However, both Kirk and Spock begin to have dreams indicating they were present during events. In an attempt to regain their sanity, and with Kirk having recalled Elizabeth Dehner was present, they begin a mind meld to retrieve the memories. Early in the first five year mission, the Enterprise encountered a planet phasing in and out of existence.
Kirk, Spock, Mitchell , Kelso and Dehner beamed down but soon afterwards they disappeared from the surface, being transported back in time two hundred years. The humans were met by Parneb , a long-lived human who lived his life out of order and was responsible for the planet, while Spock sought refuge with Jeremy Grayson , an ancestor known for taking in refugees. The groups learned of the Vulcans' existence on Earth and, fearing their presence had interfered with history, Kirk and Dehner infiltrated a party sent to the Antarctic to meet them.
When the news was leaked to the media, nearly everyone else was evacuated. Mitchell joined in time to warn them of an attack by terrorists seeking to make a statement, while Spock also joined them using Grayson's credentials after he suffered a fatal stroke. Together, Kirk and Spock stopped the submarine captain Jason Nyere from announcing their existence to the media in order to prevent the authorities ordering their execution and convinced T'Lera not to kill herself and her son to prevent further violence.
The Enterprise group arranged to have the Vulcans leave the planet in an abandoned DY ship and erased the memories and records of the humans involved, leaving Sorahl's journal as the last piece of evidence upon which the novel would be based. Parneb then returned them to their own time, tampering with their memories in turn. Their recollection of events restored, Kirk and Spock muse on their impact on events. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers.
Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight.
Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline and good social relationships sociability, friendship, and tolerance , as well.
Post-flight study of changes in perceptions. Analysis of pedigrees has shown a high exogamy in the preceding generations: almost half of the subjects have mixed ethnic background. According to the results of genetic demographic analysis, a sample from the Moscow population was used as control group CG. Comparison between the CTSG and CG has demonstrated significant differences in genotype frequencies for several blood group systems.
The CTSG is characterized by a decreased proportion of rare interlocus genotypic combinations and an increased man heterozygosity. Analysis of the distributions of individual heterozygosity for loci with codominant expression of alleles has shown that highly heterozygous loci are more frequent in the CTSG. Taking into account that the CTSG has been thoroughly selected from the general population, it is concluded that heterozygosity is related to successful adaptation to a space flight. Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the prediction of physical and lithological properties of volcanogenic-sedimentary formations at different depths.
For this purpose Oligocene-Miocene sediments from a number of wells within the Icha and Kolpakovsky depressions of Okhotsk-Kamchatka oil and gas basin have been studied. Relationship between temperature and fluid conditions of the katagenesis zone and the change in the rocks composition, their porosity, permeability, density, thermal conductivity were identified. Superposed phenomena and characteristics of the reservoir rocks transformations within the water-hydrocarbon contacts in the gas and gas condensate pools have been considered.
The relationship between volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks physical and lithological properties and the formation of non-stationary geothermal regime has been shown. The article is devoted to the head of these investigations — Professor Yuri Konstantinovich Burlin Adaptation of the receptors of the cosmonauts during of space missions.
Perception and analysis of information characterizing outside environment and the inner state of the man's own systems define the efficiency of the astronauts to a great extent. This information is being perceived by a system of various receptors: visual, oral, tactile, gustatory, olfactory etc. The sensitivity of these receptors depend upon a number of factors. Usually the study of the receptors aimed at finding out the relations between their sensitivity through the time which defined the so-called adaptation process.
The developed by authors the theory of the adaptation process enables to predict behaviour of individuals not only on the Earth, but also in conditions of space flight. Key parameters of the theory is time constant of information processing in memory and the amount of information retained by memory after sufficiently long period of time. Values of these sizes are received as a result of processing the numerous literary data.
In paper the dependences of these sizes on overloads and microgravitation that enables to predict adaptation of all analyzers of cosmonauts during space flight are determined: light and darkness adaptation with consideration of the effect of the duration of pre-adaptation lighting, of the period of long adaptation to a certain colours, of the effect of brightness of preexposition lighting, of brightness of different colours, of the size of test objects, of the angular distance of the test object from the fixed point, of the areas of the test object, of the effect of adaptation to light on the subsequent darkness adaptation.
Adaptation to gustatory stimuli, to tactile sensations for olfactory sensations are dealt too. The received results enable to take into account changes of sensitivity of analyzers of cosmonauts in flight and them to correct in case of need. Protein expression changes caused by spaceflight as measured for 18 Russian cosmonauts. The effects of spaceflight on human physiology is an increasingly studied field, yet the molecular mechanisms driving physiological changes remain unknown. With that in mind, this study was performed to obtain a deeper understanding of changes to the human proteome during space travel, by quantitating a panel of proteins in the blood plasma of 18 Russian cosmonauts who had conducted long-duration missions to the International Space Station.
The panel of labeled prototypic tryptic peptides from these proteins covered a concentration range of more than 5 orders of magnitude in human plasma. Quantitation was achieved by a well-established and highly-regarded targeted mass spectrometry approach involving multiple reaction monitoring in conjunction with stable isotope-labeled standards.
Linear discriminant function analysis of the quantitative results revealed three distinct groups of proteins: 1 proteins with post-flight protein concentrations remaining stable, 2 proteins whose concentrations recovered slowly, or 3 proteins whose concentrations recovered rapidly to their pre-flight levels. Using a systems biology approach, nearly all of the reacting proteins could be linked to pathways that regulate the activities of proteases, natural immunity, lipid metabolism, coagulation cascades, or extracellular matrix metabolism.
Manned spaceflight log II—— April 12, "Attention! This is Radio Moscow speaking The world's first satellite spaceship, Vostock, with a man aboard, was put into orbit round the Earth. Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space, completing one orbit in minutes. Meanwhile, in China, preparations continue for launching the nation's first Space Station called Tiangong 1 - or Heavenly Palace 1 later in the year. The sixth decade of manned spaceflight orbital operations has truly began.
At this point in the history of human space exploration, it is timely to review the first five decades of adventure and look forward to the next decade and what it might bring. Several notable anniversaries celebrated in make it the right time to reflect and pay homa Such recommendations included: a the inclusion of important national and international literature in English and non-English language materials; including journals, books, magazines, conference reports and b an extensive literature review of certain types of psychological states to predict, detect, and assess adverse mental states that may negatively affect the psychological well being of the astronauts, specifically asthenia.
This report was a collaborative international work effort focused on the evaluation and determination of the importance of continuing research on asthenia as a possible psychological problem that might affect the optimal psychological functioning among crewmembers during long-duration space flight missions. Functional loading test for expert estimation of health candidates in cosmonauts the innovative approach. Long stay of cosmonauts in conditions of International Space Station demands the increased medical control over their health during selection.
Various parameters of cardiovascular system CVS undergo significant changes both during adaptation to space flight period of removing into an orbit , directly under conditions of weightlessness and during readaptation to terrestrial environment. The CVS is sensitive indicator of adaptation reaction of total organism.
Therefore much attention is given to the research of CVS regulation, its opportunities to adapt to various stress conditions, detection of pre-nozological changes in mechanisms of its regulation. One of the informative methods for detecting problems in CVS regulation is a postural orthostatic test. This work was designed to research regulation of hemodynamics during passive orthostatic test.
All subjects had normal parameters of ECG during test. In other 7 subjects dynamics of parameters during test reflected problems in mechanisms of CVS regulation in its separate parts. Changes in parameters of REG and ultrasound in 4 test subjects reflected a hypotensive reaction. The parameters of MCB: average speed, vascular tone and peripheric.
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Extravehicular activity EVA on the lunar surface, necessary for the future exploration of the Moon, involves extensive use of robots. One of the factors of safe EVA is a proper interaction between cosmonauts and robots in extreme environments. This requires a simple and natural man-machine interface, e. The interaction in the system " cosmonaut -robot" on the lunar surface is significantly different from that on the Earth surface.
For example, a man, dressed in a space suit, has limited fine motor skills. In addition, EVA is quite tiring for the cosmonauts , and a tired human being less accurately performs movements and often makes mistakes. All this leads to new requirements for the convenient use of the man-machine interface designed for EVA. To improve the reliability and stability of human-robot communication it is necessary to provide options for duplicating commands at the task stages and gesture recognition.
New tools and techniques for space missions must be examined at the first stage of works in laboratory conditions, and then in field tests proof tests at the site of application. The article analyzes the methods of detection and tracking of movements and gesture recognition of the cosmonaut during EVA, which can be used for the design of human-machine interface.
A scenario for testing these methods by constructing a virtual environment simulating EVA on the lunar surface is proposed. Simulation involves environment visualization and modeling of the use of the "vision" of the robot to track a moving cosmonaut dressed in a spacesuit. Yuri L'vovich Klimontovich.
Klimontovich, an outstanding theorist whose ideas and works have been a great contribution to modern kinetic theory and statistical mechanics. Without his fundamental papers and books it is impossible to imagine many fields of theoretical physics such as statistical plasma theory, kinetic description of nonequilibrium processes in non-ideal gas and non-ideal plasmas, theory of turbulence, theory of open systems, fluctuations in quantum and relativistic systems, etc..
The computer system for registration and dosimetric control of inhabitants, cosmonauts and pilots from the different radiation sources. Cosmonauts , pilots and inhabitants living near the nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities are particular group of risk. To estimate the radiation risk for this limited part of population the Computer System was developed. The main purpose of this System is registration, account, storage, processing, analysis, forecasting and control both doses and radiation risks for each person.
Both experimental and calculated data are used in the Computer System. The experimental data are used in case of estimation of doses received by cosmonauts during space flight and by pilots during the flight in atmosphere. The System allows to calculate the doses for each person from any type of medical procedures including the X-ray diagnostic examinations and radioisotopic diagnostics. The Computer System also allows to calculate the radiation exposure of inhabitants living near nuclear facilities both in case of normal exploitation and different kind of accidents. The annual dose distribution from different types of radiation sources are given.
It was shown that doses from medical irradiation are comparable or sometime higher than the doses from space flight, air flight or nuclear accident. Los tipos de urgencias mayormente tratadas fueron: estomatitis aftosa recurrente, absceso dentoalveolar agudo, pulpitis irreversible y candidiasis eritematosa. A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted to identify age, sex and frequency of Stomatology urgencies and its relation to time of infection from HIV and of antiretroviral consumption drugs. The Analyzed were deviations in cardiac function in 29 cosmonauts with previous aviation and other occupations ranging of 29 to 61 y.
The deviations were identified in ECG records collected during clinical selection, clinical physiological examination CPE before flight, insertion and deorbit in transport vehicles, and post-flight CPE. Based on the analysis, the cosmonauts were distributed into three groups. The first group The second group The third group These findings give start to important investigations with the purpose to define permissible medical risks and ensuing establishment and perfection of medical criteria for candidates to cosmonauts with certain health problems.
Full Text Available State leadership in Russia is determined by historical and cultural as well as by legal and institutional premises. The analysis of ways of obtaining legitimacy by state leaders of the Russian Federation is a borderline issue of political science, sociology, and history. The conditions that favor the creation of the archetype on the Russian ground are undoubtedly: extremely centralized political power in Russia one central decision-making center whose decisions were arbitrarily arbitrary, the problem of the enforcement of the rules of the trilateral division of power the legislative sphere dominated the legislature, the low level of control Social rulers lack of effective legal mechanisms to verify the effects of their activities, paternalism of the leadership system and low participation of representative institutions in public life.
The aim of the article is to situate in the field of considerations about the archetype of Russian power the concept of Yuri Pivovarov, according to which not only civilization baggage and the immaturity of civil society have decided the legitimacy of the state leadership of the Russian Federation.
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According to him, the problem of the participation of the political elite in the redistribution of goods and the low level of participation of citizens in the process of ownership separation is of significant importance. According to the theory of the Russian political scientist, the basis for understanding the phenomenon of Russian state leadership is the combination of elements of archetypal leadership with a proper interpretation of the relation of freedom — property.
Psychological differences between influence of temperament with the hemishere asymmetry of a brain on size of sensorymotor reactions of male and female cosmonauts. The purpose of research was definition and comparison of relative parameters of sensorimotor reactions with a choice depending on a level of lateral asymmetry of hemispheres of a brain at representatives of various types of temperament OF male and female cosmonauts. These parameters were by the bases for verification of theoretical dependence for the latent period of reaction in conditions of weightlessness and overloads.
The hypothesis about influence of functional asymmetry on parameters of psychomotor in sensory-motor reactions was laid in a basis of experiment. Techniques of definition of individual characters of the sensori-motor asymmetries were used, and G. Time of sensorimotor reaction has significant distinctions between representatives of different types of temperament with a various level interchemishere asymmetry OF male and female cosmonauts.
With increase in expressiveness of the right hemisphere time of reaction tends to reduction at representatives of all types of temperament, the number of erroneous reactions as a whole increases also a level of achievement tends to reduction. Results of time of sensorimotor reaction correspond with parameter L. Prisniakova which characterizes individual - psychological features. Earlier the received experimental data of constant time of processing of the information in memory at a period of a sensorimotor reactions of the man and new results for women were used for calculation of these time constants for overloads distinct from terrestrial.
These data enable to predict dynamics of behavior of cosmonauts with differing sex in conditions of flight in view of their individual characteristics connected with the hemisphere asymmetry of a brain and with by a various degree of lateralization. Parametric analysis of absorbed radiation dose to the cosmonaut working in the Service module SM of the International space station ISS was made with allowance for anisotropy of the radiation field of the South Atlantic Anomaly.
Calculation data show that in weakly shielded SM compartments the radiation dose to poorly shielded viscera may depend essentially on cosmonaut 's location and orientation relative to the ISS shell. Difference of the lens absorbed dose can be as high as 5 times depending on orientation of the cosmonaut and the ISS. The effect is less pronounced on the deep seated hematopoietic system; however, it may increase up to 2. When the cosmonaut is outside on the ISS SM side presented eastward, the absorbed dose can be affected noticeably by remoteness from the SM.
At a distance less than 1. STS astronauts training in Russia. Astronauts Norman E. Thagard and Bonnie J. In March , astronaut Thagard is scheduled to be launched in a Russ. Tragedy and triumph in orbit the eighties and early nineties. April 12, , was the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin 's pioneering journey into space. To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century.
As the Shuttle sought to fulfill its mandate of regular, routine access to space, a fatal Achilles heel in the system remained undetected until, one freezing January day in , it made itself known with horrifying suddenness on millions of television screens across the world.
Systemic flaws, and the urgent need to resolve them, led to several years of introspection, while the Soviet program seemed to prosper and cosmonauts sp Freedom 7 the historic flight of Alan B. Shepard, Jr. On that historic day, U. Training of cosmonauts and astronauts. The biomedical and preflight training of spacecraft crews is discussed based on a survey of scientific and technical literature in the U. Experience gained from high velocity and high altitude aircraft flights, predictions of human reactions and theoretical models of human adaptation to the new environment of space, and actual spaceflight experience provided scientists and specialists with data from which the state of human health in space could be predicted and life support measures developed.
On April 12, the era of human spaceflight began with the orbital flight of Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The focus of the first 20 years of human spaceflight was developing the fundamental operational capabilities and technologies required for a human mission to the Moon. The Mercury and Gemini Projects demonstrated launch and entry guidance, on-orbit navigation, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and flight durations equivalent to a round-trip to the Moon. The Apollo program was truncated at 11 missions and a new system, the Space Shuttle, was developed which became the focus of the subsequent 30 years.
Although never able to meet the flight rate or cost promises made in the s, the Shuttle nevertheless left a remarkable legacy of accomplishment. The Shuttle made possible the launch and servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and diverse activities such as life science research and classified national security missions. The Shuttle launched more than half the mass ever put into orbit and its heavy-lift capability and large payload bay enabled the on-orbit construction of the International Space Station. The Shuttle also made possible spaceflight careers for scientists who were not military test pilots - people like me.
In this talk I will review the early years of spaceflight and share my experiences, including two missions with HST, from the perspective of a five-time flown astronaut and a senior flight operations manager.
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Expedition-8 Crew Members Portrait. This is a portrait of the Expedition-8 two man crew. Yuri Gagarin Primer cosmonauta del planeta Tierra. Montgomery, Respondent; Final Decision and Order. On behalf of High- fiber foods and foods which promote gas peas , beans, radishes, kvas, melons should not be consumed. Prevention of discomfort Perminov, inspected the jumpers. The calm tone of One involved the growing of large homoge- neous protein crystals on the Aynur unit. Essentailly these were the first Soviet. STS astronauts and cosmonauts during egress training.
Astronaut Robert L. Gibson arms folded, near center STS mission commander, joins several crew mates during a briefing preceding emergency egress training in the Systems Integration Facility at JSC. Astronauts Bonnie J. Dunbar and Gregory J. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training.
There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used. Full Text Available The paper deals with the spacetime aspect of the essays by Yu. According to the author, the chronotope of apocalypse is destroying the Tradition; though the message of his essays is revealing the possibility of the two-way movement along the sociohistorical temporal vector, which ensures continuity of tradition and historism.
Items generally are processed from the first or best available sources. It should not be inferred that they have been disseminated only in the medium, in the language, or to the area indicated Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t.
Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities.
Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern.
The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum H B S T ; 2-Determination of lethal doses. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain.
A properly organized regimen of work and rest creates a positive emotional background and can mitigate the effect of atherosclerosis All members of the air traffic control team, especially in the tactical control component, must Viktor is a soccer player and. Cytogenetic damages in peripheral blood of monkey lymphocytes under simulation of cosmonauts irradiation. Earth modeling of crewmember exposure should be performed for correct estimating radiation hazard during the flight. Such modeling was planned in a monkey experiment for investigating consequences of exposure to a man during an interplanetary flight.
It should reflect a chronic impact of galactic cosmic rays and acute and fractional irradiation specified for solar cosmic rays and radiation belts respectively. Due to the difficulty of modeling a chronic impact with the help of a charged particles accelerator it can be used the gamma source. While irradiating big animal groups during a long-term period of time it is preferably to replace chronic irradiation by an equal fractional one.
In this case the chosen characteristics of fractional irradiation should ensure the appearances of radiobiological consequences equal to the ones caused by the modeled chronic exposure. So for developing an exposure scheme in the monkey experiment with Macaca -Rhesus the model of the acting residual dose, that takes into account repair and recovery processes in the exposed body was used. The total dose value was in the limits from 2. The acting residual dose in all versions of exposure was 2. While performing the experiment all the requirements of bioethics for the work with animals were observed.
The objects of interest were genomic damages in lymphocytes of monkey's peripheral blood. The data about the CAF during the exposure and at various time moments after exposure particularly directly after the completion of chronicle and fractional irradiation were analyzed. CAF -dose of acute single gamma-irradiation in the range 0 In addition the rate of the aberrant cells elimination within three months after the irradiation completion was estimated.
On the basis of the obtained CAF data we performed verification of applicability of cytogenetic analysis for estimating the monkey gamma -dose exposure in the experiment It was obtained that this method permits to estimate the acting residual dose with accuracy of The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph.
The Soyuz launch vehicle has had a long and illustrious history. Built as the world's first intercontinental missile, it took the first man into space in April , before becoming the workhorse of Russian spaceflight, launching satellites, interplanetary probes, every cosmonaut from Gagarin onwards, and, now, the multinational crews of the International Space Station.
This remarkable book gives a complete and accurate description of the two lives of Soyuz, chronicling the cooperative space endeavor of Europe and Russia. First, it takes us back to the early days of astronautics, when technology served politics. From archives found in the Soviet Union the authors describe the difficulty of designing a rocket in the immediate post-war period. Then, in Soyuz's golden age, it launched numerous scientific missions and manned flights which were publicized worldwide while the many more numerous military missions were kept highly confidential!
The second part of the book tells the contemporary story of the second li Opening Remarks by Mr. Yury A. Century, Vienna Austria , October First, I would like to express our sincere appreciation to the European Commission, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, the World Nuclear Association and the International Electrotechnical Commission for their cooperation and the assistance provided in the organization of this conference. Challenges and opportunities, like the poles of a magnet, do not exist separately.
Furthermore, what some perceive as an opportunity may be a challenge for others, and a challenge today will probably become an opportunity tomorrow. All these complexities are fully applicable to the nuclear industry and its future. Water Cooled Reactors have been the keystone of the nuclear industry in the 20th Century. As we move into the 21st Century and face new challenges such as the growth in world energy demand or the threat of global climate change, nuclear energy has been identified as one of the sources that could substantially and sustainably contribute to power the world.
Many projections forecast significant growth in the use of nuclear energy both in countries currently taking advantage of it and in countries considering its use for the first time. As we look into the future with the development of advanced and innovative reactor designs and fuel cycles, it seems clear that Water Cooled Reactors will play an important role in the future too. In recent times, there has been a two prong approach on the expansion of nuclear power.
These interests have motivated both countries with existing nuclear programmes and newcomer countries to consider the construction of new nuclear power plants in the 21st century, taking into account the desire to build capacity in terms of human resources, energy planning, regulatory capabilities and other infrastructure. Great attention is also directed toward making new plants simpler to operate, inspect, and maintain, thus increasing their safety and overall cost effectiveness. To support the future role of water cooled reactors, substantial design and development programmes are underway in a number of Member States to incorporate additional technology improvements into advanced nuclear power plants designs.
A systematic approach and the experience of many years of successful operation have allowed designers to focus their design efforts and develop safer, more efficient and more reliable designs, and to optimize plant availability and cost through simpler operation and improved maintenance programs. This approach has also been successfully used for the optimization of all aspects of operation in currently operating plants, as their efficient and safe operation is a key factor in assuring that nuclear power will meet both the current and the future energy needs.
It is also important to establish a forum to facilitate the exchange of information on building infrastructure, operational excellence and the sustainable deployment of advanced reactors because many of water cooled reactors will be built in countries with no previous nuclear power experience. IAEA has organized continuously international conferences or symposia on the operation and maintenance of existing nuclear power plants and on the development of advanced water cooled reactor technologies. Foothold in the heavens the seventies. April 12, is the 50th Anniversary of Yuri Gagarin 's pioneering journey into space.
To commemorate this momentous achievement, Springer-Praxis is producing a mini-series of books that reveals how humanity's knowledge of flying, working, and living in space has grown in the last half century. Foothold in the Heavens focuses on the early s, when we completed our first exploration of the Moon and established a real, long-term presence in orbit with the first space stations. It marked a transitional phrase between the heady days of the s and efforts to make space travel more economical, more frequent and more routine in the later s and s.
This book explores the intense competition and bitter rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union - with one side devoting its energies to lunar exploration, the other diverting its attention to near-Earth studies - which eventually brought a pair of Cold War foes away from the nuclear trigger to the negotiating table and opened a new era of cooper Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.
Full Text Available Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions.
In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene.
These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system.
Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response. April 12, , is the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin 's pioneering journey into space. At Home in Space, the third book in the series, continues the story throughout the later Seventies and into the Eighties. It was a period of time characterised by great promise.
Regular Soviet missions demonstrated that humanity could not only survive, but thrive, in a weightless environment, and the arrival of the Space Shuttle seemed to offer a more economical and routine means of accessing the heavens. Living in space became truly international as astronauts from many nations lived and worked together on Soviet space stations and aboard the Shuttle.
At the same time, however, relations between two key players in this drive to conquer the high ground of space - the United States and the Soviet Union - steadily decl Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U. This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky , which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository.
In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters.
The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin.
The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information. Removal of free cyanide in waste water through complexation with Fe II iron followed by alkaline chlorination.
Tetsu II ion ni yoru sakka hanno wo maeshori to suru haisuichu no yuri sian no shori. The removal treatment of free cyanide in waste water was tested by complexation with Fe 2 ion followed by alkaline chlorination and precipitation of residual iron cyano complex to study saving of sodium hypochlorite NaClO for alkaline chlorination.
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The complexation with Fe 2 ion was studied in batch treatment under the coexistence with zinc ion assuming plating waste water, while the relation between the complexation and effective chlorine consumption in alkaline chlorination was studied in continuous treatment. In the case of free cyanide with lower initial concentration, the total cyanide concentration in final treated water offered sufficiently low values only by adding zinc salt, while in higher initial concentration, it reached 1 ppm or less through precipitation by adding a reductant together with zinc salt.
Response to 'Analysis of the Treatment, by the U. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ. Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity.
At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April , when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min.
Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses.
Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans.
The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans. Van de Putte, Anton P. Putte, van de A. Study of mouse behavioural response in microgravity: ethogram and neurobiological related. The conquest of space, which started with the dog Laika in to be followed few years later by Yuri Gagarin , has witnessed an increasing numbers of both vertebrates tadpoles, frogs, rats mice etc. Animals are sent into orbit to proactively foresee possible health problems in humans.
The issue of animal exposure to un-physiological gravity is of primary importance to i understand behavioural and physiological adaptations in such environment as well as ii develop coun-termeasures to improve 0-g life conditions and reduce possible animal suffering. The Mouse Drawer System MDS , an Italian facility, has been transferred to the International Space Sta-tion with a first experiment investigating mechanisms underlying bone mass loss in microgravity in mice.
Preliminary and ground-based control experiments have been conducted with six mice housed individually inside the MDS facility for 20 and days. The behavioural repertoire of wild-type and transgenic mice housed in the MDS has been videorecorded with the observation subsystem, which allows to monitor animal's behavior through the use of 6 video cameras. The behavioural patterns characterizing mice in the MDS system have been finely analysed at several time points during the the experiment. Moreover, neurobiological parameters, known to be involved in the response to stress, have been evaluated.
In particular, NGF and BDNF levels have been measured in the central nervous system hippocampus, striatum, and cortex , adrenal gland and limbs. Preliminary data from ground based experiment revealed Several dif-ferences in behavioural profile between wt and tg mice, with transgenic ones apparently more active than wild type controls. Moreover a clear difference in time spent in different areas of the MDS cage was observed. Finally changes in neurotrophins levels were observed in relation to both genotype and environmental. One of the most memorable gifts was a toy helicopter that was designed by the French aeronautical experimenter Alphonse P naud.
Milton gave his sons this gift in , and, though it was a simple device with a stick bound to a four-blade rotor set in a spindle, it had the intended effect it caused them to dream. Twenty-five years separated the gift of this toy and their invention of the airplane, yet the Wright brothers were convinced it had exerted an important influence.
Tom Crouch argued in The Bishop's Boys that toys like these perfectly illustrated the significance of play for technological innovation. He wrote, rotary-wing toys were to intrigue and inspire generations of children, a few of whom would, as adults, attempt to realize the dream of flight for themselves.
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If the first powered flight on 17 December represented a childhood dream realized, it was only the first step in the rapid evolution of the airplane from their flimsy kite-like contraption of wood and cloth to jet airliners and rockets in space. And, as extraordinary as the achievement of powered flight seemed in , before the end of the century, space travel also would become a dream realized. Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin first circumnavigated Earth in April , and, eight years later, American astronauts took the first steps for humankind on the Moon.
These essays in celebration of the Wright brothers first flight years ago grew out of presentations by a group of prominent scholars in at a conference sponsored by the NASA History Division and held at the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The volume focuses on the careers of some of the many men and women who helped to realize. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment.
In recent years, more and more attention is paid to educational programmes, which are closely connected with the process of scientific research. Such programmes are developed in collab-oration and included in the schools, universities and scientific institutes in Bulgaria. They are also used in the organization of public events aimed to demonstrate beauty, relevance and significance of Space and Earth science to the whole world.
They organized and tutored all the Astronomical Observatories and Planetaria, and teachers from all around Bulgaria to participate in the world initiatives Solar Week, Sun-Earth Day, Yuri 's Night, World Astronomy day and World Space week, and use them in the process of education and public outreach. After the official closing of the International Heliophysical year, the IHY follow-on activities in Bulgaria continued and were devoted to the International Year of Astronomy A lot of lectures, public talks and exhibitions have been organized.
Participation in the cornerstone projects of the International Year of Astronomy was organized: " hours of Astronomy" -ob-servations with small telescopes in the period of 5 -9 April. Basic research on high-sensitivity gene-aided diagnostic systems for cancers, based on free DNA in blood; nendo kecchu yuri DNA ni yoru gan no kokando idenshi shindan system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu jisseki hokokusho. The research and development project is conducted to develop new methods directly related to early discovery of potential cancer patients, and the FY results are reported.
The FY efforts are directed to improvement of intra-Alu-PCR method as the superhigh-sensitivity quantitative method, almost established in the previous fiscal year, to have higher reliability and simplicity suitable for automatic diagnosis. Detection of qualitative gene abnormality of DNA in the peripheral vessels is investigated using the K-ras, p53 gene.
However, there are still a number of problems to be solved before these methods are applicable to screening for general medical examinations. The research on the analysis of gene abnormality of cancer itself has made a notable progress. Basic research on a high-sensitivity gene diagnosis system for cancer by free DNA in blood; nendo kecchu yuri DNA ni yoru gan no kokando idenshi shindan system ni kansuru kiban kenkyu jisseki hokokusho.
A 3-year FY FY research plan titled 'The basic research on a high-sensitivity gene diagnosis system for cancer by free DNA in blood' was worked out and the study was started. The plan is as follows.
It is confirmed that the quantitative study of peripheral blood free DNA becomes the information useful for early finding-out of cancer carriers, and the reliability and limits are made clear. By widely searching for gene anomaly of cancer itself, it is confirmed that it is possible to diagnose anomaly in quality of genes in peripheral blood free DNA. During a spacewalk, designated as extravehicular activity EVA , an astronaut ventures from the protective environment of the spacecraft into the vacuum of space. EVAs are among the most challenging tasks during a mission, as they are complex and place the astronaut in a highly stressful environment dependent on the spacesuit for survival.
Due to the complexity of EVA, NASA has conducted various training programs on Earth to mimic the environment of space and to practice maneuvers in a more controlled and forgiving environment. However, rewards offset the risks of EVA, as some of the greatest accomplishments in the space program were accomplished during EVA, such as the Apollo moonwalks and the Hubble Space Telescope repair missions.
Water has become the environment of choice for EVA training on Earth, using neutral buoyancy as a substitute for microgravity. During EVA training, an astronaut wears a modified version of the spacesuit adapted for working in water. This high fidelity suit allows the astronaut to move in the water while performing tasks on full-sized mockups of space vehicles, telescopes, and satellites.
During the early Gemini missions, several EVA objectives were much more difficult than planned and required additional time. Later missions demonstrated that "complex EVA tasks were feasible when restraints maintained body position and underwater simulation training ensured a high success probability". Chimera-like states generated by large perturbation of synchronous state of coupled metronomes.
Koptev announces space plans for Russia in CERN Multimedia. Data were collected and submitted by Dr. Members of the ALICE collaboration greet the arrival of the experiment's first lead tungstate crystals. Russia Sq. Gagarin 1, Rostov-on-Don, , Russia, atm1 mail. Ivanovskogo, 38, Rostov-on-Don Comparison of Soviet and US space food and nutrition programs. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in , when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity.
This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts ' diets.
Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina. National Calendar A short presentation of the Harvard University, founded in , has been given also. Full Text Available The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused.
The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping. Why the negative corona current in air decreases? The time dependence of negative corona current I, called by Gagarin like 'relaxing of CV-characteristics', is a observed phenomena.
The observed phenomena was explained by two theoretical models considering the ion-molecule and chemical reactions in the negative corona discharges in air, especially the ozone production. In the presented paper the discrepancies of above mentioned models, re-examination the earlier experimental data and presumptions used in models in a light the latest experimentally confirmed facts are discussed. Introduction: Information and Musings. From left, are interpreter K. Shatalov, Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Cosmonaut Aleksey A.
Leonov squeezing Pluto's nose and Astronaut Thomas P. The astronauts and cosmonauts were in Florida for a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center where they looked over ASTP launch facilities and flight hardware. Modifications of spontaneous oculomotor activity in microgravitational conditions. Investigations on spontaneous oculomotor activity were carried out prior to and after five cosmonauts and during space flight two cosmonauts on the 3rd, 5th and th days of the space flight. Recording of oculomotor activity was carried out by electrooculography on automated data acquisition and processing system "Zora" based on personal computers.
During the space flight and after it all the cosmonauts with the eyes closed or open and dark-goggled showed an essential increase of the movements' amplitude when removing the eyes into the extreme positions especially in a vertical direction, occurrence of correcting saccadic movements or nystagmus , an increase in time of fixing reactions. In spite of the ISS international cooperation transparency space research programs require to follow the biomedicine ethics and provide confidentiality of the special medical information exchange. That can be achieved in the telemedicine support system built on the network principle.
Presently we have all technical facilities needed to create such a system. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Communications development and next generation Internet systems creation almost eliminate differences in the types of information technologies implementation both in the earth-based and near-earth space conditions. In prospect of the information community creation the telecommunication system of the near-earth space objects and its telemedicine element will become a natural part of the Earth unified information field that will open unlimited perspectives for flight support system improvement and space biomedical research conducting.
Russia has unique data of numerous investigations on simulation of long, up to a year, effects of space flight factors on the human body. The sphere of situations studied by space medicine specialists embraced orbit manned space flights of the escalating duration days in However a number of biomedical problems related to space flights didn't face optimal solutions.
It's evident that during a space flight to Mars biomedical problems will be much more difficult in comparison with those of the orbit flights of the same duration. The summed up factors of such flights specify a level of the total medical risk that require assessment and application of. Earth study from space.
The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology. The crewmen made a side-trip to Disney World during a three-day inspection tour of the Kennedy Space Center. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American crew; Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet crew; Astronaut Thomas P.
Stafford, commander of the American crew; and Cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov, Chief of Cosmonaut Training for the U. View of Commemorative plaque left on moon at Hadley-Apennine landing site. Their names are inscribed in alphabetical order on the plaque. The plaque was stuck in the lunar soil by Astronauts David R. Scott and James B. Irwin during their Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. Number 2.
Key Words and Document Analysis. How- ever, even at that stage of development of cosmonautics. Compares findings of what is happening in Russian theatre today with what was being done in the 30's. Chimera states in systems