First, Charles Anthon tells a completely different story, which Saints does not bother to acknowledge in any way. In upon hearing that the Mormon church was telling members of his supposed endorsement of "reformed Egyptian," Anthon wrote a letter to the Telegraph Press in Ohio to give his account of the meeting. I soon came to the conclusion that it was all a trick, perhaps a hoax To be fair, Anthon gave a second account of this meeting in with contradictory details.
In this account, Anthon claimed that "[Harris] requested me to give him my opinion in writing about the paper which he had shown to me. I did so without hesitation, partly for the man's sake, and partly to let the individual 'behind the curtain' see that his trick was discovered. The import of what I wrote was, as far as I can now recollect, simply this, that the marks in the paper appeared to be merely an imitation of various alphabetical characters, and had, in my opinion, no meaning at all connected with them.
Kniujet The truth is that we will never know exactly what happened, but it is pretty clear that the Martin Harris account of what happened is highly disputed and yet Saints did not deem it fit to give any more perspective to the visit. It also appears that Martin Harris' account of the visit was altered to add the "I can not read a sealed book line," which has become a oft repeated phrase of this Mormon history:.
One other thing that is important to note is that no one could translate Egyptian at this time. The Rosetta Stone was just a short time from being discovered, and so not even Egyptian scholars could translate an Egyptian book. This is part of why we know now the the characters that Joseph Smith had written down have no meaning, but at the time we did not have a full ability to compare to real Egyptian characters throughout history. For reference, here is a one of the copies of the "Caractors" that Martin Harris would have taken to Charles Anthon:.
As you can see from the "reformed Egyptian" characters above, they do not resemble the Egyptian language in any way. There is not a single non-LDS scholar that will give a shred of credibility to them, and as we learn more and more about the civilizations that lived in the Americas even before Book of Mormon times, as is pointed out in our DNA and the Book of Mormon annotated essay , we find that these characters simply do not fit anywhere. Finally, before we move on, it needs to be noted that many of the "caractors" above match English letters and numbers once they are rotated or flipped, which would be exactly what you would expect if someone was trying to create a new language to fool someone into financing their project.
Take a look:. We're not trying to beat a dead horse here, but it is important to establish both the issues around the "Urim and Thummim" and "reformed Egyptian" before we dive into the translation efforts here. While Saints did not feel it was important to highlight these historical problems, we feel that as the "Standard of Truth" it is important to tackle them head on.
Saints continues with Emma Smith acting as Joseph's first scribe for the Book of Mormon, and they repeat the idea that Joseph Smith was too uneducated to know much about the scriptures, and then cite a famous interaction between Joseph and Emma. There are a few issues here. First, this interaction was told by Emma Smith in , which is over 50 years after this event occurred.
Second, we know from earlier chapters that Joseph Smith studied the Bible constantly as a young teen, so it is very unlikely that Joseph was unaware of a wall being around Jerusalem. When asked if Joseph had wives or if she was aware of them, she said "he had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have. Last Testimony of Sister Emma. Not six months before the death of Joseph, he called his wife Emma into a secret council, and there he told her the truth, and called upon her to deny it if she could.
He told her that the judgments of God would come upon her forthwith if she did not repent. He told her of the time she undertook to poison him, and he told her that she was a child of hell, and literally the most wicked woman on this earth, that there was not one more wicked than she. What is funny to me is how Saints goes out of its way to set up Lucy Harris as a true villain in the story, and immediately turns to a more 'narrative' style novel approach to attack her.
Joseph had little choice but to hide the plates in the woods. The narrative paragraphs here about Lucy Harris are all cited from Lucy Mack Smith, which as we've seen from the first few chapters is where Saints turns to for the fluffy, grandiose narrative material. It also needs to be noted here that this is the first time that Saints, even though indirectly, acknowledges that Joseph Smith translated the Book of Mormon without even using the "gold plates" after we are told he hid them in the woods. This is when Saints describes a 'tight translation' of the Book of Mormon, where Joseph would read words out of the stone in his hat, Martin would write them down, say "written," and if they were written correctly, the stone would move to the next words.
We discuss why this is such an important part of the Book of Mormon's credibility on our tight vs loose translation page. After some brief notes about the translation process, Saints moves to Martin Harris asking Joseph Smith if he can take the manuscript home to show Lucy so that she will stop being so suspicious of Martin selling property to finance it.
Joseph prays to God, but is told no on two occasions. But because Martin continues to insist, Joseph prays to God a third time power of three as we talked about earlier , and on this third attempt God changes His mind and allows Martin to take the manuscript. While Martin is gone with the manuscript, Joseph and Emma grow weary about the safety of it being away.
As Emma's health improves following their loss of their child shortly after birth, Joseph leaves to find Martin as he became "afraid that he had offended the Lord by not listening when He said not to let Martin take the manuscript. Joseph then finds Martin and learns the news: the manuscript of the first pages was gone. I have even ripped open beds and pillows, and I know it is not there. The chapter ends with Lucy Mack Smith comforting her son as Joseph feared telling Emma about what had happened. This has been a long chapter review, so we'll make our closing comments brief.
The final six citations are all Lucy Mack Smith again, which covers everything after Martin leaves with the manuscript. Lucy Mack Smith is cited 13 times in the 43 footnotes in this chapter, once again being the most used source to create a novel-style narrative of these characters. I understand that Saints is meant to be a narrative style novel, but in doing so they have also failed in their mission to be the "Standard of Truth" that tackles the hard church historical issues in a comprehensive way. As we detailed here, there are many questions about what the "Urim and Thummim" were in terms of Mormon history, with many different accounts of what they looked like and Joseph Smith himself saying that if anyone saw them that he would be destroyed.
None of those problems are addressed by Saints , which is further proof that this book is about inoculating members so that if they come across this kind of information on the internet, the church can say they've discussed it before. We'll leave it to you to be the judge on if they have addressed these topics in an honest way or not.
After losing the first pages of the Book of Mormon, chapter six of Saints picks up with Moroni taking the gold plates away from Joseph. This is a time that is of great important to treasure diggers and those who held magical worldview beliefs of the occult such as the Smith family. Please refer to our Chapter 3 review for more info on the date or our Book of Mormon translation annotated LDS essay for even more detail. After receiving the plates back from Moroni, Saints once again talks about how Lucy Harris attempted to stop the Book of Mormon, this time by filing "a complaint in court, claiming Joseph was a fraud who pretended to translate gold plates.
Much of this part is cited from Lucy Mack Smith, which is again a huge problem for the credibility of the accuracy regarding these events, so we want to make two quick points about this subject. First, does it make sense that Martin Harris would ask Joseph to bring proof back to Palmyra so soon after losing the pages of manuscript? Second, Lucy Harris searched the entire house to view the gold plates and could not find them, which seems like an important note for an object that no one actually saw.
Occam's razor is the idea that the most simple solution is usually the correct one, and in the case of the gold plates we constantly hear about Joseph Smith moving them just as someone is about to look for them. We don't want to get too bogged down here, but as they demonize Lucy Harris it is worth noting that she is one of the few people to read the first pages and still believed that Joseph Smith was defrauding her husband. One would think that after reading the first pages she would believe that the work was of God, but she instead filed a complaint in court to declare Joseph Smith a fraud.
Saints then moves to introduce Oliver Cowdery to the book, giving the basic introduction of how he came into the Smith family's lives, and how he was drawn to work with Joseph. They discuss how Oliver was shown a vision of the plates during prayer, and he then knew he was meant to help Joseph with the translation. We mention in our chapter three review how Oliver Cowdery was a believer in using a divining rod. Please see the initial revelation from the Book of Commandments below, with the changes made before it was republished in the Doctrine and Covenants noted click to enlarge :.
That is a trend we will discuss more in future chapters, but the church did not like mentioning the diving rod in their history because it was not accepted by most people as a way to receive direction in a magical worldview like Cowdery and the Smiths held. The chapter talks about how Oliver was told he could translate the Book of Mormon via his divining rod, but he ultimately failed to produce anything when using the rod.
When Oliver became frustrated by his inability to use the rod to translate, Joseph Smith received a revelation for him. One thing we discuss on our Summary page is how revelations always seemed to protect Joseph Smith's authority , and in this case it is interesting that God told Oliver he could translate, but when he tried to do it, God told him that he wasn't ready to do it now because it was meant for Joseph to do. Finally, when you think of how a divining rod was used, does it make any sense that it could possibly work to translate words?
A picture of what using a divining rod looked like is below:. As Oliver and Joseph begin translating the Book of Mormon again, they are told not to translate the missing pages again.
But the Lord assured Joseph that He had inspired the ancient prophets who prepared the plates to include another, fuller account of the lost material. We discuss the issues with the lost pages in our summary page, but it needs to be noted that this revelation does not make a lot of sense.
First, if God wanted the world to know that Joseph Smith was a true prophet, having him translate the pages perfectly would prove that beyond a reasonable doubt. Second, if anyone altered the handwritten manuscript pages, it would be very obvious that alterations were made. And last, the idea that God knew the pages would be lost so he had the record written in a different way thousands of years ago is a very difficult idea to believe.
To be fair, I believed it for a long time because I just refused to think too much about it, but when you read our brief summary of the lost pages , Occam's Razor is quite strong that things just do not add up here. One other interesting part of this chapter is that Saints continues to interchange Joseph's seer stone with the "Urim and Thummim" even though there are no records to state that Joseph used the "Urim and Thummim" after he began translating following the lost pages.
Often he found a single seer stone to be more convenient.
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He would put the seer stone in his hat, place his face into the hat to block out the light, and peer at the stone. Light from the stone would shine in the darkness, revealing words that Joseph dictated as Oliver rapidly copied them down. Again, we go into much more detail about the translation process on the LDS annotated essay on the Book of Mormon translation , but the records and quotes we have are clear that Joseph Smith only used the seer stone to translate the Book of Mormon that we have today i.
In addition, we know that Joseph Smith also claimed revelation through the seer stone and not through the "Urim and Thummim," even though Saints claims that Joseph used the "Urim and Thummim" in receiving a revelation about Oliver Cowdery's doubt regarding the Book of Mormon. It might not seem like a huge deal to interchange the wording, but for a book that is trying to clear the misconceptions regarding church history, Saints appears to be purposefully muddying the waters regarding an event of such great importance as the translation of the Book of Mormon.
This is a slightly shorter review than the last chapter, mostly because there is a lot of time spent introducing Oliver Cowdery and discussing the return of the gold plates. We could spend a lot of time nitpicking those two events, but we really feel that the issues with the lost pages, Joseph Smith changing the revelation regarding Oliver's use of the divining rod, and the method of translation Urim and Thummim vs Joseph's seer stone are far more important to the foundations of the church.
One last note: This chapter again uses Lucy Mack Smith's history continuously to create their narrative, citing her 19 times in the 33 footnotes. That is an incredibly high amount of coverage for a source that was written decades later by Joseph Smith's mother. This is all done while ignoring other source material that gives differing perspectives on the translation process, Oliver's role in the church, and the issues with the lost pages.
If Saints was not being hailed by church leaders as such a comprehensive view of church history this would not be as noteworthy, but it is beyond disingenuous to call this book "the Standard of Truth" when it leans so heavily on the central character's mother's recollections twenty years later. Ultimately it is up to you to decide if you feel the church is being truthful here, so let us know what you think by emailing us at ldsdiscussion gmail. The seventh chapter of Saints focuses on three parts: the priesthood restoration, introducing David Whitmer to finish the translation, and the witnesses to the Book of Mormon.
One of the biggest problems I had when researching church history was the priesthood restoration, so I am glad we can look at how Saints handled it now. Here are three key paragraphs about this pivotal church event:. He also said they would receive additional priesthood power later, which would give them authority to confer the gift of the Holy Ghost on each other and on those they baptized. The problem here is that the history tells us that this just did not happen this way, unless Joseph Smith just happened to forget about John the Baptist and the "Priesthood of Aaron" in the revelation as originally written.
We detail this problem in our priesthood timeline page, but there is absolutely no mention of Joseph being visited by John the Baptist until In addition, the historical records show that Joseph Smith was not even ordained to the priesthood and even then it was still called simply the "high priesthood" until , when Lyman Wight ordained him. Rough Stone Rolling, p Not to continually harp on the overuse of Lucy Mack Smith's writings for Saints, but even she has no mention of this monumental event in her writings or letters, and no early church members have any mention of it happening.
If John the Baptist came to Joseph and Oliver to ordain them to the priesthood, does it make any sense that they would not tell anyone as they launch the church in ? It fails every test of reason to think they would keep it to themselves, and the fact that the revelation is revised in to add John the Baptist being there is further evidence that Joseph's story does not add up here. In , the church published the Book of Commandments, which was the precursor to the Doctrine and Covenants, and was a collection of all revelations Joseph Smith had recorded through this time.
Had the Aaronic priesthood been restored by John the Baptist in , it would have been in the Book of Commandments, yet there is no mention of either in the entire book. Again, we encourage everyone reading this to read our priesthood restoration timeline to understand how this story fits with historical documents, and then check out our response to apologetics to understand why they do not answer these issues laid out here.
You can see how mentions of John the Baptist are retrofitted into the Doctrine and Covenants by looking at the original page from the Book of Commandments click to enlarge :. After the priesthood restoration, Saints introduces David Whitmer. They discuss how Oliver knew David, and how Joseph moved the translation to the Whitmer's house as Joseph claimed there were men who threatened to attack them. Saints retells the legend of Mary Whitmer, David's mother, seeing Moroni as she was tired and frustrated from doing housework, and getting to view the gold plates as a way to strengthen her faith to continue in her work that was helping Joseph finish the Book of Mormon.
We're not going to spend a lot of time here, but it needs to be pointed out that the accounts of this story are from David Whitmer and John Whitmer, both given 49 years after it supposedly happened and 22 years after she passed away. It is also interesting that John Whitmer's account claims that Mary saw Nephi, which is notable because Joseph Smith in some of the earliest writings said he was visited by the angel Nephi instead of Moroni.
Mormonthink write-up on Joseph saying Nephi instead of Moroni. In addition, in David Whitmer's sharing of this event, he also mentions that they saw Moroni as they were returning to Fayette with Joseh and Oliver. We returned the salutation, and, by a sign from Joseph, I invited him to ride if he was going our way. But he said very pleasantly, "No, I am going to Cumorah. We all gazed at him and at each other, and as I looked around inquiringly of Joseph, the old man instantly disappeared, so that I did not see him again.
Again, this is such a monumental event that it does not make sense why it would not be spoken of for almost 50 years after it happened, and why we only hear about it through second hand sources. There is not much more to say about this subject, other than to say many other 'faith promoting stories' in church history have been debunked once the contemporary sources are studied, and to us this feel very similar to some of the stories we highlighted on our faith promoting stories page. While this is often cited as proof by the church that Joseph was a true prophet, critics would argue that the person writing the Book of Mormon would surely put a prophecy about themselves in the book to claim authority.
The Book of Mormon also talks about the power of seer stones, which again is interesting as it was 'translated' by a person using a seer stone. None of this can be proven by either side so we will not dig too deep here, but it just needs to be noted that if you are open to the possibility that Joseph Smith wrote the Book of Mormon, you would expect nothing less than Joseph writing himself in as a future prophet.
The last section of this chapter focuses on the witnesses seeing the gold plates. There have been so many write-ups of the witnesses and we do not want to go too deep into that here, but the witnesses have a whole lot of contradictions as well. While the statements of the three witnesses imply a physical experience, some quotes by the three witnesses and Joseph Smith himself tell of a visionary experience that was more common in that time:. Martin Harris was reported to have said ""he hefted the plates repeatedly in a box with only a tablecloth or a handkerchief over them, but he never saw them only as he saw a city through a mountain.
Early Mormon Documents David Whitmer was interviewed in and was asked to describe the angel that showed him the plates. Whitmer said the angel "had no appearance or shape. This is something that some Mormon apologists have begun to concede you can hear apologist Matt Grow concede the point in a Mormon Stories podcast where a doubter talks with Matt Grow and a member of the 70 , but it is still presented as if it happened in a physical sense. In addition, the statement of the three witnesses strongly implies that all four men Joseph Smith and the three witnesses experienced this together, but as Saints acknowledges, Martin Harris had left the group when they did no experience the visitation and only saw it later with Joseph.
There is also the problem that almost every one of the 11 witnesses is related to Joseph Smith or friends with him. The eight witnesses were:. In addition, the statements signed by both the three and eight witnesses were not actually signed by anyone except Oliver Cowdery. Apologists claim that this was so that the original documents could be kept instead of sending it to the printer, but we no longer have that original sheet to know if it ever existed.
It seems curious that a book that relies on testimonies would not have original signatures of these sworn statements, and one has to wonder why Oliver Cowdery was the one person who signed for the other 10 in statements that we can not know were ever read or agreed to. We need to note that none of the witnesses ever declared being deceived by these statements, but we also have very few records of almost any of the eight witnesses as to what happened.
The last point I want to make about the witnesses is this: If we are to believe that God chose these witnesses so that others would feel open to believing that the Book of Mormon was true, it would not make sense that He would choose this particular group of people. If the true idea of showing the plates was to help us believe, the witnesses chosen would have included the following:.
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Witnesses that are not related to the "three witnesses" of the Book of Mormon. There is no reason with any of the eight witnesses should have a relationship to Joseph or David Whitmer, yet as shown above all eight of them are part of their families. The witnesses should have included testimonies written by their own hands to give the varying details of what happened. What better way to prove the Book of Mormon plates existed than having some of these skeptics view the plates and then write down their testimonies of this grand event or have them dictated?
There should have been more details of this monumental event. By giving such a generic statement signed by the witnesses all together in Oliver's handwriting , the statement opens itself up for more questions than answers. Why not give more details about what happened and how it moved the witnesses? There is no reason that the statement needs to be as vague and short as it is, and what better way to prove to the world of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon? The witnesses should have given statements at the time of this event. It makes no sense why we have almost no thoughts from the eight witnesses about what happened, and that we have so many contradictory details about if the event was visionary or physical and what items were shown by the angel.
The eight witnesses should have included skeptics. As we know from reading these early chapters of Saints, Joseph claims that people were constantly watching his every move with disbelief. Furthermore, what an unquestionable event it would be if Joseph included some local religious leaders to witness for themselves the restoration of the gospel?
With all the issues surrounding what exactly the witnesses saw, it would have been such an amazing opportunity for Joseph Smith to reveal this great restoration by choosing witnesses from different backgrounds, religions, and status. While Saints does not dive into exactly how the witnesses were chosen, it also carefully avoids discussing the contradictory claims or the issues outlined above. In summary, this chapter focuses on a few massive events in Mormon history - the priesthood restoration and the witnesses.
While there are evidences for both critics and apologists, it is important to note that Saints only focuses on the apologist arguments by using the sources that have been correlated into the church's official history. I encourage everyone with more questions to read the pages we referred to above: Priesthood restoration timelines , Response to apologetics on the priesthood restoration , and faith promoting stories.
Those three are important to understanding how history can be rewritten long after events happened, and as Winston Churchill famously said, "History is written by the victors. What Saints does not mention is that the reference here was written on the paper after the event was originally recorded, as you can see below. Then pen was a different color ink, the text is above and below the other text, and it is difficult to tell if it is even written in the same handwriting.
We do not know what exactly to make of this addition to the initial record, but for a phrase that just happens to fulfill a prophecy, it definitely raises questions as to why it was added, when it was added, and who added it.
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Furthermore, the writers of Saints are well aware of this issue, yet continues to declare that this incident happened even though there is evidence that calls it into question. The beginning of chapter eight focuses on the cost and difficulties of getting the Book of Mormon printed. While Saints claims it is because Grandin believed the book to be a fraud which he likely did , they neglect to mention that Grandin was telling Harris not to lose his farm over a book that would not sell. Grandin worked "to divert Harris from his persistent fanaticism in that losing speculation.
But even with Grandin's attempted to steer Harris from financing the Book of Mormon, he still agreed to produce the money. The problems, however, get compounded when Martin Harris has a difficult time finding anyone who will purchase the book. Dean C. What Saints leaves out is that this revelation threatened Martin Harris directly if he did not pay for the Book of Mormon printing. Release thyself from bondage. One topic we discuss on our summary of church problems page is how convenient revelations to Joseph Smith tend to be. In this case, Joseph Smith could not come up with the money to print the Book of Mormon even after his revelation to sell the copyright to Canada failed, and knew Martin Harris was his only chance to secure the money.
Martin Harris was hesitant to foot the entire bill though because his wife was suspicious of Joseph and the book was simply not selling, which led to a prompt revelation from God warning Martin to sell his property to pay the bill of face the destruction of both his property and himself. Whenever there is over the top dialogue in Saints , you can be sure it is sourced from Lucy Mack Smith.
On page 80, we hear of Abner Cole, who was printing excerpts of the Book of Mormon with sarcastic commentary. Since Joseph Smith had secured a copyright, he visits Cole to tell him that he needed to stop printing excerpts of the book. The dialogue that ensues seeks to make Cole out to be a bloodthirsty fighter against the calm, composed Joseph Smith.
I am not saying that it didn't happen this way, but I am saying that sourcing this from Joseph's mom puts the credibility of the entire interaction into question. And since most readers will not bother to look at the footnotes, they will never know that the glowing description of this confrontation comes from Joseph's own mother. From here, Saints transitions to new members who are known in church history including Thomas Marsh, who is a key figure in the "milk strippings story.
This is important because Solomon Chamberlin had a vision that is remarkably similar to Joseph Smith's First Vision, and was documented long before Joseph Smith ever recorded or spoke of his own. We cover this in more detail on our LDS annotated essay on the First Vision , but Richard Bushman cites Solomon Chamberlin's vision as being so similar to Joseph Smith's First Vision that he made a hypothesis in Rough Stone Rolling that the reason Joseph might not have talked about his vision wasn't because he would be persecuted for believing it would happen, but that no one would take notice because it was common in those days.
In an article that Bushman wrote about this vision from Solomon Chamberlin:"Dissatisfied with the religions he had tried, Chamberlin prayed for further guidance, and in , according to his account, "the Lord revealed to me in a vision of the night an angel," whom Chamberlin asked about the right way. The angel told him that the churches were corrupt and that God would soon raise up an apostolic church. Chamberlin printed up an account of his visions and was still distributing them and looking for the apostolic church when he stopped in Palmyra.
We discuss Joseph Smith's ability to incorporate other material into the Mormon church as his own, and the fact that the Smith family was given this vision in is critical when thinking about Joseph Smith's accounts of the First Vision that would be written years later. On our summary page 23 , we detail many of the areas where Joseph Smith uses other sources available to him in creating such important LDS theology as the priesthood restoration, three tiers of heaven, temple ceremony, word of wisdom, Book of Abraham, and more.
Because of the similarities in Chamberlin's vision to what Joseph would write a few years later, I am very surprised that Saints would introduce him in this chapter leaving themselves open to this comparison. The final section of the chapter discusses the formal organization of the church, including Joseph receiving the Melchizedek priesthood.
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