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Soft shoes were introduced around for use during slip jigs. They are soft leather shoes with flexible soles, much like Western ballet shoes, and they lace up the front and tie around the dancer's ankle Richens and Haurin. The prevalence of female dancers also led to the unique posturing of Irish step dancing that is its trademark today. Parish priests felt that women dancing with loose arms were far too provocative, so in order to increase their self-control, Irish step dancers must dance with their torso rigid, arms firmly at their sides, and faces expressionless Richens and Haurin.

Costuming for Irish step dancing changed over the years as well. Girls and women wear elaborately embroidered dresses with a shawl draped from the left shoulder to the right side of the waist, as well as black stockings, or white knee socks for younger dancers. There are even rules regarding hairstyles at a feis.

A female dancer must curl her hair in ringlets for a competition, and keep it away from her face with a headband. Footwear has been through some significant improvements over the years as well. They have fiberglass tips and hollow heels, making them much lighter and louder Richens and Haurin.

Pitter pat is more static than mountain-style clogging, and teams often assemble themselves in a line formation on stage. The clogging steps are executed more quickly than in mountain style clogging, and modern dance steps as well as arm and hand movements are used. Some precision teams wear leotards or spandex dance costumes, just like any other modern dance group, and clogging shoes are usually worn. Competition has always been an integral part of step dancing, and the Irish dance infrastructure continued to expand until just a few decades ago.

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In , the Irish Dance Teachers Association was founded, and there are currently more than certified Irish dance instructors in North America. The North American Feis Commission was founded in to regulate competitions in the United States and Canada, and an annual North American championship competition started in Current feisianna focus primarily on Irish culture, and have crafts for sale, as well as vocal, instrumental, dance, and Gaelic language competitions.

The step dancing competition scene is remarkably organized, in part due to the assistance of these new organizations. I learned from step dancer Brooke Earnhardt that many organizations hold independent clogging competitions, such as the Showstoppers National Talent Competition, the National Clogging and Hoe-down Championships, and the Clogging Champions of America Competition.

However, none of these organizations is affiliated with one another or overseen by a higher establishment. In accordance, there is no set teaching or judging criteria. Some judges look for precision, some judge the choreography, some watch for the dancers' ability to stay with the music, and some pay attention to the costumes.

Usually a group will be rated numerically, though the number range varies from one competition to the next, on some combination of the above categories.

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So who are these dancers? Is Irish step dancing still just the dance of the Irish? Is clogging only done by white descendents of settlers from the British Isles? I asked Brooke and Katie about their family backgrounds in order to see if there was a predictable pattern. Interestingly, while both dancers fit the historic description of their respective dances—Katie is percent Irish and Brooke has Scottish and English ancestors—both denied that their heritage had anything to do with their choice of dance.

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Also, neither Brooke nor Katie had any history of family members who were involved in their dance, so they were both first-generation dancers, so to speak. Apparently for Brooke and Katie, any ethnic link was purely coincidental. I concluded that in order to accurately and more completely explore this issue, I'd need to ask more than one person from each dancing community. It would be an interesting topic for further research. We spent a great deal of time discussing authenticity in class, so it seemed natural for me to incorporate it into my research. For one thing, the costuming was wrong.

The dancers in the show wear more modern clothes, which look great on stage but would never be permitted at a feis. The dancers don't keep their arms at their sides either. These two observations among others left me wondering what a real Irish dancer would think if I, in my relative ignorance, had noticed all these discrepancies. Perhaps surprisingly, the Irish dancers don't seem to mind. As of yet, I have read and heard only positive things from Irish dancers about the step dancing that takes place in Riverdance or Lord of the Dance.

In general, they seem to be delighted that their dance and culture is so positively received by the public.


Before the shows, few people would have known what step dancing was …. Since the shows, there has been a huge swell in the number of new dancers of all ages who enroll in dance classes. What may be the greatest effect of Riverdance and Lord of the Dance is the realization that there is a life for Irish dancers outside of competition Cullinane Irish step dancing has obviously received a lot of media attention lately, largely due to the huge commercial successes of the step dancing shows Riverdance and Lord of the Dance. Clogging, however, remains fairly unknown as an old Appalachian mountain tradition and is familiar only to those who clog and those who live in rural communities where clogging is common.

Or is it? Interest in Appalachian dance was somewhat revived along with the folk movement in the late s. Perhaps at the height of clogging's visibility, the Leather 'N' Lace Cloggers, a precision team from Leicester, North Carolina, performed at the opening ceremonies of the Summer Olympics in Atlanta before an audience of thousands and broadcast via television to millions worldwide Mangin, Julie. So while clogging may not have the fame that step dancing currently enjoys, it seems to be quietly holding its own.

In conclusion, Appalachian clogging and Irish step dancing are two dynamic dance forms, each with a rich history, that are thriving quite well and becoming ever more popular as we reach the turn of the twenty-first century. While I've found the answers to the original questions I asked about the dances, I've also come up with even more questions over the course of my research. More important, I've grown to genuinely like the two dances.

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For the time being I can only enjoy watching them, but I just might take a clogging or step dancing class sometime in the future. It will be interesting to see what the future holds for step dancing and clogging, whether step dancing falls back out of vogue or clogging undergoes a surge of popularity and takes the limelight once and for all. Either way, both dances have proven to stand the test of time, and almost certainly will be around in some form for the enjoyment of many generations to come. Charlton, Angela. June Cullinane, Dr.

Cork City, Ireland: Dr. Here a contract proposal from Don to sail a small ship from Acapulco to Alta California which notes conditions and estimates for the voyage. The collection includes various first hand descriptions of California and the process of colonization, missions, and interactions of the Spanish missionaries and government with the native people. The descriptions of the discoveries include those made along the west coast from the lower section of California nearly to Alaska along the coast prior to Within some of the descriptions are Spanish perspectives on interactions both contentious and friendly with various groups of Native American people including Comanche, Apache, Yumas and Pecos.

In particular there are reflections on the war against the Apache Indians throughout the provinces of New Spain. Above is a portion of a document outlining the military and civil governments of Upper and Lower California in September which is said to be written in the hand of Augustin Juan Vicente Zamorano, who was then Secretary to the Governor of Alta California, Jose Maria de Echeandia, whose signature appears on the document. The contract details what provisions would need to be taken and what laws are to govern the expedition. The collection is an interesting window into the colonization process by the Spanish government and the religious establishment as there are documents written by both Jesuits and Franciscans included in the collection.

The riddle of your future may be solved at The Clark! Recently, I was wondering what the future may hold, so I decided to look into fortune telling and came across several books detailing how to read your palm among other things like your moles! Palmistry, also known as chiromancy, is the art of reading lines on the hand to forecast the future. The lines have names like the life line, the head line, the heart line and the Saturne line.

According to various traditions of palmistry, the non-dominant hand may carry hereditary traits or information about past-life or karmic conditions. The history of palmistry is hazy but it is thought to have originated in India with Hindu astrology and spread through the traditional fortune-telling practices of the Romani people to China, Tibet, Persia, Egypt and Ancient Greece. The earliest books on the topic appear in the 15 th Century. During the Middle Ages the art of palmistry was actively suppressed by the Catholic Church as pagan superstition due to its associations with magic and witchcraft and it was used to detect witches.

It was believed that certain spots on the hand indicated one had made a pact with the Devil. Palmistry saw a resurgence during the 17th century, when scholars began to attempt to find rational and scientific foundations for the practice. I could tell you more about what your palm might say, but perhaps you should come down to The Clark and have a look at how to read your palm yourself. Victoria Steele will be joining the Clark Library for a two-year appointment as Interim Head Librarian, beginning at the end of August. A more detailed press release is available here. As in any archive of correspondence, the letters and items gathered together by Champion range widely in size, making the job of binding a somewhat onerous task.

How do you bind together material that is so varied size-wise?

  • Dictionary of Food Compounds with CD-ROM, Second Edition.
  • Le Corbeau (French Edition)!
  • tolson – (Im)Possibilities.
  • Term Paper #3?
  • luciantucker | The Clog | Page 3.
  • Breadcrumb;
  • La légende de Coldstone (Grands détectives) (French Edition).

You could just paste everything in a scrapbook larger than the biggest piece of paper in the archive, but that would result in lost text when double-sided letters get pasted down and most items in this archive are written on both sides. Of course, the easiest option would have been to keep all of these letters in a box, like a traditional archive. They are arguably easier to casually browse than a box of letters might be, and they easily fit on a shelf alongside other books.

The other picture of Dorian was painted by Portuguese artist Henrique Medina, whose work should look somewhat familiar to Clark aficionados:.

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Medina is responsible for the portraits of William Andrews Clark, Jr. Clark and his staff. Works by Medina are housed in museums and collections around the world and there is a museum of his work in his native Portugal. Apparently his portrait of Dorian Gray was at some point given as a gift to Hurd Hatfield, the actor who played Dorian in the film. Aztec -- -- 4. Inca -- -- 4. Eskimo -- -- 4. Piankashaw -- -- 4. Ojibwa -- -- 4. Apache -- -- 4. Cheyenne -- -- 4. Navajo 5. Patristic Literature 6. Liturgy -- 6. Music -- Music Notation -- -- 7.

Law -- 8. Mathematics -- 9. Magical -- Dead Sea Scrolls -- Seals -- Apocryphal Literature Nordic Countries -- China Pre-Gutenberg Printing -- Buddhism -- Smaller Collections -- Start Prev 1 2 Next End. Follow SchoyenCollectn. Bible 1. History 2.