail trap represents one of the most persistent, living myths. Otherwise, how could one explain the fact that this costly and highly inefficient trap has been in use for so long.
Aluja et al. This number could actually be lower given the fact that insects could have repeatedly visited the trap in the study, flies were not marked and thus repeat visits could not be distinguished in the data. Furthermore, this trap kills many endemic and beneficial insects. Aluja, V. Quintero - unpubl. Based on this, and given the fact that the baits used in McPhail traps and insecticide applications are both of proteinaceous nature, it can be inferred that many non-target and beneficial insects are killed when bait sprays are applied. Also, and despite the fact that most flies need to ingest protein to develop their ovaries, it is unlikely that all species respond equally to the single bait formulation typically used in McPhail traps.
As speculated by Aluja et al. Nor is it likely that the McPhail trap performs equally well in all types of environments. Already by , McPhail had noted that A.
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It has also been shown that the McPhail trap is more efficient in dry seasons and environments than in wet ones e. The logical question then is, why has this trap been in use for so long? The short answer to this question is that there is no alternative trap available on the market.
But why is this? Only until recently, has there been a concerted effort to try to develop a more efficient option R. Heath - unpubl. Judging the process from a distance, it seems that aside from technical aspects such as formulation issues or materials for trap assemblage most of the real obstacles have to do with a lack of sufficient information on the basic biology and behavior of the flies. Thus the theme of this article emerges again: we need to make a more serious effort to study the natural history of fruit flies. This means a thorough examination of all the factors that might elicit responses from the insects, including visual and chemical stimuli from native host plants, signals from potential mating partners, and preference criteria used to evaluate potential resting and feeding sites.
To give some general direction to possible natural history studies, I have several suggestions. This has already proven effective in the case of A. All of these suggestions entail long term studies under field and laboratory conditions e. Some myths are the result of misidentifications or lack of rigor when citing a questionable source. As pointed out by R. Zucchi pers. The problem appears to be a taxonomic one. The genus Mikimyia Bigot has been considered a synonym of Toxotrypana , and the only species placed in Mikimyia M.
Zucchi - pers. Given the fact that the holotype of M. But since all recent expeditions in search of T. One last example of a fruit fly myth actually in this case, "rigid approach" would be a more descriptive term is represented by the exclusive use of introduced exotic parasitoids in biological control programs for fruit flies. Why haven't native species been given an equal opportunity?
The answer to such a question is complex. These authors state that " On the other hand, it has been shown that the addition of a second parasitoid species to a system already regulated by a resident species may reduce the degree of control Kakehashi et al. Further, and as pointed out by Hochberg , "only a few studies have addressed how increasing the number of coexisting natural enemies in a system may produce an undesirable increase in the host's equilibrium level".
Finally, and until recently, very little information on the biology of native parasitoids was available in Latin America Sivinski et al. In sum, I believe the argument for the use of native parasitoids is a convincing one. As will be discussed later, the mass release of native parasitoids should be tested as an alternative to the longer term release of exotic parasitoids, especially in areas where fly populations reach high numbers and from which individual flies are known to move into commercial orchards.
Further, in regions were growers are resource-poor, the following actions might be promoted as environmentally-friendly alternatives to the widespread use of insecticides details below : 1 the preservation of habitats where parasitoids thrive and 2 the artificial increase of certain parasitoid reservoir, diversity-enhancing and multiplier species of trees discussed below.
Realities the real fruit fly world. What do we really know about fruit flies and their parasitoids in Latin America? In my opinion, and considering the millions of dollars spend attempting to control them in the past, still far too little. I do not attempt to review here the entire Latin American literature on fruit flies and their parasitoids. Arguably, one of the best studied areas in fruit fly biology is systematics. Certain groups like Anastrepha , Blepharoneura , Hexachaeta , Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana are fairly well known, thanks to the pioneering efforts of M.
Curran, R. Foote, C. Stone and the more recent work of R. Zucchi , , ; et al. Norrbom Norrbom et al. Despite these efforts, many outstanding questions remain and more work is needed see section on future research paths. For example, a revision of Toxotrypana is long overdue.
Other topics that have received considerable attention are surveys of fly species and their host plants Baker et al. Yet with few exceptions, these studies have provided very little of the critical biological information needed to really understand the long term population fluctuations of these organisms. This is because too little attention has been paid to the areas surrounding the orchards where these studies were carried out, and more importantly, because these studies encompassed too short a period of time. As Aluja et al. These authors, working in five different mango orchards over five years, demonstrated that even though up to 10 species of fruit flies were captured in an orchard, one species always predominated A.
But interestingly, on occasion the second most abundant species A. Specifically, A. In all likelihood, such an important biological result would have gone undetected in a short-term study. Based on this finding, it was recommended that population studies last a minimum of four years in order to have a reasonable chance of detecting important fluctuations Aluja et al. More recent experiences have lead me to believe that an accurate picture of natural population fluctuations requires a minimum of 10 years of continued trapping. I base this statement on the realization that the highly variable, global weather patterns of recent times have had a tremendous effect on the fruiting patterns of many host plants.
As a consequence, many fly populations have crashed at the local level. In order to ascertain the time required for these populations to recover and the periodicity of the new fluctuation patterns, multiyear studies need to be undertaken in Latin America. I urge all researchers to consider both the orchard and its surrounding area when embarking upon these studies. Ideally, a regional approach, which takes into account commercial and semi-commercial orchards, backyard gardens, and patches of native vegetation, should be followed.
For this to be possible, considerable funds will be necessary. Other fields of study in which considerable knowledge on fruit flies has been accrued, albeit under artificial laboratory conditions, are demography and nutritional ecology. Two research groups stand out in Latin America: one lead by F. Zucoloto in Brasil and the other directed by P. Liedo in Mexico. Both teams have contributed significantly to the literature on Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha spp. Fruit fly behavior has also been an important research topic in Latin America, especially studies of Anastrepha , Blepharoneura , Ceratitis , Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana.
But much more work is needed if we are to reach a sufficient degree of understanding of this complex topic. An area of investigation that has received much recent attention in Latin America is native parasitoids. In Brasil for example, recent efforts by R. Zucchi, his students and his collaborators, have yielded important information on the abundance of parasitoids in non-agricultural settings Nascimento et al.
Furthermore, studies by J. Sivinski, M. Aluja and their collaborators have shed light on some basic aspects of parasitoid biology, ecology and behavior Sivinski et al. These authors further propose that wild parasitoid reservoirs should become an integral part of regional fruit fly management programs. Among other recommendations, they propose the establishment of nurseries to propagate plant species that act as parasitoid reservoirs, and the reintroduction of such reservoir plants as part of national reforestation programs.
An added benefit of managing reservoir plants is that many represent valuable timber sources for the poor, rural farming family. Undoubtedly two areas where progress has been significant are postharvest treatments e. Unfortunately in the latter case, almost all current research efforts are aimed at the Medfly C.
In my opinion, an equivalent amount of attention is long overdue in the case of Anastrepha. Recently, two of these species A. Similar efforts, in combination with mass releases of parasitoids and other biorrational control strategies such as habitat manipulation would be welcome in many other parts of Latin America. Before finishing this section, I would like to mention a critical aspect of fruit fly biology that managers need to take more seriously.
Many important stages in the life history of fruit flies are completed away from the orchard, occurring instead in the surrounding landscape matrix. That is where our principal management efforts need to be directed. This is especially true in the case of biological control programs. For example, mass-reared larval and pupal parasitoids such as Coptera haywardi , Doryctobracon areolatus or Utetes anastrephae might be released adjacent to commercial mango orchards, in areas near wild host species such as Spondias purpurea. This would drastically reduce fly populations without the need for insecticides or the widespread removal of wild hosts plants.
Such parasitoid treatments might be supplemented by sterile fly releases in order to minimize the impact of flies that escaped parasitism. Dreams future research paths. As stated at the beginning of this article, fruit flies are complex and sophisticated organisms. If we are to make headway in understanding them, we need to incorporate this complexity into our research protocols granted of course, that we have gathered enough information on the natural history of the particular species of interest. I will illustrate my point using the following examples.
Even though such approaches have yielded useful information, a recent study by Lagunes clearly showed that ovary maturation is driven by chemical and social factors, diet, and the age and availability of host plants. Furthermore, Fitt showed that patterns of oogenesis varied sharply between r- and K-selected species of Bactrocera. A similar pattern is observed in Anastrepha. Such information underscores the need for solid natural history studies. Another good example of the complexity of fruit fly biology can be found in studies of nutritional ecology.
Many Latin American studies describe the effects of artificial diets on life history traits such as fecundity or longevity. As already noted, the elegant work of F. Zucoloto stands out in this respect. What is missing from such work is a more natural setting. Typically, only artificial diets presented on a continuous basis are offered to flies. The danger of such experimental protocols is that flies will either exhibit uncharacteristic responses or that the laboratory findings will have little bearing on what happens in nature. That is to say, when females were offered the choice between sucrose and protein, they preferred the sucrose i.
This phenomenon has a physiological basis. Tseng et al.
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The discovery of this phenomenon in fruit flies is interesting, but how common is it in nature? Furthermore, how relevant are many experimental protocols to natural scenarios? For example, it is unlikely that a fly in nature encounters high quality food every day, yet many experimental designs call for a continuously available food source. Obviously, extrapolation from laboratory to field conditions would be difficult under these circumstances and results would have to be treated cautiously. Underscoring this point is a recent study of individual feeding patterns in A.
In fact, on occasion three days can pass without a single feeding bout being recorded for a particular individual all flies were individually marked in this study. The results of this study force us to reconsider the basic premise of the continual feeding protocol of many experimental designs in order to ask a more fundamental question. If flies in nature neither feed daily nor encounter high quality foods on a daily basis, then shouldn't our experiments simulate such natural conditions, rather than introduce the confounding effects of artificial or unnatural scenarios?
A final example of the complexity alluded to at the beginning of this section is the effect that environmental variability can have on such phenomena as diapause or on certain life history traits. For example, Aluja et al. Specifically, neither Aganaspis pelleranoi nor Odontosema anastrephae exhibited diapause when reared under a constant temperature regime, but when field collected, particularly between September and December, these species entered a diapause period which lasted up to 11 months.
Life history traits such as longevity can also be influenced by environmental variation. For example, individuals of Doryctobracon areolatus maintained under strict laboratory conditions lived only one third the amount of time as individuals maintained under variable i. Aluja, M. Sivinski - unpubl. These authors indicate that " In contrast, when A. Adults of A. These results suggest that if we are to truly understand fruit fly biology, we need to look at different life history strategies among pest and non-pest species. All the above clearly demonstrates the role that environmental variability e.
Based on this evidence, I believe it is necessary to spend many more years in the field collecting biologically meaningful data, before we plunge into sophisticated laboratory studies. In my opinion, the opposite tactic is too often followed. And without baseline natural history data, it's no wonder why so little progress is being made in fruit fly ecology, biology and behavior.
The desperate need for more field data also underscores the inadequacy of current funding programs. As a rule, funds are only provided for short term studies and under very inflexible conditions. Long term field investigations, supported by flexible funding mechanisms, must be developed if we hope to make any substantial progress in the future.
As I indicated at the beginning of this paper, high among the priority list of future research on fruit flies is the need to deepen our knowledge of natural history. For example, in the case of host plant relationships we need to expand the scope of our surveys and go beyond simple lists. Instead, what is critically needed is the phenology of host plant use at the local level.
For example, we might ask how a multivoltine species like A. We might also measure critical life history parameters for flies, such as fecundity and life expectancy, as they vary in association with each host. Also, we need to determine what strategies different fly species use to survive the long periods of time in which no alternative host plants are available. To continue with the example of A.
From December through April it is unclear how the flies survive until Spondias purpurea fruits are again available. The problem is that this host is also used by A. Further, M. So, even though it does represent an alternative host plant, and one that fruits at a time when no other host is available, it is unlikely that M. Thus, the mystery of how A. Given the fact that diapause has never been reported in Anastrepha , what are the probable mechanisms that would permit individuals of A. One recent discovery that sheds light on this subject, is the delayed development of larvae and pupae that has been reported in A.
This author showed that in the apple growing regions of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brasil, when temperatures drop during the winter months, development of immature forms is reduced significantly. A similar phenomenon has been recently discovered in the Medfly Ceratitis capitata. In this case, Papadopoulus et al. With this strategy they can also survive the long period after the last host plant of the season, starting with early varieties of apples and overwintering in late varieties such as Granny-Smith Papadopoulus et al.
In the case of A. In our studies, all flies collected from the last host plant of the season T. This was in sharp contrast to most parasitoid species, which entered a diapause phase Aluja et al. Thus, it appears that adults likely survive prolonged periods of time in the absence of available host plants.
Thus, it is quite likely that after emerging under T. Nevertheless, this needs to be formally documented. There are still other areas of fruit fly research that I believe need greater attention. Specifically, I refer to such topics as: 1 population dynamics e. In all cases, it would be very productive to make as many interspecific comparisons as possible see Aluja et al.
The area of behavior deserves special attention. I will not repeat here what is aptly discussed by many authorities there. Nevertheless, there are a few aspects that I believe should be mentioned. For example, we are still ignorant about what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful courtships in lekking fruit flies, or if female criteria for choosing male traits vary geographically Eberhard Some of the questions on the evolution of fruit fly behavior could be resolved by a consideration of families related to the Tephritidae i. As this author points out, it would be particularly interesting to compare the ecology and mating behavior of lekking and swarming species e.
Of particular importance are studies of behavior under field conditions Aluja et al. For example, little is known about behavior of flies when they are not on host trees Landolt The need for more efficient monitoring mechanisms has already been addressed. However, I would point out again that we must continue to develop traps, not only for flies but also for parasitoids.
Furthermore, and most importantly, we really need to make an effort to correlate trap captures with larval infestation levels. This, of course, should be done once a substitute for the McPhail trap is available. Without such studies, we will never be able to fine-tune our management strategies e.
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It is difficult to understand why this critical gap in information has not already been addressed. Finally, and as mentioned in the beginning of this article, we need to constantly remind ourselves that most growers in Latin America are very poor. As a result, it is unlikely that they will be able to purchase costly traps. Based on this knowledge, we need to make a greater effort to design inexpensive traps and baits that are available locally.
These may not be as efficient as the more costly models, but for a poor farmer with little access to capital the goal is not blemish-free fruit, but rather a reduction in the damage inflicted by flies. In these studies, human urine never attracted as many flies as hydrolyzed protein, but on occasions the proportion of immature females was higher in the urine-baited traps than in the protein-baited traps.
This is really quite significant for the poor farmer who wants to know the fly population levels in his orchard. At virtually no cost to the farmer, a recycled plastic bottle baited with the right concentration of human urine will suffice. Before finishing, let me briefly review some of the alternatives to insecticides that we now have available for the control of fruit flies also see Aluja Some of the newest, environmentally-safe developments are: 1 photosensitive dyes as substitutes for insecticides in toxic baits like malathion.
These dyes have to be consumed by the insect, which then dies when exposed to sunlight. In conclusion, the dawn of a new century offers the opportunity for many young scientists to get involved in fruit fly studies using a different mindset. The time is ripe for new paradigms in fruit fly research and management approaches.
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Let us not wait any longer to take advantage of this historic opportunity. I thank Roberto A. Zucchi and Sueli S. Martinez for inviting me to write this article. I also acknowledge the important intellectual input of John Sivinski. All the research on fruit fly parasitoids and some of the studies cited here on fruit flies are part of collaborative projects with John.
Aguiar, E. Leonel, E. Natural enemies of the fruit fly Anastrepha spp. The study of movement in tephritid flies: Review of concepts and recent advances, p. Liedo eds. Fruit Flies: Biology and Management. New York, Springer, p. Manejo Integrado de las Moscas de la Fruta. Trillas, Mexico, D. Bionomics and management of Anastrepha. Washington D. Future trends in fruit fly management, pp. Steck eds. DelRay Beach, FL. Lucie Press, p. Future perspectives on integrated management of fruit flies in Mexico, pp. Mangel ed. Habitat use by adults of Anastrepha obliqua Diptera: Tephritidae in a mixed mango and tropical plum orchard.
Fruit flies: biology and management. Norrbom eds.
CRC Press. Pest management through tropical tree conservation. Bioscience submitted. Ecological evidence for diapause in four native and one exotic species of larval-pupal fruit fly Diptera: Tephritidae parasitoids in tropical environments. Registered on October 21, Cabrera, J. Behavior of Anastrepha ludens , A. Behavior of flies in the genus Anastrepha Trypetinae: Toxotrypanini , pp. Are Mexican populations of Anastrepha fraterculus Diptera: Tephritidae able to infest oranges and grapefruit? In Memoirs of the 3rd meeting of the working group on fruit flies of the Western Hemisphere.
Guatemala City, Guatemala, July Cabrera, H. Celedonio, P. Natural host plant survey of the economically important fruit flies Diptera: Tephritidae of Chiapas. Celedonio-Hurtado, P. Liedo, M. Cabrera, F. Castillo, J. Brown sandals with a light purple strap lined in black and decorated with small gems. On each ankle rests an orange gradient ribbon in four tails, held by a violet gem. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ]. Tops Bottoms Shoes. Categories :.
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