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The blocks of flats were built using high-quality brickwork and included architectural features such as lettering , glazing , fixtures and fittings. The estates built in the area at the time were considered model dwellings and included shared laundry and sanitary facilities, innovative at the time, and fireplaces in some bedrooms. The design was subsequently repeated in numerous other housing estates in London.

State intervention was first achieved with the passage of the Public Health Act of through Parliament. The Act focused on combating filthy urban living conditions that were the cause of disease outbreaks. It required all new residential construction to include running water and an internal drainage system and also prohibited the construction of shoddy housing by building contractors.

The London County Council was created in as the municipal authority in the County of London and in the Old Nichol in the East End of London was declared a slum and the Council authorized its clearance and the rebuilding of an area of some acre 6. The slum clearance began in and included houses inhabited by 5, people. The LCC architects designed 21 and Rowland Plumbe two of 23 blocks containing between 10 and 85 tenements each.

A total of 1, tenements, mostly two or three-roomed, were planned to accommodate 5, persons. The project was hailed as setting "new aesthetic standards for housing the working classes" and included a new laundry, shops, and 77 workshops. Churches and schools were preserved. Building for the project began in and it was opened by the Prince of Wales in The Tudor Walters Committee Report into the provision of housing and post-war reconstruction in the United Kingdom, was commissioned by Parliament as a response to the shocking lack of fitness amongst many recruits during the War; this was attributed to poor living conditions, a belief summed up in a housing poster of the period "you cannot expect to get an A1 population out of C3 homes".

The report's recommendations, coupled with a chronic housing shortage after the First World War led to a government-led program of house building with the slogan 'Homes for Heroes'. Act which introduced the new concept of the state being involved in the building of new houses. With the onset of the Great Depression in , increased house building and government expenditure was used to pull the country out of recession. The Housing Act of gave local councils wide-ranging powers to demolish properties unfit for human habitation or that posed a danger to health, and obligated them to rehouse those people who were relocated due to the large scale slum clearance programs.

Cities with a large proportion of Victorian terraced housing — housing that was no longer deemed of sufficient standard for modern living requirements — underwent the greatest changes. Over 5, homes 25, residents in the city of Bristol were designated as redevelopment areas in and slated for demolition. Although efforts were made to house the victims of the demolitions in the same area as before, in practice this was too difficult to fully implement and many people were rehoused in other areas, even different cities. In an effort to rehouse the poorest people affected by redevelopment, the rent for housing was set at an artificially low level, although this policy also only achieved mixed success.

The Josefov neighborhood, or Old Jewish Quarter , in Prague was leveled and rebuilt in an effort at urban renewal between and Other programs, such as that in Castleford in the United Kingdom and known as The Castleford Project [17] seek to establish a process of urban renewal which enables local citizens to have greater control and ownership of the direction of their community and the way in which it overcomes market failure. This supports important themes in urban renewal today, such as participation, sustainability and trust — and government acting as advocate and 'enabler', rather than an instrument of command and control.

During the s the concept of culture -led regeneration gained ground. Examples most often cited as successes include Temple Bar in Dublin where tourism was attracted to a bohemian 'cultural quarter', Barcelona where the Olympics provided a catalyst for infrastructure improvements and the redevelopment of the water front area, and Bilbao where the building of a new art museum was the focus for a new business district around the city's derelict dock area.

The approach has become very popular in the UK due to the availability of lottery funding for capital projects and the vibrancy of the cultural and creative sectors. However, the arrival of Tate Modern in the London borough of Southwark may be heralded as a catalyst to economic revival in its surrounding neighborhood.


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In post-apartheid South Africa major grassroots social movements such as the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign and Abahlali baseMjondolo emerged to contest 'urban renewal' programs that forcibly relocated the poor out of the cities. The politics of urban renewal which frequently relies on the state's dominance in the discourse of removing the character and infrastructure of older city cores, with that which is required by existing market based constituents has to be examined further. Professor Kenneth Paul Tan of the National University of Singapore has this to say "Singapore's self-image of having achieved success against all odds puts tremendous pressure on its government and people to maintain and exceed this success.

The push for progress and development destroys many things in its path, often indiscriminately, sometimes unwittingly. To cope psychically with such losses, Singapore's culture of comfort and affluence has been attained through the self-mastery of repressive techniques. But no repressive efforts can be complete, consistent and fully successful, even in dominant hegemony.

The supernatural intrusions featured in these five films should tell us something about the impossibility of a coherent world of ideology and experience. Large scale urban renewal projects in the US started in the interwar period as an attempt to clear out blight inner cities. Similarly, the efforts of Jacob Riis in advocating for the demolition of degraded areas of New York in the late 19th century was also formative. The redevelopment of large sections of New York City and New York State by Robert Moses between the s and the s was a notable and prominent example of urban redevelopment.

Moses directed the construction of new bridges , highways , housing projects , and public parks. Other cities across the USA began to create redevelopment programs in the late s and s. These early projects were generally focused on slum clearance and were implemented by local public housing authorities , which were responsible both for clearing slums and for building new affordable housing. The City Planning and Housing Council CHPC founded in had a large hand in the reconstruction of urban slums, with their primary mission being the elimination of poor housing conditions into less crowded and clean public housing [19].

The Housing Act of , also known as the Taft-Ellender-Wagner Act, provided federal loans to cities to acquire and clear slum areas to be sold to private developers to redevelop in accordance with a plan prepared by the city normally with new housing , and grants to cover two-thirds of the portion of the city's costs in excess of the sale prices received from the developers, as well as provide millions of dollars to create public housing throughout the country [21]. The phrase used at the time was "urban redevelopment". The term "urban renewal" was not introduced in the USA until the Housing Act was again amended in That was also the year in which the U.

Supreme Court upheld the general validity of urban redevelopment statutes in the landmark case, Berman v. Parker Italic text 42 The Urban Lawyer Under the powerful influence of multimillionaire R. Mellon , Pittsburgh became the first major city to undertake a modern urban-renewal program in May Pittsburgh was infamous around the world as one of the dirtiest and most economically depressed cities, and seemed ripe for urban renewal. A large section of downtown at the heart of the city was demolished, converted to parks, office buildings, and a sports arena and renamed the Golden Triangle in what was universally recognized as a major success.

Some areas did improve, while other areas, such as East Liberty and the Hill District , declined following ambitious projects that shifted traffic patterns, blocked streets to vehicular traffic, isolated or divided neighborhoods with highways, and removed large numbers of ethnic and minority residents. Because of the ways in which it targeted the most disadvantaged sector of the American population, novelist James Baldwin famously dubbed Urban Renewal "Negro Removal" in the s.

Early to midth century Detroit was a prime area for urban "redevelopers", as much of the city had only decrepit housing available. The efforts of the CHPC and the FHA to renew Detroit caused huge amounts of black displacement due to the construction of highways and airports directly through black neighborhoods like 8-mile and Paradise Valley.

Black families were thrown out from their homes and not provided relocation services. The "slums" being cleared or being looked at for redevelopment were primarily black neighborhoods [28]. In , the Federal-Aid Highway Act gave state and federal government complete control over new highways, and often they were routed directly through vibrant urban neighborhoods—isolating or destroying many—since the focus of the program was to bring traffic in and out of the central cores of cities as expeditiously as possible and nine out of every ten dollars spent came from the federal government.

This resulted in a serious degradation of the tax bases of many cities, isolated entire neighborhoods, [29] and meant that existing commercial districts were bypassed by the majority of commuters. Black families that had their homes and neighborhoods destroyed had to find housing options deeper in the inner city as whites could then use those highways to spread further and further into the suburbs but continue to work in the city [31]. In Boston , one of the country's oldest cities, almost a third of the old city was demolished—including the historic West End —to make way for a new highway, low- and moderate-income high-rises which eventually became luxury housing , and new government and commercial buildings.

This came to be seen as a tragedy by many residents and urban planners , and one of the centerpieces of the redevelopment— Government Center —is still considered an example of the excesses of urban renewal. In , Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities , one of the first—and strongest—critiques of contemporary large-scale urban renewal. However, it would still be a few years before organized movements began to oppose urban renewal.

The Rondout neighborhood in Kingston, New York on the Hudson River was essentially destroyed by a federally funded urban renewal program in the s, with more than old buildings demolished, most of them historic brick structures built in the 19th century. Similarly ill-conceived urban renewal programs gutted the historic centers of other towns and cities across America in the s and s for example the West End neighborhood in Boston, the downtown area of Norfolk, Virginia and the historic waterfront areas of the towns of Narragansett and Newport in Rhode Island.

By the s many major cities developed opposition to the sweeping urban-renewal plans for their cities. In Boston , community activists halted construction of the proposed Southwest Expressway but only after a three-mile long stretch of land had been cleared. In San Francisco , Joseph Alioto was the first mayor to publicly repudiate the policy of urban renewal, and with the backing of community groups, forced the state to end construction of highways through the heart of the city.

Atlanta lost over 60, people between and because of urban renewal and expressway construction, [32] but a downtown building boom turned the city into the showcase of the New South in the s and s. In the early s in Toronto Jacobs was heavily involved in a group which halted the construction of the Spadina Expressway and altered transport policy in that city.

Some of the policies around urban renewal began to change under President Lyndon Johnson and the War on Poverty , and in , the Housing and Urban Development Act and The New Communities Act of guaranteed private financing for private entrepreneurs to plan and develop new communities. Subsequently, the Housing and Community Development Act of established the Community Development Block Grant program CDBG which began in earnest the focus on redevelopment of existing neighborhoods and properties, rather than demolition of substandard housing and economically depressed areas.

Currently, a mix of renovation, selective demolition, commercial development, and tax incentives is most often used to revitalize urban neighborhoods. An example of an entire eradication of a community is Africville in Halifax , Nova Scotia. Gentrification is still controversial, and often results in familiar patterns of poorer residents being priced out of urban areas into suburbs or more depressed areas of cities. Some programs, such as that administered by Fresh Ministries and Operation New Hope in Jacksonville, Florida , Hill Community Development Corporation Hill CDC in Pittsburgh's historic Hill District attempt to develop communities, while at the same time combining highly favorable loan programs with financial literacy education so that poorer residents may still be able to afford their restored neighborhoods.

Dent Lackey Plaza closed within twenty to thirty years of their construction. In several American cities, some demolished blocks were never replaced. Ultimately, the former tourist district of the city along Falls Street was destroyed. It went against the principles of several urban philosophers, such as Jane Jacobs , who claimed that mixed-use districts were needed which the new downtown was not and arteries needed to be kept open.

Smaller buildings also should be built or kept. In Niagara Falls, however, the convention center blocked traffic into the city, located in the center of Falls Street the main artery , and the Wintergarden also blocked traffic from the convention center to the Niagara Falls. The Rainbow Centre interrupted the street grid, taking up three blocks, and parking ramps isolated the city from the core, leading to the degradation of nearby neighborhoods. Tourists were forced to walk around the Rainbow Center, the Wintergarden, and the Quality Inn all of which were adjacent , in total five blocks, discouraging small business in the city.

Urban renewal sometimes lives up to the hopes of its original proponents — it has been assessed by politicians, urban planners , civic leaders, and residents — it has played an undeniably [ citation needed ] important if controversial role. But at other times urban redevelopment projects have failed in several American cities, having wasted large amounts of public funds to no purpose. Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality; it may increase density and reduce sprawl ; it might have economic benefits and improve the global economic competitiveness of a city's centre.

It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, and it may also improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late , the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had 'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the 'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock, educational and cultural 'opportunities'.

The process has often resulted in the displacement of low-income city inhabitants when their dwellings were taken and demolished. Eventually, urban redevelopment became an engine of construction of shopping malls, automobile factories and dealerships, "large box" department stores like Target, Costco and Best Buy. Parker displaced thousands of largely African-American families, but provided them with no replacement housing because at the time the law did not provide for any.

Also, the version of the project that was approved by the U. In , the city had 40, inhabitants. Other Italian examples of ideal cities planned according to scientific methods include Urbino origins, fifteenth century , Pienza , Ferrara early twelfth century , San Giovanni Valdarno early twelfth century , and San Lorenzo Nuovo early twelfth century.


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  5. The juridical chaos of medieval cities where the administration of streets was sometimes hereditary with various noble families , and the characteristic tenacity of medieval Europeans in legal matters, generally prevented frequent or large-scale urban planning. It was not until the Renaissance and the enormous strengthening of all central governments, from city-states to the kings of France , characteristic of that epoch could urban planning advance.

    The star-shaped fortification had a formative influence on the patterning of the Renaissance ideal city.

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    This was employed by Michelangelo in the defensive earthworks of Florence. This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age: "The Renaissance was hypnotized by one city type which for a century and a half—from Filarete to Scamozzi—was impressed upon all utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city. Only in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael's Sposalizio of The unique example of a rationally-planned quattrocento new city center, that of Vigevano, , resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading.

    Filarete's ideal city, building on hints in Leone Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria , was named "Sforzinda" in compliment to his patron; its pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figure , the circle, takes no heed of its undulating terrain. The design of cities following the Renaissance was generally more to glorify the city or its ruler than to improve the lifestyle of its citizens.

    Such ideas were taken up to some extent in North America. All the original colonies had avenues named for them, with the most prominent states receiving more prestigious locations. In New England , cities such as Boston developed around a centrally located public space. The grid plan also revived in popularity with the start of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. The baroque capital city of Malta , Valletta, dating back to the sixteenth century, was built following a rigid grid plan of uniformly designed houses, dotted with palaces, churches, and squares. In , the newly founded city of Mannheim in Germany was laid out on the grid plan.

    Later came the New Town in Edinburgh and almost the entire city center of Glasgow, and many new towns and cities in Australia , Canada , and the United States. Arguably the most famous grid plan in history is the plan for New York City formulated in the Commissioners' Plan of , a visionary proposal by the state legislature of New York for the development of most of upper Manhattan.

    William Penn 's plan for Philadelphia was based on a grid plan, with the idea that houses and businesses would be spread out and surrounded by gardens and orchards, with the result more like an English rural town than a city. Penn advertised this orderly design as a safeguard against overcrowding, fire , and disease , which plagued European cities.

    Instead, the inhabitants crowded by the Delaware River and subdivided and resold their lots. The grid plan however, was taken by the pioneers as they established new towns on their travels westward. Although it did not take into account the topography of each new location, it facilitated the selling of parcels of land divided into standard-sized lots. It is located in the middle of Beijing , China, and now houses the Palace Museum. Built from to , it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost five centuries.

    The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture , and influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. It was designed to be the center of the ancient, walled city of Beijing. It is enclosed in a larger, walled area called the Imperial City. The Forbidden City remains important in the civic scheme of Beijing. The central north-south axis remains the central axis of Beijing. This axis extends to the south through Tiananmen gate to Tiananmen Square, the ceremonial center of the People's Republic of China.

    To the north, it extends through the Bell and Drum Towers to Yongdingmen. This axis is not exactly aligned north-south, but is tilted by slightly more than two degrees. Researchers now believe that the axis was designed in the Yuan Dynasty to be aligned with Xanadu, the other capital of their empire. Many cities in Central American civilizations also engineered urban planning in their cities including sewage systems and running water.

    In Mexico , Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec empire , built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now the Federal District in central Mexico. At its height, Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world, with close to , inhabitants. Built around , Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 8, feet above sea on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. Machu Picchu is composed of structures or features, including temples , sanctuaries, parks, and residences that include houses with thatched roofs.

    There are more than flights of stone steps—often completely carved from a single block of granite —and a great number of water fountains that are interconnected by channels and water-drains perforated in the rock that were designed for the original irrigation system. Evidence has been found to suggest that the irrigation system was used to carry water from a holy spring to each of the houses in turn. According to archaeologists , the urban sector of Machu Picchu was divided into three great districts: the Sacred District, the Popular District to the south, and the District of the Priests and the Nobility.

    In the developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Japan , and Australasia , planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various stages of general consensus. First, there was the industrialized city of the nineteenth century, where control of building was largely held by businesses and the wealthy elite. Around , there began to be a movement for providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments. The concept of garden cities, an approach to urban planning founded by Sir Ebenezer Howard led to the building of several model towns, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City, the world's first garden cities, in Hertfordshire, Great Britain.

    However, these were principally small scale in size, typically dealing with only a few-thousand residents. It was not until the s that Modernism began to surface. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and utilizing new skyscraper -building techniques, the Modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion, and the small scale, replacing them instead with pre-planned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens.

    There were plans for large-scale rebuilding of cities, such as the Plan Voisin , which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large-scale plans were implemented until after World War II however. The proceedings went unpublished until , when Le Corbusier published them in heavily edited form. Both the conference and the resulting document concentrated on "The Functional City. The key underlying concept was the creation of independent zones for the four "functions": living, working, recreation, and circulation.

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    These concepts were widely adopted by urban planners in their efforts to rebuild European cities following World War II , for instance Mart Stam's plans for postwar Dresden. Throughout the late s and s, housing shortages caused by war destruction led many cities around the world to build substantial amounts of government-subsidized housing blocks.

    Planners at the time used the opportunity to implement the Modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The city and its district are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,, as of the IBGE estimate, making it the fourth largest city in Brazil. In , it formally became Brazil's national capital.

    The locating of residential buildings around expansive urban areas, of building the city around large avenues, and dividing it into sectors, has sparked a debate and reflection on life in big cities in the twentieth century. The city's planned design included specific areas for almost everything, including accommodation—Hotel Sectors North and South. When seen from above, the main planned part of the city's shape resembles an airplane or a butterfly. However, the Athens Charter was roundly criticized within the profession for its inflexible approach and its inhumane results.

    Shifting neighborhoods

    By the late s and early s, many planners were coming to realize that the imposition of Modernist clean lines and a lack of human scale also tended to sap vitality from the community. This was expressed in high crime and social problems within many of these planned neighborhoods. Since then many have been demolished and in their way more conventional housing has been built. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy. This is the Post-Modernist era.

    Las Vegas, Nevada is one American city that has emerged along Post-Modernist lines in that it is specifically designed to create a unique experience, often simulated, for its millions of annual visitors who come from a wide diversity of nations , ethnic backgrounds, and socio-economic classes. In developed countries, there has been a backlash against excessive man-made clutter in the visual environment, such as signposts, signs, and hoardings. There are also unending debates about the benefits of mixing tenures and land uses, versus the benefits of distinguishing geographic zones where different uses predominate.

    Regardless, all successful urban planning considers urban character, local identity, respect for heritage, pedestrians, traffic, utilities, and natural hazards. Planners are important in managing the growth of cities, applying tools like zoning to manage the uses of land, and growth management to manage the pace of development. When examined historically, many of the cities now thought to be most beautiful are the result of dense, long-lasting systems of prohibitions and guidance about building sizes, uses, and features. These allowed substantial freedoms, yet enforced styles, safety, and materials in practical ways.

    Many conventional planning techniques are being repackaged using the contemporary term smart growth. Historically within the Middle East, Europe, and the rest of the Old World, settlements were located on higher ground for defense and close to fresh-water sources. Cities have often grown onto coastal and flood plains at risk of floods and storm surges. If the dangers can be localized, then the affected regions can be made into parkland or Greenbelt, often with the added benefit of an open-space provision.

    Extreme weather, flooding, or other emergencies can often be greatly mitigated with secure emergency-evacuation routes and emergency-operations centers. These are relatively inexpensive and unintrusive, and many consider them a reasonable precaution for any urban space. Many cities also have planned, built safety features, such as levees, retaining walls, and shelters. City planning tries to control criminality with structures designed from theories such as socio-architecture or environmental determinism. These theories say that an urban environment can influence individuals' obedience to social rules.

    The theories often say that psychological pressure develops in more densely developed, unadorned areas. This stress causes some crimes and some use of illegal drugs. The antidote is usually more individual space and better, more beautiful design in place of functionalism. As those on lower incomes cannot hire others to maintain public space such as security guards or grounds keepers, and because no individual feels personally responsible, there was a general deterioration of public space leading to a sense of alienation and social disorder.

    The rapid urbanization of the twentieth century resulted in a significant amount of slum habitation in the major cities of the world, particularly in developing countries. There is significant demand for planning resources and strategies to address the issues that arise from slum development. The issue of slum habitation has often been resolved via a simple policy of clearance. However, there are more creative solutions such as Nairobi's "Camp of Fire" program, where established slum-dwellers have promised to build proper houses, schools, and community centers without any government money, in return for land they have been illegally squatting on for 30 years.

    Urban decay is a process by which a city , or a part of a city, falls into a state of disrepair and neglect. It is characterized by depopulation, economic restructuring, property abandonment, high unemployment , fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, crime , and desolate urban landscapes. During the s and s, urban decay was often associated with central areas of cities in North America and parts of Europe.

    During this time period, major changes in global economies, demographics, transportation, and government policies created conditions that fostered urban decay. This pattern was different than the pattern of "outlying slums" and "suburban ghettos" found in many cities outside of North America and Western Europe, where central urban areas actually had higher real-estate vales. Starting in the s, many of the central urban areas in North America experienced a reversal of the urban decay of previous decades, with rising real-estate values, smarter development, demolition of obsolete social-housing areas, and a wider variety of housing choices.

    Areas devastated by war or invasion represent a unique challenge to urban planners. Buildings, roads, services, and basic infrastructure, like power, water, and sewerage, are often severely compromised and need to be evaluated to determine what can be salvaged for re-incorporation. There is also the problem of the existing population, and what needs they may have.

    Historic, religious, or social centers also need to be preserved and re-integrated into the new city plan.