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It can walk through over the toughtest terrains that would stop normal tanks. It can conduct local warfare by itself with unique weapons like its vulcan-cannon and anti-tank missiles. It was indeed a new type of weapon that can conduct a nuclear attack against any place on the face of the Earth from any l and surface With Metal Gear, Outer Heaven was trying to establish its military superiority over the entire world. Pettrovich and his daughter, Elen, who was taken hostage to force her father to continue with his development.

Snake hears from Dr. Pettrovich how to destroy Metal Gear. However, as Snake approached the heart of Outer Heaven and Metal Gear, well designed traps are set all around Snake- as if his actions are being leaked to the enemy In the midst of the escalating battle, the leader of the resistance, Schneider, fell into the hands of the enemy, and Snake himself was injured through the deadly battles with Outer Heaven's best mercenaries.

But Snakes indomitable spirit lead him to the th floor basement of the secret base where Metal Gear was developed. Evading the powerful defense system that wipes out all intruders, Snake ultimately succeeded in destroying Metal Gear. Snake tried to escape from Outer Heaven upon completing the mission. Big Boss laughed at the astounded Snake and told him the truth behind his mission.

He was planning on to build this company a larger military establishment, and he built Outer Heaven as its base. His purpose for sending the rookie Snake was to cause information confusion amongst the west. However, Big Boss miscalculated. He never thought Solid Snake would make it this far Having lost Metal Gear, Big Boss activated the self-destruct system of the underground base.

The armed fortress nation Outer Heaven collapsed. The impenetrabe fortress made from the best military technology and occupied by the toughest mercenaries burned in flames. Behind him, the flames reached skyward, as Outer Heaven fell leaving Solid Snake all alone It was obvious that the petroleum would run out faster than what was expected.

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However, the development of an alternative energy resource is far from completion. The price of petroleum has skyrocketed and the world economy in confusion. The 21st century was expected to be one of chaos. One mans invention changed the entire situation. A Czech genius and biologist, Dr. The world was filled with hope upon the discovery of this messiah to solve the energy crisis, but at the same time the world entered a time of tension regarding this new algae. Marv, he was abducted by someone and disapeared. Nations begun investigations immediatly anda name soon appeared Zanzibar Land was a democraticmilitary regime that suddently appeared in central Asia in When their uprising took place, the CIS Army, formed around Russia, sent in a suppressive unit immediatly.

Zanzibar Land resisted by gathering a band of Mercenaries from nations around the world and fortifying most of its land. Due to the active role mercenaries played, this war was called the 'Mercenaries War' and Zanzibar Land was referred to as an armed fortress nation. A military nation with a group of strong mercenaries, surrounded by a tough fortress. According to the latest information, Zanzibar suppoedly was armed with Nuclear Weapons.

The whole scenario was crystal clear. By obtaining OILIX in addition to nuclear weapons, Zanzibar Land was trying to establishits economoic and military superiority over the entire world. He brought back Solid Snake, the man who single handedly brought down the armed fortress nation of Outer Heaven 4 years ago, and asked Snake to bring back Dr. Successfully infiltrating Zanzibar Land and with help from CIA angent Horry and others, Snake was able to go deep into the fortress and meet again with Dr.

Pettrovich, the chief engineer of Metal Gear from Outer Heaven. He too was abducted to Zanzibar Land and forced to develop another Metal Gear. He told to surprised Snake an even more shocking fact. Snake rescued Dr. Pettrovich in co-operation with Natasha, Dr. Marv's guard and former Czech International Secret Police agent, and then headed for the confinement facility deep in the fortress to save Dr.

When Pettrovich and Natasha crossed the narrow suspension bridge over the deep valley, a missile blew the bridge away. Natasha flew into the air because of the explosion. While unable to do anything to save Natasha, Snake started hearing a well-known voice "Hey Snake, we're good buddies.

I can let you go. Just leave this place at once! Snake saw Gray Fox controlling Metal Gear. Losing Natasha infront of his eyes and letting Pettrovich get taken away, Snake screamed "Fox! I will not give up! Marv's confinement facility. However, he arrived to late. He saw Dr. Marv's corpse and Pettrovich, who could do nothing but just stand there. Pettrovich told Snake that Dr. Marv could not withstand the repeated tortures because of heart problems. Snake then recieved an emergency call from Horry. The information she supplied was very shocking. Pettrovich had been voluntarily visiting Zanzibar Land to develop Metal Gear.

The abduction of Dr. Marv was conducted under the the directions of Pettrovich himself. The tremendous battle took place in the underground base. Snake finally succeeded in destroying Metal Gear. However, Gray Fox did not submit and challened Snake to the final battle. In the midst of a minefield, Snake and Fox fought without any weapons. A fist-to-fist duel involving no hatred or murderous intent.

During that moment of purity the 2 were bound by forces transcending words and emotions. Snake won the tough but pure battle against Gray Fox. However, there was still someone else. Snake had to fight Big Boss. I'm the one giving you something to live for, and that is war" Snake was infuriated at the arrogant Big Boss "There is only one battle I have to fight. To free myself from you, to shatter the nightmare Big Boss, I will kill you! Snake once again saved the world. However, there was no smile on his face.

Big Boss's last words kept ringing in his head "Whoever wins, out battle does not end. There loser is freed from the battlefield, the winner must remain there and the survivor must live his life as the warrior until he dies" Snake then disappeared into the whitelands of Alaska On Snake's last mission, he had infiltrated an enemy fortress and put down a threat posed by Big Boss and his band of rogue soldiers. Snake also destroyed Metal Gear, a walking bipedal tank, which eliminated the threat that Big Boss proposed.

Following his successful mission and eerie new innovation that Big Boss was potentially his own father, Snake retired to Alaska. Several years later in , while asleep at his home, Snake heard a noise coming from outside his cabin. Snake quietly made his way to the window and looked outside. In the darkness, he could see several heavily armed soldiers advancing on his cabin.

Snake got his gun from a cupboard and was prepared to take out the intruders. However, the soldiers had Snake surrounded and forced him to surrender. Snake was at that time strip searched and confined in a small room. After several minutes of waiting in the cold room, the door finally opened and in walked a man from his past, Roy Campbell. Campbell informed Snake of the situation they were in. They had taken hostages and demanded the remains of Big Boss, or else they would launch a nuclear weapon. Snake infiltrated Shadow Moses Island and began his mission. Soon after the start of the operation, Snake discovered that a new model of Metal Gear was secretly in development on the base.

Also, something was apparently amidst. However, both times the men died from an apparent heart attack. Snake then located Metal Gear's chief engineer, Hal Emmerich. However, Emmerich was being attacked by a cyborg ninja, who Snake had seen in an earlier battle. Snake and the Ninja commenced in battle in the labs with Snake managing to defeat the fearsome opponent. During the battle, the ninja seemed as if he knew Snake from somewhere.

After the battle, the Ninja gave a large hint as to who he was before running off. Naomi Hunter, assistant to Snake's mission, commented that Dr.

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Clark, her predecessor, might have had something to do with it. However, Fox had died back in Zanzibar, Snake's previous mission, and Clark had died in a lab incident years before. Campbell said that it was impossible for the ninja to be Grey Fox, but Snake was convinced. He then returned to the mission and located Emmerich, who told Snake a bit about Metal Gear and its location in an Underground Base several miles to the north.

Snake also met Roy Campbell's niece, Meryl Silverburgh, who was stationed at the facility before its takeover. At this point, Snake began to fall for Meryl, and Meryl felt the same way about Snake.

Meryl gave Snake a PAL card which could stop Metal Gear's launch by overriding the detonation code sequence, but there was only one card when three cards were needed. Meryl was captured and soon Snake himself was captured and confined as well. Snake was then submitted to grueling torture from Liquid's right-hand man, Revolver Ocelot. Ocelot told Snake if he submitted to the torture, then Meryl would be killed. Snake suffered through the severe torture and eventually escaped with help from Otacon Hal Emmerich's alternative name.

Snake continued on his mission and eventually made his way to Metal Gear's underground base. However, during his time there were several disturbing twists that took place. Master McDonnell Miller, a previous mission analyst for Snake at Zanzibar who was also assigned to this mission, informed Snake that Naomi Hunter, another member of Snake's support who was in charge of monitoring Snake's vital signs, was actually a traitor, possibly working for the enemy.

Miller dug around some more and found of a new assassination weapon, which Snake may have been injected with. The weapon targets only specific victims and kills them in a manner, which simulates a heart attack. Colonel Campbell found out about this and placed Naomi under arrest after finding she was sending coded transmissions to the base. Later on, Naomi managed to get away from Campbell and the others and contacted Snake.

Snake was shocked at discovering this. She then confirmed that she had injected Snake with the FoxDie virus, but it was not her decision, it was part of the mission. Naomi was then placed back under arrest before she could explain more. Snake demanded to know what was going on but Campbell was unresponsive. Snake then continued to Metal Gear's chamber. There he found the secret to deactivating Metal Gear. Apparently the PAL card he had acted as all three keys and Snake needed to warm and cool the keys in order to change them into the desired key.

Snake did so and activated all three keys. However, instead of deactivating Metal Gear, the walking battle tank was actually activated due to Snake's actions. It seemed Snake had been set-up all along. He then got a call from Miller. He told Snake that he had been useful as a pawn and his purpose was now over. He then revealed himself to be none other than Snake's brother, Liquid Snake. Campbell informed Snake that Master Miller had been found dead in his home, and that Liquid had assumed his identity for the mission.

Apparently, the DARPA chief had died prior to Snake contacting him, and the man that Snake tried to free was actually a terrorist member in disguise who was further assuring Snake that the only way to disarm Metal Gear was to use the PAL keys, but he simply wanted Snake to input the keys to activate Metal Gear. The keys acted as a reversible action. If the code for the nuclear weapon had been inputted, the keys would disengage Metal Gear.

If the code had not been inputted, it would activate Metal Gear. Liquid explained how Snake was used to activate Metal Gear for them, because the terrorists hadn't been able to figure out the launch code It's also explained that FoxDie killed the terrorist, not the DARPA chief, which is why he died when Snake attempted to rescue him after telling him that he had to disengage Metal Gear. Snake rushed out of the control room after Liquid and confronted him in front of Metal Gear. The two talked a bit about Liquid's intentions, and Snake learned that he was indeed a clone of Big Boss, his supposed father, and Liquid was the second clone.

Snake retained all of the recessive soldier genes while Liquid had received all of the dominant ones. However, Liquid believed the reverse, thinking that he had been the recessive clone. Before Snake could react, Liquid jumped into Metal Gear's cockpit and activated the monstrous weapon. To his horror, Snake watched as Metal Gear sprung to life. Just as in the past, Snake battled Metal Gear. As Snake began to fall to the enormous death machine, Liquid attempted to crush him under Metal Gear's weight. Just before he had the chance, Grey Fox reappeared and saved Snake at the last moment.

Fox was soon after killed for a final time by Metal Gear. Snake was consumed with rage for the death of his friend and finished off Metal Gear with a final missile into the vehicle's cockpit. Metal Gear exploded in a brilliant light. The force of the explosion sent Snake flying into a nearby wall, knocking him unconscious. Before he went under, Snake heard what sounded like footsteps nearing him. When Snake came to, he found himself tied up on top of the wreckage of Metal Gear with Liquid Snake standing in wait in front of him. Liquid and Snake chatted for a bit.

Liquid told him that they didn't have long before the end. Snake asked if he meant FoxDie, but Liquid told him that he was referring to a missile attack which the Pentagon had issued. Snake contacted the Colonel who confirmed Liquid's story. Campbell told Snake that he would help him out, to repay him for all the lies. He said he would issue an order to stop the launch which would disrupt the chain of command and give him time to escape. This plan would not unfold however, as Campbell was placed under arrest by the Secretary of Defense, Jim Houseman, who had orchestrated the Metal Gear project and was trying to cover up the incident.

Houseman said they had a lot of catching up to do and broke contact, but not after informing Snake that the entire purpose of the mission was for Snake to spread FoxDie to all of the terrorists to kill them. Then Snake would die, and the government would steal Metal Gear instead of destroying it. Metal Gear, having been destroyed, was of little use to the government now, so they decided to nuke the place to cover up any evidence of what really happened there. Liquid then showed Snake a little surprise of his. Behind him, Meryl was laying unconscious. Next to her was a small nuclear bomb with a timer.

Liquid said she would be the sacrifice for their final battle. He then untied Snake and prepared for the fight. Liquid activated the timer and so the battle begun. Snake and Liquid began a battle, filled with hate for each other and what they represented. The battle ended with Liquid being knocked from the top of Metal Gear to his apparent death. Snake then deactivated the nuke and untied Meryl who was thankfully still alive.

The two conversed a bit before Snake got a call from Otacon. He said he would stay behind and open a path for the two of them to escape. Snake thanked him, and he and Meryl descended from Metal Gear and started off to their escape. Meryl and Snake jumped into a nearby jeep and rushed toward the exit of the facility, gunning down any guards along the way. However, their escape would not go unhindered, as Liquid Snake, who was somehow still alive, chased after the two.

The two rushed toward the exit and the chase ended with a crash just at the end of the tunnel. Snake and Meryl were alright, however they were both trapped under the jeep. Though, the same was not true for Liquid, who stumbled forward, fueled only by his hate for Snake. Liquid raised his gun and trained its sights on the two. Before he could fire, Liquid was attacked by the FoxDie virus and collapsed to the ground dead. The two freed themselves from underneath the wreckage. The Colonel contacted Snake and told him the bombing had been called off, as the Secretary of Defense was acting alone, and the entire incident was his doing.

He then informed him that that there was a snowmobile nearby which could take them to Fox Island where an evacuation chopper awaited. Naomi then spoke with Snake, telling him that she didn't know when or if FoxDie would kill Snake. He would later find out that Naomi had programmed the virus to strike at a random time.

Meryl and Snake then departed from Shadow Moses and disappeared into the Alaskan wilderness. After the operation, Meryl and Snake most likely had a relationship. Snake was then contacted by Otacon, who survived the Shadow Moses incident. Otacon told Snake of how Ocelot, the sole terrorist survivor, had sold Metal Gear's data on the black market and many countries would now develop their own versions of Metal Gear.

Otacon told Snake that he could make a difference and convinced him to join him in forming a new group, Philanthropy, an anti-Metal Gear organization officially recognized by the United Nations. For the next two years or so, Otacon and Snake destroyed dozens of rogue Metal Gears, with nothing significant taking place. He and Snake planned a mission to infiltrate a tanker which was carrying the Metal Gear and take photos of it, and then leak the photos to the press and bring the black project to light.

However, all would not go according to plan. After Snake made his way aboard the Tanker, the ship was taken over and hijacked by an unknown group of soldiers. All of the crew in the upper decks was killed. Snake took a photo of the apparent leader of the group, a Russian looking military man. He asked Otacon to get an ID on who the man was. Snake made his way through the Tanker, dispatching any enemy soldiers who got in his way.

Snake then encountered a woman soldier on one of the front decks of the ship. The two did battle with Snake managing to subdue the woman. The woman's tomboyish appearance reminded him of Meryl. After defeating the woman, Snake spotted a Cypher, a type of flying security camera device. Otacon then contacted Snake and told him the ID of the man from before. He was Colonel Sergei Gurlukovich, the leader of a private mercenary army. Snake then proceeded into the holds and finally into the chamber of Metal Gear.

Along the way he avoided the legion of Marines who were watching the Marine Commandant in charge's speech. Snake managed to get the desired shots of Metal Gear and sent them to Otacon. However, before Snake could make his escape, a man from his past appeared and confronted the Marine Commandant and his men. That man was Revolver Ocelot, the same terrorist from the Shadow Moses incident two years before. Ocelot distracted the Commandant long enough for Colonel Gurlukovich to grab and take the Commandant hostage. Gurlukovich's men then arrived in the room and secured the area.

Snake moved in for a closer look as he watched the drama unfold. Ocelot then betrayed his allies and shot Gurlukovich and several of his men before blowing a hole in the tanker and making his way toward Metal Gear's cockpit. Snake rushed in to stop him. Ocelot looked down at his old foe and felt an odd feeling. He screamed in agony as his hand convulsed and throbbed. Ocelot then spoke, but not in his own voice. His voice was that of Liquid Snake.

Snake, confused as to what had happened, demanded to know what was going on. Liquid told Snake that he lived on though Ocelot's arm. Back in Shadow Moses, Ocelot had gotten his right hand cut off by Grey Fox, and after the incident, Ocelot had Liquid's arm grafted on. Supposedly, Liquid's enhanced genetic makeup allowed him to take control of Ocelot's body at random times, and often when Snake was present.

Their conversation was cut short as a gush of water slammed Snake into a wall and knocked him out for a moment. He made his way out of the Tanker. Snake followed close behind and emerged on the surface of the wreckage of the Tanker. RAY then back flipped into the water behind him and sent a massive wave toward Snake. Ocelot was satisfied that Snake was finished and retreated with his new toy. However, that was not the end of Snake.

Otacon soon arrived in a small boat and rescued Snake from a watery grave. However, a more interesting story would overshadow their deed. Snake and Otacon had been set-up as the fall men for a massive conspiracy. The two were labeled as the worst ecological terrorists of all time for the sinking of a Tanker which caused a massive oil spill in the Hudson Bay area. Their actions lead to the creation of an offshore oil decontamination facility, the Big Shell. For the next two years, Snake and Otacon kept a low profile after being marked as terrorists.

Snake set off for the facility and found it was captured and taken over by another terrorist organization. Snake infiltrated the area and disguised himself as a Navy SEAL in order not to raise suspicion, as the navy was orchestrating a rescue operation at the time, anyway. Snake did not fully trust the man and refrained from revealing his identity. He called himself "Iroquois Pliskin. Soon after their first meeting, Snake found Raiden once again confronting a middle-aged black man.

Snake recognized the man to be the legendary bomb disposal expert, Peter Stillman. Stillman informed the two of the situation. Fatman, a member of Dead Cell, the terrorist group present at the Big Shell, had planted bombs throughout the facility. Stillman gave the two a device that could stop the bombs. Snake then set out to the Shell 2 area of the facility to defuse the bombs there while Raiden stayed in the Shell 1 area.

Snake reported into Stillman each time he found a bomb. Stillman thought that the bomb placement was completely wrong and asked Snake to take a look at the bottom of Shell 2. Snake did so and found a huge amount of C4 explosives there. Several events then happened and part of Shell 2 was destroyed.

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Snake was caught near the explosion and knocked out for a while. During these events, Raiden had managed to disarm all of the explosives throughout Shell 1 and was confronted by Dead Cell's leader, Fortune. The two battled, and Raiden was powerless, as every bullet fired at Fortune was deflected before hitting her by a strange defensive force.

Vamp, another member of Dead Cell, came down to the two to confront Raiden. Raiden fired another shot at Fortune, and it swerved around her force field and hit Vamp between the eyes. Fortune was devastated and coddled the lifeless Vamp as Raiden fled the scene. Afterwards, however, following Fortune's tears of pain while holding Vamp, Vamp returned to life, claiming he had already died, and couldn't die twice. Raiden then killed Fatman, the man behind the bombs, and attempted to free the hostages at the core of the shell.

After speaking with Ames, a man under the President, Raiden fled the core, as Ocelot, who was discovered to be at the scene of the takeover, found him. Raiden escaped with the aid of a mysterious ninja, one that looked much like Grey Fox from Shadow Moses, and ran toward Shell 2 to find the President. After Snake came to, he and Otacon discovered the location of the new Metal Gear. Snake continued his mission while Raiden did the same with his. Otacon and Snake managed to hijack a Kamov chopper which they planned to use to rescue the hostages which were taken during the takeover.

Before they had the chance, however, the terrorist leader, claiming to be Solid Snake, confronted Raiden on a bridge between Shell 1 and Shell 2. Enraged by his claim of being Solid Snake, Snake opened fire on the man. Snake managed to knock the man from the bridge, only to find that a Harrier 2 was lying in wait to ambush them. Snake, knowing he couldn't take out the Harrier with a Kamov, tossed Raiden a Stinger Missile Launcher and some ammo and instructed him to take out the Harrier. He then supported Raiden with cover fire as Raiden battled the jet.

RAY then fired on the facility, damaging the Kamov in the process. Snake and Otacon were forced to land the helicopter. After that, Snake revealed that he really was Solid Snake and Iroquois Pliskin was just a made up name. Snake then proceeded to explore the Big Shell in hopes of finding a way into Arsenal Gear, the name of the new Metal Gear.

While in Shell 2, Snake was attacked and battled the same ninja that Raiden had been saved by earlier. Snake discovered that the Ninja was actually Olga Gurlukovich, the woman whom Snake fought two years ago on the Tanker. Olga, having been Sergei Gurlukovich's daughter, believed that Snake was responsible for his death at the tanker.

Snake explained to Olga what really happened there, and of Ocelot's betrayal to her father and his men. The two decided to work together for mutual benefit. Meanwhile, Raiden successfully found the President and snuck inside his chamber. President Johnson told Raiden about the Patriots, a group that supposedly controlled America. He claimed that every action ever done by him was actually an act or an order of the Patriots, and also explained how the Big Shell was just a disguise for Arsenal Gear.

Raiden, in shock, questioned him further. Ocelot showed up, however, and killed the President, for reasons unknown to this day. Raiden then proceeded to finding Emma Emmerich, Otacon's long-lost half-sister. She supposedly knew how to infect Arsenal with a virus to crumble its database, and perhaps retained other knowledge that would prove useful. However, he was stopped by Vamp. The two warriors battled with Vamp finally losing.

He had the ability to read muscles and see in extremely slow motion at will, but Raiden found a way to defeat him. Vamp fell into a pool and drowned. Away from the scene, Snake was contacted by Raiden. Raiden needed cover support for helping Emma get to Shell 1 to get to Arsenal's entrance via a long bridge along the water.

Snake went to the scene and helped Raiden defend Emma from patrolling guards and gun ciphers with sniper fire. However, Emma was ambushed and seriously wounded by Vamp, who once again had supposedly come back to life. Raiden once again played sniper and shot him several times, and Vamp fell into the ocean, finally dead. Snake rushed to the girl's side and carried her back to the computer room where Otacon was waiting. He tried to patch her up the best he could, however it seemed Vamp got some internal organs and he couldn't stop the bleeding. Snake asked Raiden if he got the disc from Emma, which could infect Arsenal's database and stop it.

Raiden handed it over and Snake loaded the program into Arsenal's activation console. All did not go according to plan as usual and an anti-virus agent stopped the virus before it could be completed. In the meantime, Otacon and Emma had a last conversation. She soon died. Otacon broke down in grief at the loss of his sister. Snake convinced Otacon to go on and save the hostages. After Otacon left, Snake revealed a "friend" of his to Raiden: the ninja, who was actually Olga. Olga then took Raiden to her superiors, as she was pretending to work for Solidus and the terrorists, and Snake snuck aboard Arsenal along with her.

Now aboard Arsenal Gear, Snake changed back into his sneaking suit. He thanked Olga and was about to continue on with his mission. A bit confused, Snake agreed to give it to him. Snake then advanced into the bowels of Arsenal and waited for Raiden's arrival. Snake found him in a long hallway, completely naked. Snaked laughed at the sight and gave Raiden his equipment back. He then handed over the HF Blade, as Olga had asked. Snake gave Raiden a few tips on how to wield the sword. Before this, however, Raiden had escaped his confinement with the aid of Olga and sneaked through Arsenal.

The Colonel of his mission, who had been giving him orders all along, started to malfunction, as if it had been affected by a virus, and started to say random things. Rose, Raiden's girlfriend, also started to malfunction, as if she was a machine. Raiden didn't know what was going on, but met Snake in the hall.

After Raiden was done training, he and Snake advanced into the next room. They were then attacked by an onslaught of Arsenal Tengu, guards of the place. The two fought side by side and annihilated the legion of soldiers in the next two rooms. At this point, the real Rose contacted Raiden and told him that she had been spying on him for the Patriots their entire relationship.

Raiden was disgusted and upset, but Rose told him that she was sorry and really did love him. After Raiden didn't believe her, Rose told him she was pregnant, and then the transmission died. In the following room, after killing the enemy soldiers, Dead Cell's leader, Fortune, confronted Snake and Raiden. Snake told her that it wasn't him, but she would hear nothing of it. Snake then told Raiden to go on and he'd handle her. Raiden did so. Snake then began a hopeless battle and was defeated by Fortune and taken captive.

He was a direct clone, not recessive or dominant. Raiden finally gave in. The rumor is that this was because people were used to seeing Roger Moore on squarish TV. Which is more relevant shortly…. Instead, we see three men subtly killed-one, by a horrible piercing sound which kills him in the United Nations in New York, second in New Orleans during a funeral via stabbing and a quick coffin cover-up, and third, by snake bite in the island of San Monique. Still no Bond. His kitchen in particular looks like the opening gunbarrel dots, except in reverse colors.

I wonder if that was intentional? Kananga, the ruler of the island of San Monique. Felix is keeping an eye on Kananga, but the villain fools the CIA with a pre-recorded speech. Apart from this, Seymour is well known for the time-travel romance story Somewhere In Time, the mother and wife of future Bond villain Christopher Walken in Wedding Crashers, and of course, Dr. Quinn Medicine Woman.

Meanwhile, Bond is driven to Felix, but his driver is quickly killed by a silent dart to the head. Here we get our first Roger Moore action scene-nothing special really, as Moore quickly tries to maneuver the keep the car from crashing into other cars-instead crashing up the steps of a building instead.

Tracing the car Bond stops at a weird voodoo shop, where he buys a stuffed snake to distract the shopkeeper so he can slip into the back and check out the car. Getting into a cab-unknowingly driven by another Kananga henchman-Bond arrives at the Filet of Soul restaurant…. Big of course, is also played by Yapphet Kotto, and is pretty much obviously the same character with a bit of prosthetics. After criticizing Bond for not being cautious, the two wonder what connection Mr.

Big and his criminal empire has with Kananga. However, Bond has another connection to pursue-the murder of the second agent, Baines. While this is not confirmation of anything, there does seem to be the possibility that eventually Iron man-or at least Tony Stark-will step down from the MCU, although the movies will still go on with their current continuity. Plus sequels to Homecoming are in development as well. However, if Downey Jr. First, the most obvious. Rhodes still worked alongside his friend, sometimes in armor, sometimes not.

When Tony was briefly presumed dead, Rhodes once again took up the armor, this time a heavily-armed variant. Tony was actually adopted all along; and their real son who had health problems, got genetic enhancements, and eventually met his adopted brother. Hey, it could happen. However, the use of CG doubles-no matter how like-life-for actors and actresses especially deceased ones is still a controversial practice. Fantastic and Invisible Woman are on a cosmic journey following Secret Wars. However, having Doom as a new Iron Man in movies is a big obstacle.

While the first two Dooms are reasonably accuarate comic-wise in the costumes, neither really has the proper personality of the comics Doom. And the third…well….. Although a lot of this is speculation, some of it is based on rumors circulating around the internet, so there are some potential spoilers. Early on, we see some red material exploding. Star Wars is still PG after all! A character in some sort of gun pod, similar to those seen on The Millenium Falcon and the Republic gunships in the other films.

Rose is pretty much a new main character, introduced in this film perhaps as how Lando became part of the gang in the second. We also get what looks to be a somewhat similar outfit on a character falling into a group of spheres Could be Paige as well. Knowing how Star Wars uses spheres so often, these could be anything, really.

Here they appear to be in a medbay, perhaps where Finn is recovering from his injuries sustained in his fight with Kylo Ren. It also looks like Finn and her go undercover on some First Order vessel. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony.

Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium.

It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria.

When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians".

This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters.

He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples.

A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian. In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc.

Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail.

It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies. Yurii P. Junius L. Silanus, 91 B. Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity.

Highlights

With some of the more intelligent members of his party such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of equites.

Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes. The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate.

By help of these riders the bill was carried. Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise.


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The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. The ensuing "Social War" B. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later. Edited by J. Fitzgerald, Jr. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B. Cook: In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome.

Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors.

For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B. However, all of L. Piso Frugi. The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in B. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania. Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different.

Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in B. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal. At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until B.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted. The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated.

It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares.

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Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances. A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in B. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process. Upon his return to Rome in , he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name.

Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry. The difficulty in accepting C. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in B. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B. Volume 1, pp. All rights to be retained by the author. Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A. Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks. Sulla and L. Manlius Toruatus 31 views L.

Manlius Torquatus. AR Denarius 18mm, 3. Military mint moving with Sulla. Near VF, toned, a few light scratches on the obverse. From the Elwood Rafn Collection. As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain.

In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome. Lepidus 9 views The Triumvirs.

Lepidus and Octavian. November-December 43 BC. Military mint traveling with Lepidus in Italy. Laurel-wreath border. Ag, Caecilius Metellus Pius. Mint: North Italy. Mint: Rome. Antonio Salvador 2 comments dafnis. Furius L. Furia 18 - Sydenham ex-inAsta, auction 38, lot dafnis. Titus AD 28 views Titus.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond.

In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. AR Denarius 3. Scarce and interesting reverse type.


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Ex-CNG ecoli. Both cite Bement Coll. Commemorating the successes of the Quadic war on the northern edges of Italy with the Germans. Rome Mint. Struck AD. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis. Crescent in left field; A in right field. Mint mark: SIS 6. The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria.

This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius. AR Denarius. Southern Gaul mint. AR Victoriatus. Uncertain Mint. Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right. Rev: Victory standing right, crowing trophy; VB monogram between.

Sydenham , RSC 36m. It was hoarded separately from denarii, and could have been used for trade in southern Italy among the Greek colonies. It was later remade into the Quninarri keeping the victory motif from the old Victoriatus. BMC RSC RPC 2 spec. The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. Butcher and M.

Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear.

The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa.

The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans.

A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 views Antoninus Pius. Sestertius Anchises veiled and draped carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. This sestertius was issued in preparation of the th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.

According to Vergil Aeneid, Book 2 , Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy.

There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.

Charles S. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports. Michael DiMaio, Jr. Salve Regina University Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube.

Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria. As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in ; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in In , after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans.

Between he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of , Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures. The balance of power shifted at the end of July when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately.

As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion.

Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in , Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late or early , was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base.

When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between and by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November ; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture.

Later, in , Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May By Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission. Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians.

He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March , Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana.

He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner. When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death.

In the early summer of the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops.

Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between and When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause.

When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in , having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in Although the revolt only lasted until the end of , it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

He was chosen by Hadrian from among the four men of consular rank under whose jurisdiction Italy was placed, to administer that particular part of Italy in which the greater part of his own holdings lay. The coin probably commemorate this. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works.

Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December A. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves.

There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons. It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in , he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory.

In and he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in , probably on a military campaign. As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder.

His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality.

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He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa. Together with Constantius II he issued or perhaps re-issued a ban against pagan sacrifice in The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January , Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge. Siscia 54 views Constans, 9 September - 19 January A.