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They live in different time zones and different countries. Rewrite the sentence using not only ,……but also. My question is………. If not only ………….. Thanks in advance. In cases like that, make the verb agree with the immediate noun: 1 speaks, 2 speaks, 3 speak. But I would rephrase those lines instead, as the not only. It depends on the sentence and the context. Its position can change the focus or the stress a little. Lines 2 and 4 are preferred though 3 and 4 are both pretty strange. See my post at Macmillan Dictionary Blog for more on number and the use of neither. I have a doubt on the below.

Please tell me how many lines are there in the following song. Please advise me. I thrust my hoe in the mellow ground, Blade-end up and five feet tall, And plod: I go up to the stone wall For a friendly visit. By Robert Frost. The poem has 10 lines. This page counts the lines alongside. Please try to keep future comments on topic. Great to find some content on grammar that acknowledges the existence of nuance in relation to timing, rhythm and emphasis.

Thank you. It would be remiss to ignore that. Yes, the distinction between style and grammar is key, although of course they are interwoven concepts. In a pedagogical setting, the need for simplicity and summary tend to result in the neglect of style. Funnily enough, I find it is usually other teachers who are most resistant to the idea of retaining a sense of the immense potential of language, while students of an appropriate level often respond well to the notion of personal expression!

Please assist. She stated that they needed a financial plan. She stated that they needed financial management. There are several equally acceptable ways to combine them. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.

Learn how your comment data is processed. Subscribe to Sentence first. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Sentence first An Irishman's blog about the English language. Not only. Usage Writers typically, but not always, use both parts of the set, i. Parallelism Using not only. If you want to offset criticism from purists, you could reposition not only from its contentious position before the verb, to immediately before the element it qualifies: The controversy damages not only sales but also shareholder confidence.

Opinions Usage commentators disagree on whether not only and but also should frame parallel elements. Reporting many literary and historical examples of non-parallel usage, it concludes: So long as you take care that the groups of words joined by the conjunctions are not so dissimilar as to call attention to themselves, you need not worry all the time about achieving precise parallelism. Elizabeth F. September 19, at pm. Stan says:. September 20, at pm. October 12, at am. Joaquina says:. July 5, at pm. October 3, at am. Connie says:. October 3, at pm. The Orange Velvet Couch says:.

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The SAT Essay: What to expect

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There is an National Helium Reserve to liquidate its helium assets by regardless of the market price. Although intended to settle the original cost of the reserve by a U. Congress ignorant of its ramifications, the result of this fire sale is that global helium prices are so artificially deflated that few can be bothered recycling the substance or using it judiciously.

Deflated values also mean that natural gas extractors see no reason to capture helium. Much is lost in the process of extraction. As Sobotka notes: "[t]he government had the good vision to store helium, and the question now is: Will the corporations have the vision to capture it when extracting natural gas, and consumers the wisdom to recycle? For Nobel-prize laureate Robert Richardson, the U. For Richardson, a twenty- to fifty-fold increase in prices would provide incentives to recycle. F A number of steps need to be taken in order to avert a costly predicament in the coming decades.

Not only . . . but (also) . . .

Firstly, all existing supplies of helium ought to be conserved and released only by permit, with medical uses receiving precedence over other commercial or recreational demands. Secondly, conservation should be obligatory and enforced by a regulatory agency. At the moment some users, such as hospitals, tend to recycle diligently while others, such as NASA, squander massive amounts of helium.

Lastly, research into alternatives to helium must begin in earnest. Questions 27—31 Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A—F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A—F, in boxes 27—31 on your answer sheet. In boxes 32—35 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 32 Helium chooses to be on its own.

Questions 36—40 Complete the summary below. Write your answers in boxes 36—40 on your answer sheet. Sobotka argues that big business and users of helium need to help look after helium stocks because 36 ……………….. Richardson believes that the 37 ……………….. He argues that higher costs would mean people have 38 ……………….. People should need a 39 ……………….. Furthermore, a 40 ……………….. The two parts of this practice Writing test are presented on two separate web pages.

If you prefer to work offline, download the test paper. In the actual test you will do your writing in an answer booklet. Time yourself and allow just one hour to complete both parts of the test. Task 2 contributes twice as much as task 1 to the Writing score. At the end of the test, hand in both the question paper and your answer booklet. Review Once you have completed both tasks, review your work. Download the model answers to see good examples of how to complete the Writing test. The graphs below give information about computer ownership as a percentage of the population between and , and by level of education for the years and Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least words. Old-fashioned values, such as honour, kindness and trust, no longer seem important. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Try catching some keywords and write them down in the space below. Then, assign individuals to ask the others with the following questions: Group A. After reading, you are supposed to report to the class on what you understand, how you deal with new vocabulary, and your interpretation of the text.

Why do our bodies age at different rates? Why can some people run marathons at the age of 70, while others are forced to use a walker? New paper urges more work on "gerontogens" in the environment. Exposure to "gerontogens" such as toxic chemicals or stress may cause the body to age faster. Genes are only part of the answer. Possible gerontogens include arsenic in groundwater, benzene in industrial emissions, ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, and the cocktail of 4, toxic chemicals in tobacco smoke.

Activities may also be included, like ingesting excessive calories, or suffering psychological stress. Writing in Trends in Molecular Medicine, Jessica Sorrentino, Hanna Sanoff, and Norman Sharpless argue that focusing on such factors would complement more popular approaches like studying molecular changes in old bodies and searching for genes that are linked to long life. Even if scientists announced tomorrow that they'd discovered an antiaging pill, he says, people would have to take it for decades. The rest must be influenced by other factors, including accidents, injuries, and exposure to substances that accelerate aging.

She adds that scientists have become more interested in these substances in recent years after learning that many types of chemotherapy, and some anti-HIV drugs, can speed the onset of age-related traits like frailty and mental decline. The quest to identify gerontogens is partly a quest to find better way of measuring biological age. There are several options, each one imperfect. Researchers could look in the brain and measure levels of beta-amyloid, a protein linked to Alzheimer's disease, but these levels would not reflect aging in other parts of the body. But doing so is hard and expensive, and telomere length naturally varies between people of the same age.

Senescent cells accumulate as we get older, and they contain ten times the usual levels of a protein called p Glowing Mice The team has developed a strain of mice that produce a protein that glows whenever they make p They're also working with a company called HealthSpan Diagnostics to create a version of their p16 test that could measure biological age in people.

You need a panel," says Sharpless. Campisi adds, "It might take some time for toxicology agencies to classify environmental exposures as gerontogens. The field of aging is just taking its first steps towards that goal. Reading slowly necessitates adding the meaning of one word to the meaning of the next, which is a very inefficient process. WRITE-UP To develop and elaborate on what we have gone though so far on the topic, you are supposed to give a response in writing with the below details. In the developed world, average life expectancy is increasing.

What problems will this cause for individuals and society? Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce the impact of ageing populations. Just mention something about both in your paragraphs. It can only help you! Listen carefully, Be prepared to work with your instructor in the class. Be prepared after you get some ideas from the previous video. Then, integrate your listening into the speaking session here. Geothermal Energy4 Tapping the Earth's Heat Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking and heating.

It is simply power derived from the Earth's internal heat. This thermal energy is contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth's crust. It can be found from shallow ground to several miles below the surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. These underground reservoirs of steam and hot water can be tapped to generate electricity or to heat and cool buildings directly. A geothermal heat pump system can take advantage of the constant temperature of the upper ten feet three meters of the Earth's surface to heat a home in the winter, while extracting heat from the building and transferring it back to the relatively cooler ground in the summer.

Geothermal water from deeper in the Earth can be used directly for heating homes and offices, or for growing plants in greenhouses. Some U. To produce geothermal-generated electricity, wells, sometimes a mile 1. The first geothermally generated electricity was produced in Larderello, Italy, in There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash, and binary.

Dry steam, the oldest geothermal technology, takes steam out of fractures in the ground and uses it to directly drive a turbine. Flash plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into cooler, low-pressure water. The steam that results from this process is used to drive the turbine. In binary plants, the hot water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to turn to vapor, which then drives a turbine.

About the SAT Essay

Most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary plants. Geothermal energy is generated in over 20 countries. The United States is the world's largest producer, and the largest geothermal development in the world is The Geysers north of San Francisco in California. In Iceland, many of the buildings and even swimming pools are heated with geothermal hot water. Iceland has at least 25 active volcanoes and many hot springs and geysers.

There are many advantages of geothermal energy. It can be extracted without burning a fossil fuel such as coal, gas, or oil. Geothermal fields produce only about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a relatively clean natural-gas-fueled power plant produces.

Binary plants release essentially no emissions. Unlike solar and wind energy, geothermal energy is always available, days a year. It's also relatively inexpensive; savings from direct use can be as much as 80 percent over fossil fuels. But it has some environmental problems. The main concern is the release of hydrogen sulfide, a gas that smells like rotten egg at low concentrations. Another concern is the disposal of some geothermal fluids, which may contain low levels of toxic materials. Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down.

Read the instruction carefully. Renewable Energy Focus, an NGO for energy saving, willingly accepts cost-free, unsolicited contributions if they are useful and provide value to our readers and visitors. Please read the notes here before submission, to decide if your proposed submission is suitable, and what form it should take.

We provide the renewable energy industry globally with a mix of information on renewable energy technology development and market developments. Broadly, speaking, we provide information for individuals all around the world, interested in the proliferation of renewable energy technology. Companies involved in the process of constructing Renewable Energy projects.

If you feel your article would be interesting to any of these groups of readers, feel free to pitch or submit it. What are our products? The best of this web content news, features, blogs and downloads is published in our weekly roundup of news emailed to our electronic database. So your article may well be sent to around 40, readers; We also publish a bi-monthly magazine see a sample copy on our website.

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Press Releases: We do publish press releases, but we receive literally hundreds a month, so to have the best chance of getting your release actually published we would recommend you read this excellent blog post. Word count: Shorter articles: i. Who is the article aimed at? A short and succinct description of the proposed article focus on what is new, important, controversial? Add a short list of questions that the proposed article will answer for readers. Word count: Feature articles: i. Please send in a short email with the following information: 1. Work with your instructor on how hard working becomes key factor for success.

Separate into three groups and brainstorm your ideas and how to support your answer. Read it carefully and then be prepared for the activity in the class. I think I learnt this lesson relatively late in life. I was one of those people who would pride themselves on getting results without trying too hard. Passing exams without revising too much. I realize now, that was the wrong attitude. You should always try your hardest. The Office was the first thing I really tried my hardest at. I put everything into it.

I was the laziest man in the world before 5. Pride in my work. Secondly, being original is often considered dangerous if you want huge mainstream success. It seems safer to make anodyne stuff that most people might consume without offense. Homogenized by committee and focus grouped to be like something else that was quite successful. The white sliced bread of art. As a businessman this strategy makes perfect sense, but not as an artist. If you do something peculiar and remarkable it might not be for mass consumption in your own country but there are 7 billion people in the world.

People everywhere in the world will recognize and appreciate its innovation. So in the long run, being different can make commercial sense as well as artistic sense. The third thing is to write about what you know. Making The Office taught me this. In my case, it was paramount to get final edit but as I said earlier, this is very rare for a cocky little nobody, like I was back then, to attain. Be a cocky little nobody.

But work hard, be original and write about what you know. Luck has nothing to do with success" do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. Be prepared for the activity after the listening. Work in group to interpret the question. Then, propose an answer to the class with your supporting ideas in spoken language.

Are you a success? Who is the most successful person you know? Is success important to you? What does success taste like? How do you measure success? What success stories do you have of studying English? What part does luck play in success? Woody Allen said: "Eighty percent of success is showing up. Albert Einstein said: "Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value.

What is your biggest success in life? What small successes do you have every day? How would you define success? Is success a journey or a destination? What is your formula or recipe for success? Does success keep you happy? Do you think success breeds success? Do you think you can teach someone to be successful? Someone once said: "Success is getting what you want; happiness is wanting what you get.

Someone once said: "The two hardest things to handle in life are failure and success. He identified six traits that were keys to success. Pfeffer was thorough in that he did not just note the qualities all successful people had, but specifically sought out the elements that were present in the powerful and lacking in those who had accomplished less. Pfeffer pulls no punches. These are not all kind words fit for Hallmark cards and inspirational posters. These are what studies have shown works and what has been demonstrated through history when analyzing the lives of those who have reached the highest levels.

First, it enables you to outlast your opposition, or to use sheer hard work to overcome others who surpass you in intelligence or skill. Second, your energy and 6. He concluded that general management was not general, and that the particular expertise acquired by concentrating on a narrow range of business issues is helpful in building a power base and in becoming successful. Concentrating your career in a single industry and in one or a very few organizations is also helpful because it means that your energy is not diverted, and your attention is focused on a narrower set of concerns and problems.

Keys To Success 3: Sensitivity To Others In this effort to influence others, it is clearly useful to be able to understand them, their interests and attitudes, and how to reach them… It should be clear that being sensitive to others does not mean that one is necessarily going to act in their interests, in a friendly fashion, or on their behalf. Sensitivity simply means understanding who they are, their position on the issues, and how best to communicate with and influence them.

Keys To Success 4: Flexibility Sensitivity to others is not worth much unless you are able to use that information to modify your behavior… Although flexibility sometimes carries a negative connotation, it is a very important characteristic for those who hope to develop power. It provides the capacity to change course and to adopt new approaches, rather than clinging to actions that are not working. Flexibility also helps one to acquire allies, as it is easier to shift approaches to accommodate different interests.

Keys To Success 5: Ability To Tolerate Conflict Because the need for power arises only under circumstances of disagreement, one of the personal attributes of powerful people is the willingness to engage in conflict with others… being pliable may win you more genuine liking among your co-workers. But it is not the case that those who are the most liked by others for their pleasant personalities are inevitably the most powerful or able to get things accomplished.

At other times, it is important to build alliances and networks of friendship by getting along. People who are able to develop great power often seem to have the knack for changing their behavior according to the needs. This could be any number of things. Go into extreme detail, especially about your emotions surrounding the event.

How did other people feel about your achievement. Is it the absence of failure? Keep in mind that failure allows you to learn things, so if "the absence of failure" is your definition, try to revise it to be more positive and achievable. Write a few different definitions before you settle on one that's right for you.

Then apply it to your life and talk about ways in which this definition could help. Go into extreme detail with every part of your life. How could you become more successful in some of the areas that are lacking? After listening, participate in class about what you think of this. What do you do to stay healthy? Is it easy to keep fit where you live? What do you think is more important, eating healthily or doing exercise?

Do you have a good public health system in your country? What are the most popular ways of keeping healthy in your country? Do you think people worry more about their health as they get older? Why do you think some people continue bad habits when they know that they are damaging to their health? Then, generate your ideas around this issue. At 5'7" and pounds, Bourus wasn't trying to lose weight, just flush out her system fast, and the multiday liquid regimen, consisting of a mix of water, cayenne pepper, lemon juice, and maple syrup, seemed like an easy way to go. But Bourus soon found that she liked the empty feeling in her stomach, and three days on the cleanse stretched to five.

Once she finished the fast, her previously balanced diet grew irregular. She refused fatty foods, claiming to be a vegetarian to avoid a lasagna dinner at her sorority house. Within a few months, Bourus was subsisting on Chex cereal with skim milk, her weight dwindling to 97 pounds. Alarmed, her parents checked her into an eating disorder treatment center in San Diego, where she was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. The companies hire respected nutritionists and "integrative" doctors to hawk cleanses' supposed benefits—clearer skin, sounder sleep, more energy, instant weight loss—and celebrities from Gwyneth Paltrow to Blake Lively have signed on.

In stylish offices on both coasts, carrying a bright green bottle of pulverized spinach, celery, and kale now confers automatic insider status. Even Starbucks has expanded into juices. But despite being a great source of vitamins and minerals, the plans—which claim to flush the body of toxins, curing everything from headaches, nausea, and fatigue to cold sores, insomnia, and yeast infections—are controversial. And as interest in them peaks, public health professionals and doctors are dealing with the fallout: an epidemic of malnourished, run-down young women—juicerexics—some of whom have stumbled into full-fledged anorexia or bulimia.

Statistics don't exist on the precise link between eating disorders and juice fasts, but Debbie Westerling, director of nutrition services at the Renfrew Center, one of the nation's best-known eating disorder treatment facilities, says that among the program's 60 residents, discussion of juice fasts has "exploded.

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Other experts agree. Pauline Powers, who leads the scientific advisory committee for the Global Foundation for Eating Disorders, calls juice cleanses "the perfect pathway to disordered eating," with an alarming power to seduce otherwise healthy women. Last year, the University of North Carolina Center for Excellence for Eating Disorders added juice fasts to the list of topics addressed with patients.

Marjorie Nolan Cohn, a registered dietitian and nutrition director for Metro Behavioral Health Associates, an eating disorder treatment center in New York, points to the country's current food climate as conducive to cleansing. That's great, but it makes "the idea that you're releasing toxins an easy buy-in," says Cohn. The key is to drink responsibly. Trisha O'Connor, 25, a public relations associate in New York City, heard about cleansing from fashion industry colleagues who often ate out with clients.

Taylor Becker, who runs a New York City nonprofit, has done three mini-meal and juice cleanses from local operation Joulebody over the past four months and calls cleansing "addictive. My eyes are bright, my. Although she worries that the cleanses could trigger a binge-and-purge cycle—she's dealt with bulimic tendencies since adolescence—she believes she's not alone. Juicing is expensive, healthy, in the same category as SoulCycle"—a premium service for wealthy, weight-conscious women.

But when coming off the plans, some women cut out entire groups of foods and develop aversions: no bread, no meat. Juice companies sell the idea that certain meals are bad; some even condemn healthy snacks like sugary fruits. And clients are buying in, nudged along by online sales and incentives. Chicago-based company JuiceRx brags online that many customers cleanse twice a month. Catalyst, which ships to customers across the U. But for women who are genetically predisposed to eating disorders, Johanna Kandel, founder of the Florida-based Alliance for Eating Disorders Awareness, says cleanses can be dangerous.

One girl she worked with, who had a family history of eating issues, left for college healthy. She tried a juice cleanse and wound up in treatment. Asked for comment, a few of the companies mentioned in this story acknowledged that juicing could exacerbate unhealthy eating habits.

Others, like JuiceLand's Shook, were less attuned to the potential issues. Of most concern? For women already in the throes of anorexia or bulimia, juice fasts provide a great cover. Kari Adams, 42, a blogger in Princeton, New Jersey, had been bingeing and purging for years when she tried a juice fast more than two years ago. Her yoga instructor was offering one to clients, and Adams knew "it would make me thinner," she says.

After three weeks of juicing, she was sicker and frailer than ever. Her family intervened and checked her into a treatment center for five months. That's so healthy. In some countries the average weight of people is increasing and their levels of health and fitness are decreasing. What do you think are the causes of these problems and what measures could be taken to solve them. Word Counts: words. In Greek mythology, Narcissus was a hunter from the territory of Thespiae in Boeotia who was renowned for his beauty.

He was the son of a river god named Cephissus and a nymph named Liriope. He was exceptionally proud, in that he disdained those who loved him. Nemesis noticed this behavior and attracted Narcissus to a pool, where he saw his own reflection in the water and fell in love with it, not realizing it was merely an image.

Unable to leave the beauty of his reflection, Narcissus died. Narcissus is the origin of the term narcissism, a fixation with oneself. People who are narcissistic are frequently described as cocky, self-centered, manipulative, and demanding. Narcissists may concentrate on unlikely personal outcomes e. Narcissism is a less extreme version of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Narcissism involves cockiness, manipulativeness, selfishness, power motives, and vanity-a love of mirrors.

Related personality traits include: Psychopathy, Machiavellianism. Read the categorization first, and then work with your partner to find out how to give a response to this question. Psychological egoism is essentially the observation that humans are characteristically motivated by their own self-interest. When they choose to take an action, it is ultimately going to be one that provides them some personal benefit directly or indirectly , regardless of how altruistic it may appear to observers.

Ethical egoism is an ethical position claiming that the morally right actions for an agent are exactly those that maximize the agent's self-interest. The only moral guideline for an action is whether it increases our own happiness. This taken to its logical conclusion implies that all moral agents ought to do that which is in their own self-interest. Of course, it does not require the infliction of any harm or pain upon others, but at the same time, it explicitly disavows the existence of an overarching moral obligation to help or serve others, arguing that an individual moral agent ought not treat one's self "the subject" any differently than she treats others, and that the interests and desires of others ought not be placed above those of the same.

Or those terms are not mutually exclusive and one can be both? Here below is a response from the community. What do you think about this? As I see it, the only significant area of conflict between the two forms is that psychological egoism is explicitly non-normative, whereas ethical egoism is a normative philosophy.

Normativity is a winding and fairly convoluted concept, but the important component here is with regards to the differing types of statements that are made by each philosophical viewpoint. A normative view tends to be one that is prescriptivist; that is, it speaks about what one ought to do. Normative theories attempt to prescribe behavior and enumerate principles that advise what one should do in a particular situation. By contrast, a non-normative view is one that makes claims only about how things are, rather than how they ought to be.

Fundamentally, the difference is one of is vs. And thus, one could argue that she is a psychological egoist purely because she believes that the position is fundamentally consistent with human nature, not because she thinks that actions which benefit only the self are either necessary or sufficient to achieve morality. In layman's terms, I could agree that such is how the world is, but not like it or endorse it. That would make me a psychological egoist, but not an ethical egoist. But on the other hand, it would be relatively more difficult for an ethical egoist to distance herself from psychological egoism entirely.

Of course, there are plenty of other possible justifications, but the point remains that an ethical egoist is likely to also accept psychological egoism, whereas it would be theoretically possible for a psychological egoist to reject the prescriptive tenets of ethical egoism. Then, be prepared for the activity in the class. How Do You Spot a Narcissist? Just Ask8 It's not easy to diagnose most personality disorders. But narcissism is a snap—since the narcissists themselves know who they are. Narcissus got a bad rap. Sure, the guy was self-absorbed—what with all that staring at his own reflection in a stream.

But the modern-day people who suffer from the disorder named after him? Narcissists are alternately preening, entitled, aggressive, greedy, insensitive, vain, unfaithful, dishonest, lethally charming a charm you buy at your peril and sexually exploitative. There are plenty of other people with lowercase, sub-clinical cases of the condition who can do all kinds of damage—and the odds are very, very good there are at least a few in your life.

How can you learn to recognize a narcissist at a glance? Narcissism is typically diagnosed with a item questionnaire known as the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, or NPI. Take it here. The lowest you can score on the NPI is a zero, the highest is a Average in the U. Even with those results in hand, the researchers wanted to probe further, so they also tested their subjects on ten other personality metrics such as extraversion, agreeableness, aggression, sexual adventurousness, entitlement and more—all of which are either direct or inverse indicators of the narcissistic personality.

Here too, the results lined up tidily. But narcissists often possess those good qualities to the general exclusion of others—especially social and relationship skills, a shortcoming that can hurt both them and those around them. WRITE-UP From this excerpt, gather the essential information and write a response explaining how we can spot a narcissist living around social media such as Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube these days. Are you a narcissist? If you answered "yes," then you probably are, at least according to a new study done by researchers at Ohio State University. The word for narcissism comes from Greek mythology: Narcissus was an infamous hunter who was known for his startling beauty and the fact that he was in love with himself.

The goddess Nemesis, wanting to teach him a lesson, brought him to a pool, where he became enamored with his own reflection. Unable to turn away, he died there. Today, narcissism is a personality disorder derived from extreme vanity and egotism. Narcissists have trouble with empathy, sustaining healthy relationships, hypersensitivity to criticism and an inability to view the world from a perspective other than their own.

Although narcissism exists in almost everyone at low levels, those with high levels of the disorder have more extreme negative personality traits. So how can we identify narcissists? Researchers discovered that the easiest way is just by asking people a simple question: "To what extent do you agree with this statement: 'I am a narcissist.

The results of 11 studies with over 2, participants, showed responses similar to those received with a question test called the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Narcissists do tend to do better in the corporate world though, with studies scarily showing that narcissistic CEOs have the highest salaries. Of course, this one question doesn't replace other tests for those who suffer from an extreme narcissistic disorder. It doesn't answer questions about what type of narcissism someone has, but it offers a faster way to diagnose the disorder before ordering other tests.

For those of us that aren't psychologists, though, this question could help choose a partner. Listen carefully, then be prepared for the activity. Organized, stealthy and deadly, they are reaching out from their cells to organize and control crime in America's streets. Prison gangs are flourishing from California to Massachusetts. In , the Federal Bureau of Prisons found that prison disturbances soared by about percent in the early nineties, which authorities say indicated that gangs were becoming more active.

In states such as Illinois, as much as 60 percent of the prison population belong to gangs, Godwin says. The Florida DC has identified street gangs operating in their prisons. Street gangs, as opposed to gangs originating in prisons, are emerging as a larger problem on the East Coast. Of the , inmates Texas houses in state pens, 5, have been identified as gang members and another 10, are under suspicion.

Texas prison-gang expert Sammy Buentello says the state's prisons are not infested with gangs, but those that have set up shop are highly organized. But some join for survival. While authorities and inmates dismiss these rumors, the Jasper murder occurred only weeks after a San Antonio grand jury indicted 16 members of the Mexican Mafia, one of the state's largest and most lethal prison gangs, for ordering the deaths of five people in San Antonio from within prison walls.

As they are being released into the community on parole, these people are becoming involved in actions related to prison-gang business. Consequently, it is no longer just a corrections problem--it is also a community problem. It is a misnomer that when you lock a gang member up they cease criminal activity. It has only been in the last five years that law enforcement has realized that what happens on the inside can affect what happens on the outside and vice versa.

According to gang investigators, the gang leaders communicate orders through letters. Where mail is monitored they may use a code--for instance, making every 12th word of a seemingly benign letter significant. They use visits, they put messages into their artwork and in some states they use the telephone.

Of the two kinds of gangs, prison gangs and street gangs, the prison gangs are better organized, according to gang investigators. They are low-key, discreet--even stealthy. They monitor members and dictate how they behave and treat each other. A serious violation means death, say investigators. The street gangs are more flagrant. They also network and keep track of who is out and so forth. They developed within the prison system in California, Texas and Illinois in the s. Godwin says Texas should never have outlawed smoking in the prisons, adding cigarettes as trade-goods contraband to the prohibited list.

I'm convinced that if you put three people on an island somewhere, two would clique up and become predatory against the other at some point. When a new inmate enters the prison system he is challenged to a fight, according to a Texas state-pen prisoner. The outcome determines who can fight, who will be extorted for protection money and who will become a servant to other prisoners.

Godwin explains: "The environment is set up so that when you put that many people with antisocial behavior and criminal history together, someone is going to be the predator and someone the prey, and that is reality. Most of the groups thrive on lifelong membership, according to the Florida DC, with "blood in, blood out" oaths extending leadership and membership beyond the prison into the lucrative drug trade, extortion and pressure rackets. Some of these gangs have alliances, and some are mortal enemies. Many on this list originated in California over the decades, some of them such as the Texas Syndicate to protect members from the other gangs.

In addition, street gangs such as the Crips and Bloods and traditional racial-hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan also operate in the prisons. What prisoners may not realize is that because the gangs are monitored by prison authorities the law-enforcement community is becoming very sophisticated about the gangs. Prison officials say they concentrate on inmate behavior to identify gang members. They do not single out gang leaders to strike any deals because acknowledging the gang as anything other than a "security-threat group" gives them too much credibility. This has been a particular problem in Puerto Rico with the native and political Neta gang.

Recognizing groups during the s, in a system in which prisoners have the right to vote, has led to a tendency among politicians to award clemency to some inmates. Since the juvenile court was started more than a hundred years ago, a basic assumption underlying the juvenile court has been that juvenile offenders shouldn't go through the adult criminal courts. The juvenile court was created to handle juvenile offenders on the basis of their youth rather than their crimes.

The purpose of juvenile court is treatment and guidance rather than punishment. During the s and s, the public called for getting tough with juveniles and trying them as adults. Many states passed laws making it easier to try certain youthful offenders as adults; some states considered the radical proposal of abolishing juvenile courts. We have two sides of arguments here, whether the juvenile courts be abolished or not: Juvenile courts should be abolished. Supporters of getting rid of juvenile courts center their arguments on the need to punish juvenile criminals and a concern for juveniles' rights.

The juvenile court is founded on false premises because its purpose is to shield youths from the consequences of their own actions. The juvenile court fails to deter juvenile violence. The current juvenile crime problem requires that we punish juvenile offenders in order to deter the next generation of juveniles from becoming predators. Justice demands that juvenile courts be abolished—if juveniles are tried in adult courts, they will be afforded their full array of constitutional rights.

The premise of the juvenile court is sound—since children have not fully matured, they shouldn't be held to the same standards of accountability as adults. The purpose of the juvenile court is to treat, not to deter. Changing the social environment in which juveniles live is a more effective way to reduce juvenile violence than punishing juvenile offenders in adult courts. While the denial of full constitutional rights for juveniles is sometimes a problem, the juvenile court's mission is benevolence—to serve the best interests of children.

Evaluate the case for abolishing juvenile courts. You are supposed to choose either of the sides and write a piece of writing explaining your reasons and support. When we talk about the knowledge element of knowledge sharing we are looking at five key questions: 1. What knowledge are we talking about? Why would we share knowledge?

Who has this knowledge and how do we know they have it? When should we share knowledge? How do we undertake knowledge sharing successfully? Then, discuss the points with your instructor. When Knowledge Sharing Turns to Knowledge Hiding 10 Employees balk at requests for information out of distrust — or worse. Other times, the motivation is more personal: Employees want to undermine or retaliate against a co-worker. In addition, they provide companies with strategies to keep information flowing. Some situations involve overt deception, such as when a co-worker provides part, but not all, of the requested information.

In the first study, 35 employees at a Canadian financial-services firm completed a daily survey for a week that logged their responses to internal requests for information. They were asked whether they shared or hid information and the extent to which they distrusted the individual making the request. In a second study, at companies in the manufacturing and education sectors, the researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 11 employees in a range of jobs, including engineers, project managers, and clerical workers.

They, too, were asked to describe examples of knowledge transfer or withholding; they were also asked to evaluate their relationships with co-workers. The researchers found that the more employees distrusted the person requesting the information, the more likely they were to hide knowledge from that person. In the next study, employees representing a wide variety of organizations, ages, experience, and education levels completed a questionnaire about their experiences with knowledge transfer. Slightly more than half of the participants were from the United States, 11 percent were Canadian, and the rest were from other countries.

Managers made up 36 percent of the sample, which included employees from administration, sales, and information technology. An analysis of the data from the questionnaire revealed three approaches that employees use to hide knowledge. The first, playing dumb, occurs when employees pretend not to have the requested information. The second, being evasive, describes a situation in which an employee provides incorrect information or falsely promises to give a complete answer later.

The final study, a survey of Canadian undergraduate business students with work experience, showed that the type of knowledge being sought helped determine which approach was used to conceal it. It is ineffective to play dumb or to rationalize when the requested knowledge is straightforward. In companies with stronger knowledge-sharing cultures, employees were less likely to engage in evasive hiding, the most deceptive and least socially acceptable tactic. Managers should also try to encourage direct contact between employees and to discourage a reliance on e-mail communication. Managers should also voice their support for knowledge sharing, the authors conclude.

When instances of knowledge hiding are detected, managers should act quickly before the habits become entrenched. The culture of the organization and the level of distrust among employees are key factors in determining whether and how employees hide what they know. WRITE-UP What can be the importance of knowledge sharing, knowledge management and knowledge transfer and the value of local wisdom developed through organisational history? Write an illustrative paragraph based on your discussion in the class.

Then, we will discuss this story shortly. Can a man stay beautiful and gorgeous? Will he be defined as a homosexual? Metrosexuals: It's a Guy Thing! There, deep in the hair-care aisle, carefully selecting the product du jour, or in the salon having his nails buffed to the perfect shine while checking out the latest fashion magazines -- it's not a bird, not a gay man, it's a metrosexual!

And judging by the popularity of the new TV program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, many more once slovenly men want to join the ranks of this new breed of Renaissance man. Not yet familiar with the new buzzword, "metrosexual"? Some social observers and product marketers believe it's just a matter of time until "metrosexual" becomes part of your vocabulary -- and perhaps a description of your own lifestyle as well. So what makes a metrosexual man? He's been defined as a straight, sensitive, well-educated, urban dweller who is in touch with his feminine side. He may have a standing appointment for a weekly manicure, and he probably has his hair cared for by a stylist rather than a barber.

He loves to shop, he may wear jewelry, and his bathroom counter is most likely filled with male-targeted grooming products, including moisturizers and perhaps even a little makeup. He may work on his physique at a fitness club not a gym and his appearance probably gets him lots of attention -- and he's delighted by every stare. As part of this research, men ages 21 to 48 throughout the U.

The conclusions? According to the report, there is "an emerging wave of men who chafe against the restrictions" of traditional male roles and who "do what they want, buy what they want, enjoy what they want regardless of whether some people might consider these things unmanly. Metrosexuals are willing to push traditional gender boundaries that define what's male and what's female, she adds, but they never feel that they are anything but "real men.

Metrosexual men "are very secure in their sexuality," says Brown. It doesn't make them feel any less masculine or any less heterosexual. They may don an apron and prepare a mean and meatless pasta dish for friends. Beyond Testosterone So what's prompting men to think outside the box of male stereotypes? They might be influenced by a new breed of male-oriented magazines such as FHM and Maxim, which are devoting an increasing number of their pages to fashion.

These popular magazines are encouraging men to dress to the nines and fall into line with media images of men with washboard abs and bulging biceps. Members of the homosexual community also appear to have influenced their straight brethren. Even though metrosexual men are absolutely heterosexual, the gay movement has helped society as a whole accept so-called effeminate characteristics and lifestyles.

Some research suggests that his straining and sweating to inflate the size of his muscles may not be as interesting to women as he might think. According to Roberto Olivardia, PhD, co-author of The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Obsession, the average male thinks that women are attracted to men who are 15 to 20 pounds more muscular than what women actually find attractive. Coming to Your Neighborhood Who are examples of prominent metrosexual men? Brown points to the flamboyant, makeup-wearing Johnny Depp ala Pirates of the Caribbean at one end of the metrosexual continuum and Bill Clinton at the other.

The former president, she says, "conveys a personal concern for body image, and is a publicly sensitive guy who wears his feelings on his sleeve. British soccer star David Beckham whose wife is Victoria. Adams - a. Posh Spice may be the quintessential metrosexual icon, sometimes attired in a sarong and embellishing his nails with colorful polish. While you're most likely to find metrosexual men in big cities, particularly media centers such as New York and Los Angeles, they are certainly not confined there.

Yet facial plastic surgeons such as Seth M. At the same time, however, he notes that "in the last few years there has been a tripling of the number of men who are coming into my office for cosmetic surgery or office-based cosmetic procedures such as Botox injections. A generation ago, we wouldn't have seen any of these men in our office. So they might seek out the services of a cosmetic surgeon for some major or minor retrofitting. Abdominal liposuction to wipe out love handles is particularly popular. The number of lip augmentation procedures in men in the U.

They tend to be well dressed and well groomed, and then thanks to their affluence, can afford to move on to plastic surgery -- for example, eyelid procedures, chin augmentation, or laser skin resurfacing. But can a metrosexual's preoccupation with his physical appearance be carried to extremes? Olivardia says that if your preoccupation with maximizing your looks is interfering with your relationships, your job, or your schoolwork, perhaps you should talk to a therapist and work on creating a healthier balance and a more sensible approach to your physical exterior.

You have to prove that most men have a component of metrosexuality in them. Write a paragraph discussing the elements of the metrosexuals in a favor of YES to the proof point. After listening, discuss the effects of morphine in every life of all those who become addicted.

Then, discuss the details being supplied throughout the article. Pain and Progress12 Is it possible to make a nonaddictive opioid painkiller? For thousands of years, humans have turned to opioids to relieve their pain. Morphine and its cousin compounds work so magnificently to blunt feelings of pain that, in 4, years of use, we have found nothing to top them. As good as the drugs are at stopping pain, they also arouse a hardwired reward network in the human brain, eliciting strong feelings of euphoria that can drive craving, dependency, and addiction.

As long as there has been opium use, there have been opium addicts. In December , the US Food and Drug Administration FDA approved OxyContin, a delayed-release formulation of oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid that has been used as an analgesic for almost a century. The drug worked well—curbing pain as effectively as the original oxycodone—and the number of prescriptions. Soon enough, however, people figured out that crushing the pills and snorting or injecting the drug could generate an epic high, and by , Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin, was receiving reports that its product was being abused.

But a decade later, prescription opioid abuse and addiction had reached epidemic proportions. In , more than 16, people in the U. Restricting the use of opioids is not likely to happen. The drugs are the only painkillers that work for many people, and an astounding number of patients suffer from pain. In all cases, the end goal is the same: develop an effective, nonaddictive painkiller. Whether produced naturally in the brain or a poppy pod, or synthetically in the laboratory, opioids typically have an inhibitory effect on the firing of the nerve cells they interact with.

Upon binding to opioid receptors on the cell membrane, the drugs, like their endogenous relatives, lead to an increase in the charge difference between the interior and exterior of the cell. This hyperpolarization makes it more difficult for the cell to depolarize and generate an action potential, or nerve impulse. Opioid receptors are dense in neurons involved in pain transmission, such as those in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. By quelling the activity of these neurons, opioids block the sensation of pain. In the brain stem, opioids can inhibit neurons that control breathing, contributing to suffocation during overdose.

In the gut, the drugs can calm muscles of the digestive tract, leading to constipation for many opioid users. Another problematic side effect is tolerance—the longer a patient takes opioids, the more drug he needs to get the same amount of pain relief. And, of course, the side effect with the biggest public-health impact: opioids are highly addictive. Alex Peterson was 19 when he first experienced the intense high from opioids. He and his girlfriend had just broken up, and Peterson, who had been drinking and using drugs throughout his teens, turned to alcohol, consuming a liter of vodka a day.

His drinking habit was so bad that he was coughing up blood and passing it in his stool. When he went to the doctor for a colonoscopy, the physician gave him an opioid painkiller called fentanyl during the procedure. Activation of opioid receptors in certain neurons leads to a release of dopamine from neurons in another brain region called the nucleus accumbens, giving users a high and a sense of happiness and well-being that can lead to dependence.

Fourteen years ago, Andrew Coop, the chair of the pharmaceutical sciences department at the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, set out to make a drug that fit the bill. After more than a decade of work, Coop finally found his answer: UMB , a synthetic derivative of a naturally occurring opioid. His team synthesized UMB from thebaine, a natural opioid used to make oxycodone and other drugs.