A Segunda Guerra Mundial. O fascismo como totalitarismo. Poder e Moralidade. Londrina: Cefil, In: Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia. Braga, 67 2 : , Compreender Husserl. Meu encontro com Marx e Freud. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, Perspectivas do homem. A crise da humanidade europeia e a filosofia. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, Tive-a nos sistemas de Marx e Freud. He has graduated in Philosophy. Mapa I. This text seeks to provide a review of the studies on Portuguese royal chancelleries in their relationship with diplomacy from the perspective of a history of the State and the social profile of the higher institutions of the royal bureaucracy, in particular in the last centuries of the Middle Ages.
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In section 1. In this context, we undertake a critical analysis of the monographic studies presented to FLUP about royal chancelleries, defining the main lines of research that have been followed. The overriding idea in all research is that of the existence of a large set of possible relations that can be established between royal chancellery and royal diplomacy, chancellery and royal officialdom, chancellery and prosopography, chancellery and political societies and chancellery and State structures. As we shall demonstrate, these three aspects of analysis converge in the most recent view of the political in Portugal 1.
Until the s, scholars studying royal diplomacy maintained a preferential interest in determining the types of documents conserved in the archives of the royal chancellery, giving pride of place in their research to the critical analysis of the authenticity, genuineness or falsity of the deeds, complementing this with the inventory of collections and the critical edition of the documents originating from the chancelleries of the counts and the first kings of Portugal Azevedo ; Costa and It is therefore not surprising that, until the s, there was a close relationship, in terms of academic studies, between diplomacy Ribeiro ; Reuter and Azevedo a and b , paleography Costa , archivism Azevedo , medieval literature studies Cintra , and research about the Portuguese historical and linguistic space Cintra and from the origins of the Portuguese nationality to the consolidation of the monarchy Azevedo and Costa , bearing in mind the chronological period that was preferentially studied, the 12th to the 13th centuries.
The main results of the studies undertaken until that point are systematized in the historiographic syntheses published in recent years Coelho and Homem This aspect is expressed in the consolidation of the alliance between royal diplomacy and the history of the State in the Middle Ages Homem and The study of the first of the areas mentioned began in as part of a long-term project centered on preparing the publication of the collections of royal documents housed in the National Archives of the Torre do Tombo.
Emphasis was laid on the publication of the registers of the royal chancelleries, later extending to the minutes of the Cortes and the publication of regulations and legislative compilations, e. This project was also geared towards the editing, critical presentation and publication of indexes of the main collections of Portuguese medieval royal documents, from the reign of Afonso III to that of Manuel I In fact, this aspect of seeking to publish collections of medieval royal documents can be seen as an activity that is designed to complete the work begun by Rui de Azevedo a and and continued by Avelino de Jesus da Costa It is a task that will prove enormously useful for the scholars of the Middle Ages, representing the recovery of an interest in this historical period at Portuguese universities, and, in some ways, expressing the growing dynamism of the research being undertaken into the Middle Ages in Portugal.
The second area of research also follows in the wake of the works produced in the preceding period, which we have already mentioned Azevedo and Costa , to be precise , and it is directed towards producing an in-depth analysis of the royal chancellery as the State archive. One of the central aims of this line of research is to gain greater knowledge about the activity of the men of power through the systematic examination of the chancellery records, as we have already stated. The studies about royal chancelleries that have been undertaken in the meantime have made it possible to establish a typology of the deeds produced by the royal chancellery, particularly in the 14th and 15th centuries.
We now know today that there is no uniformity in the chancellery records of the medieval Peninsular kingdoms. Just as there were various medieval Spains, there are also essential differences to be found in what has remained by way of records of the administrative procedures undertaken by the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre and, in the same way, between these records and those of the kings of Portugal.
Furthermore, even in the same kingdom there were periods in which the records were less organized, as opposed to other periods in which there was greater regularity in the procedures and routines of the chancellery, with the records being organized by years, and within these one also finds the parchment ledgers organized by months Homem, Duarte and Mota In this way, an assessment of the processes followed in the recording and storage of Portuguese medieval royal documents allows us to put forward the suggestion that there were many different situations that can frequently be explained by a variety of factors, namely the vicissitudes of history, and the archival purposes of the State or of the curator of the Archive of the Torre do Tombo.
In this context, we consider it pertinent at this moment to undertake a synthesis of the main evolutionary characteristics of the records of the royal chancellery throughout the Middle Ages Coelho and Homem , seeking to explain the difficulties and the advantages awaiting all those studying the main repository of the political action of the Portuguese medieval princes.
The evolution of the records of the Portuguese royal chancellery is currently divided into three distinct periods Coelho and Homem :. A first period corresponds to the beginning of the activity of the production of written records, a period that coincides with the administration of the Counts Dom Henrique and Dona Teresa , Afonso Henriques , the first king of Portugal and Sancho I , his son. The royal documents of this period were studied and catalogued by Rui de Azevedo and Avelino de Jesus da Costa a and , respectively.
A second foundational period arises from the appearance of a first ledger at the chancellery containing documents relating to the final years of the reign of Afonso II This was followed by a period of disorganization in the chancellery services, at least until the reign of Sancho II ;. This cycle marks a greater maturity in the archive services, as can be seen in the recording, storage and execution of a growing number of deeds.
In our view, this fact remains inseparable from the process of consolidation of the State apparatus in the late Middle Ages. Despite this fact, the chancellery records from this period were subject to the historical vicissitudes linked to a reform process that began in the midth century, with the underlying idea being to select only the documents that were to be definitively conserved, in keeping with the instructions of the monarch Afonso V The man who was placed in charge of selecting the documents that would have some archival value was Gomes Eanes de Zurara , a royal chronicler and the keeper of the Archive of the Torre do Tombo.
The process of reorganizing the oldest records of the royal chancellery was, at the time, justified by the fact that many records were damaged and illegible, giving rise to the appearance of new volumes that were given the name of reformed records. In keeping with the orders of the monarch and following criteria for the assessment, selection and expurgation of records that were valid at that time, Gomes E. The reform of the records of the royal chancellery undertaken in the s, s and s undervalued the importance of many of the acts that had been entered in them, with only a summary being kept of the others, so that there were few reformed records kept of charters that actually conserved all of their diplomatic components.
Consequently, most of the documents of the reformed records either do not contain the escatocolo 2 of the original deed or else omit part of it. In the reformed records , the summarized royal charters cannot be used in the study of royal officialdom. For the benefit of all those studying the 15th century, the process of assessing, selecting and eliminating original records was applied to records prior to In the original records there is a greater correspondence between the deeds that were produced and those that have been conserved, and the registration of the deeds follows criteria that allow us to make the respective classification by type and the identification in the escatocolo of those taking part in the act, as well as the date of its bureaucratic dispatch.
The studies undertaken at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Porto from to , which we will discuss in section 1. As far as royal diplomacy is concerned, there was a movement towards the study of the royal charter , as a quintessential legal document of the bureaucratic activity of the Prince and the respective group of officials cooperating in his business Homem , making it possible to analyze the different types of legislative acts: the study of the law as an expressive form of the exercise of royal power Homem, a and ; Nogueira: In the same way, studies have been developed in the field of paleography, centered on the characterization of the evolution of writing Santos , the formal aspects of the documents and the conditions under which the manuscripts were stored and conserved Santos The resurrection of the studies of Political History and consequently of the medieval political societies in Portugal has been linked in particular to the foreign influences deriving from the triumph of the political and the return of an interest in the medieval State in Europe, from the midth century onwards, amongst French and Anglo-American politologists.
Badie and Birnbaum consider that the State is a reality that is dated historically and situated geographically.
In Western Europe, this concept is sufficiently revealing of the tendency to adopt a sociological approach to the State. Its success is measured by the ever greater volume of studies undertaken from different approaches; as he mentions, a history of political geography the study of States and administrative divisions was followed by the history of political societies the study of the groups of men who held power, the tensions and the political activity of the leaders , culminating in the history of political mentalities the analysis of social and political groups, the definition of pressure groups and the formation of public opinion.
In only two generations of medievalists, and after overcoming the accusations systematically leveled against it by Marxist, structuralist and Annalist historians in the s and s, as we have mentioned, the new political history triumphed and became humanized! Political history became geared towards the study of men, being interested in knowing more about the history of the life of all those who took part in the building of the State, reached top positions in the administrative bodies, were rewarded with favors in return for the services that they rendered to the kings, participated in military actions or in the collection of taxes, guaranteed the dispensation of justice and helped to keep the peace, and who did their best for the common good.
This method allows for the construction of collective biographies, the study of groups that are defined politically and socially Millet These are the men who are of interest to the modern-day historian of the political. These are the men who achieved the status of belonging to the elite: a minority that governed in the face of a majority of the people that were ruled by them. Despite all the difficulties encountered, the s marked the beginning, throughout Western Europe, of a period dedicated to the study of the most diverse elites: aristocratic, municipal, ecclesiastic, artistic, literary, amongst others.
In other words, political history has been gradually moving towards the history of political cultures and mentalities. In the same way, Torquato de Sousa Soares distinguished himself with the study of municipal institutions Soares and , in which he was followed by Marcello Caetano , a historian with a legal background Caetano and and Maria Teresa Campos Rodrigues At the same time, the royal itineraries Moreno b and , crises of the State Moreno a , social and political tensions Moreno and the history of Portuguese municipalities were afforded special attention by Humberto Baquero Moreno.
From the s onwards, the directions taken by research also led to the study of the History of Law, the State and political institutions Hespanha and in particular , 11 the history of government and royal offices Homem and, a little later on, the history of the Portuguese medieval parliament Sousa and More recently, there has been a study of the representations and rituals of power Sousa ; Gomes and the development of a social history of war Monteiro and ; Duarte and Barroca What has just been said is justified by the chronological proximity and respective dissemination in Portugal of the thematic guidelines governing research abroad.
In effect, the modern currents of the European historiography of the political , particularly that which was being produced in France and in Anglo-American academies, only began to affect Portuguese medievalists in an incisive and striking fashion from the s onwards. At these seminars, new lines of research were followed in areas such as medieval institutions central and local , social conflicts, political elites and representative powers, the elites of the royal bureaucracy and prosopography, especially in the Late Middle Ages.
The study of the royal power with a view to improving our knowledge of the departments of the central administration, the identification of the holders of public office and the areas of government intervention based on the diplomatic analysis of the deeds drawn up at the royal chancelleries of the 14th and 15th centuries, together represent the central theme of all the research that we shall be analyzing in the next few paragraphs. In this pioneering work, the author stresses the functional aspects of the government of Pedro I , with his source of information being the records of the royal chancellery, which he used to determine the structure, functioning and evolution of the decision-making bodies during that period.
His work provides a systematic analysis of the records of the royal chancellery, seeking to identify the royal services the different sectors of the central administration , as well as to identify the royal officials and determine their respective roles as political agents. The choice of the reign of Pedro I was a deliberate one. All that remains to describe the administrative activity of the servants of this monarch is just one ledger of the reformed records.
Or, in other words, the author combined the study of the activity of the royal bureaucrats with the study of the regulations promulgated by the king in the early years of his reign, assessing the impact that such legislation had on bureaucratic activity. Subsequently, in his PhD thesis, the author went deeper into the already mentioned problematics, having performed a systematic survey of the records of the royal documentation relating to the period from to , although he did, however, update the perspectives for approaching this subject.
The work was based on the systematic study of the acts recorded in ledgers that were, in the main, subjected to a selective reorganization in the midth century, the records of the Zurara reform , which we have already talked about. In it are identified the categories and posts of the officials signing the entries in the ledgers and their respective cursus honorum in the bureaucracy, as well as the forms of recruitment of the royal officials.
The work also studies the secularization of the administrative structures, detecting the phases of the institutionalization of the offices and the regularization of the administrative praxis , together with a questioning of the existence of the genealogical transmission of offices patrimonialization. At the end, this work results in the compilation of micro-biographies of the notaries who underwrote the charters issued by the chancellery Homem Once again, the question is raised about the chancellery sources, since this was a time for which there was an abundance of original records.
In fact, quantity does not always equal quality as the quantity of documents dispatched and recorded in the ledgers was close to the effective total number, but this reflects a new reality: that of the specialization of the administrative services, which led to a typological uniformity. Robert-Henri Bautier had drawn attention to this fact: the increase in the volume of acts recorded at the medieval royal chancelleries was accompanied by a reduction in the number of different types of deeds issued Bautier Each of these departments of the royal bureaucracy was responsible for undertaking specialized activity.
Between the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, these sectors of the bureaucracy had their own ledgers for recording the royal acts and their respective deeds. Despite everything, the author managed to explain the impact of the change of king on the alteration of the human resources who worked in the higher echelons of the royal bureaucracy. The work was completed at a time when improvements were being made to the method of prosopography as used by the French school Millet It led to a greater dissemination of the prosopographic method in Portugal and its consequent application in the study of different elites: municipal, aristocratic, courtly, ecclesiastic, literary or artistic This fact is not particularly surprising, since, for example, for more than two decades my computer has insisted on not recognizing the expression, repeatedly alerting me to a spelling and semantic error Anyway, it may be said that prosopography as a historiographic method applied to the study of elites proved to be fruitful initially amongst the community of medievalist politologists, and shortly afterwards amongst all those who devoted their attention to the analysis of social, political, religious or cultural groups.
The author worked with both original records and reformed records from the chancellery, having undertaken a reflection on the times when the written deeds were produced, recorded and conserved. As a further complement to this, she presented a pioneering approach to the royal scribes and made a study of the activity of the notaries underwriting these deeds, anticipating the question of the venality of the royal officials embodied in the use of the resignatio in favorem. In her PhD thesis, the author analyzed the subsequent chronological period, the regency of the Infante Dom Pedro and the first few years of the government of Afonso V , based on the compilation of two prosopographic catalogues: one relating to the officials who composed the entries 92 biographies and another relating to the officials who recorded them in writing biographies.
For this purpose, she surveyed more than twenty thousand original records of the chancellery of Afonso V. The use of the prosopographic method allowed her to establish the socio-political profile of the officials working for the royal bureaucracy. Thus, she analyzed their social origins, levels of cultural education, types of career in the bureaucracy, professional performance and their age at the time of their access to positions of royal office, as well as the role of relations of patronage and nepotism in the obtaining of offices, having identified the models for the patrimonial transmission of the offices.
At the same time, she carried out a critical analysis of the sources examined and defined the organigram of royal governance in the mid-fifteenth century Freitas II: 1. In the second section, he turns his attention to royal bureaucracies, stressing the increase that took place in the technical specialization of writing, the levels of activity of weekly and monthly production, the degree of specialization and the circuits that were frequented, with the aim of defining the social and political profile of the royal scribe. For the study of the royal bureaucracy in the s and s during the reign of Afonso V , nine research works were undertaken, using the same methodological bases as the works analyzed previously.
The research undertaken by Ana Paula Almeida and Armando Borlido mark the beginning of a phase of production of monographs about a very brief period, one or two years in the operations of the High Court of Afonso V, corresponding to the same number of ledgers at the royal chancellery. These studies make an important contribution to the analysis of the codicological characteristics of the records of the royal chancellery, seeking to discover signs of organization of the chancellery in terms of both the form and the checking of the records, the appearance of signs of validation, the time s when the records were taken and the due payment of charges to the royal chancellery Henriques, Similar efforts were made with regard to the study of the volume of documentary production Monteiro and the distribution by type of the acts undertaken, classified according to the matters that were dealt with in them, based on the typological patterns of royal documents presented in earlier works Homem and ; Mota ; Freitas and The main question raised by these studies is that of the impossibility of reconstituting the staff of servants of the royal bureaucracy and the cursus honorum of the individuals responsible for producing the deeds recorded in the ledgers of the royal chancellery, in view of the fact that they only relate to short periods.
With the aim of overcoming this limitation, the studies turned their attention to describing and characterizing the chancellery as an archive, making both an internal and an external criticism of the main collection of documents relating to the period of governance of Afonso V Henriques Similarly, attempts have been made to investigate the possible relationships existing between the places where the deeds were drawn up and the establishment of the places of power , as a way of studying the settlement and implantation of the services of the royal bureaucracy and the central archives of the chancellery as an organ of government.
Others worked on defining the rhythms and working habits of the notaries and scribes Ferreira ; Brito Almost all of them stress the participation of the royal bureaucrats in the council, in diplomatic missions and in war. Thanks to this wide-ranging group of works, we can safely say today that the study of the political staff and the organizational structure of the services of royal governance has been satisfactorily made for the period from to One of the most important pieces of research undertaken by the group of researchers mentioned was the preparation of biographical notes resorting to the definition of a prosopographic source accompanied by the respective computerized experimentation.
It is this experiment that we shall now examine. The use of prosopography as a method of historical research in Portugal dates back to the s, as we have said, coinciding with a period of intense publication and dissemination of French and Anglo-American studies upon the subject. The aim of prosopography is to collect a set of data originating from different sources about a pre-defined group of people a micro-population and organize it in a structured manner. This allows for factor analysis, i. In the early s, the English historian Lawrence Stone relaunched discussions about the use of the prosopographic method, pointing out that the aim of prosopography is to collect multi-biographical data collective biographies.
This distinguishes it from biography which has as its aim to collect all the information available about one particular individual Avezou For Stone, the purpose of prosopography is to produce a multi-biography Stone , which is to be created from a matrix that brings together the full set of correlations that are accepted as being essential for the analysis of the social group under study.
In the prosopographic matrix, it is possible to identify sub-groups of variables that are closely correlated with one another within each group and have little association with other variables of other sub-groups. In fact, in the s, the application to the Social Sciences of developments in information technology made it possible for French and Anglo-Saxon historians to recognize in prosopography a privileged instrument for combining qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis Millet ; Bulst In the s, the prosopographic method underwent a genuine rebirth, becoming very popular amongst the communities of medievalists in western Europe.
Most of the studies about royal officialdom that were mentioned in the previous section made use of the prosopographic method, thus increasing Portuguese familiarity with the prosopographic style proposed by the French school Millet ; Genet ; Autrand ; Genet and Lottes The starting point for identifying the holders of royal posts and offices was the chancellery. The exhaustive survey of the chancellery records made it possible to identify the State servants whose names were written in the final protocol of the royal charters.
A similar purpose was served by the diplomatic classification of all the deeds drawn up with the aim of establishing the areas of bureaucratic specialization of the notaries who underwrote them Exchequer, Justice, Grace and Favor, General Administration. The prosopographic method was originally applied to the study of the notaries underwriting documents Homem and shortly afterwards to the chancellery scribes Freitas ; Vaz The studies made of royal scribes follow a research methodology that is similar to the one developed for analyzing the bureaucratic activity of the higher placed agents of power.
This is one of the main limitations of prosopography, as has been underlined by several authors since the s Burke In this context, the studies made about the officials of the medieval royal chancelleries that we have referred to in previous sections examined all the information available in the original sources and in the published sources for the two groups of officials studied notaries and scribes. The former sources include the so-called archive sources, in particular the records of the royal chancellery and the separate original sources. The latter include all the published medieval sources, namely genealogical sources, chronicle sources and documents originating from different areas of production.
The preparation of the prosopographic surveys took into account the whole of the information available for the two groups of higher placed agents in the royal bureaucracy notaries and scribes. This is why underlying each of the items of the questionnaire are the quality and quantity of biographical information surveyed in all the sources examined for the group s of officials under analysis. In this way, it was possible to point out the similarities and differences in the political participation and the careers of the two socio-political groups.
The program of research into royal chancelleries developed by Portuguese scholars has established the following categories of data as the items to be included in the prosopographic catalogues of the upper elite of the bureaucracy the notaries : years of service, social status and geographical position, family status, personal ties, social status, economic level, educational and cultural level, university career, military career, diplomatic career, career in the bureaucracy, activity as a notary, participation in the royal council, public life and private life Mota , vol.
II: ; Freitas , vol. II: II: 3; Freitas Both the compilation and the systematic organization of individual data in prosopographic catalogues correspond to what Jean-Philippe Genet calls a metasource Genet The metasource provides an organized distribution of the main questions that can be asked about all of the members of each of the groups under study.
Consequently, the two main vectors of the prosopographic databases built by the scholars of the power elites of the late Middle Ages are the men and the documents sources. From what has been said, it can be seen that we distinguish the works that are accompanied by biographical information in which the narration of events and the succession of informative details is, to some extent, arbitrary from those works in which the information that has been gathered together follows a rigid organizational scheme, structured in the form of a prosopographic matrix.
At the end of this text, it is important to stress the main approaches, knowing that these illustrate the main stages in the evolution of political history in Portugal over the last thirty years. In this regard, the royal chancellery is seen as a documentary memory of the activity of the agents of the royal bureaucracy. Next, we described the international framework of the studies about political societies in Portugal, bearing in mind the decisive influence of the historiography produced by French and Anglo-American scholars in enriching the problematics and in renewing the different perspectives for approaching classical themes from the historiography of the political.
Finally, we referred to the advantages of introducing prosopography into the study of the royal power and the upper elites of the bureaucracy in the 14th and 15th centuries, highlighting the increased possibilities for the treatment, exploration and correlation of data offered by the construction of prosopographic databases in considering the different aspects of the activity of the groups studied notaries and scribes.
This series of alliances gave rise to a renewal of the studies of political history in Portugal from the s onwards, leading to the firm implantation of this field of study in the following decades. Currently the history of the political dominates important sectors in the production of Portuguese medieval historiography. Albuquerque, Martim de Albuquerque, Ruy and Albuquerque Martim The first edition was published in Almeida, Ana Paula Godinho de As Cortes Portuguesas. In O Instituto. Coimbra: In O Instituto , vol. Lisbon: Livros Horizonte.
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