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In his will, May made his second wife, Klara, his sole heiress. He instructed that after her death all of his property and any future earnings from his work should go to a foundation. This foundation should support the education of the gifted poor including writers, journalists and editors. Contributions have been made since Klara and Karl May's estate went to the foundation.

The foundation established the Karl May Museum to maintain the Villa Shatterhand, the estates, the collections and May's tomb. The KMV consolidated the rights to May's works from internal discord and from other publishers. The existing 33 volumes of the original series were also revised, some extensively. Until there were 65 volumes.

The press is exclusive to May's work and subsidiary literature. Besides the Gesammelte Werke the classical "green volumes" , which have 91 volumes today, the press has a huge reprint programme. In , Fehsenfeld left and in , the foundation fell to Klara May's estate and thus, the press is owned by the Schmid family. In , when copyright ended, the press began commercialising May's works. After German reunification , in , the press took a second office in Radebeul.

Villa Barenfett was a log house in the garden of Villa Shatterhand. Its inspiration was the works of Patty Frank Ernst Tobis. Frank was the first curator and a home for life at Villa Bear Fat. In , the Karl May related exhibits were removed. In , the museum returned to its former name and the street it was on was renamed "Karl May Street". Since , Villa Shatterhand has displayed an exhibition about Karl May. There is also a research library, a work room and a parlour "Sascha Schneider Room". These rooms retain their original furnishings. Also displayed are replicas of guns and a bust of Winnetou.

Since 12 March , it has been a memorial and museum. It shows an original weaving room and non-German book editions. The garden has been arranged according to May's description in his memoirs. In the s, there were Karl May clubs. My Dashboard Get Published. Sign in with your eLibrary Card close.

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The house in which May was born. Karl May and Sascha Schneider , Tomb of Karl and Klara May. Cover of Orangen und Datteln by Fritz Bergen Cover of Der blaurote Methusalem by Oskar Herrfurth. Karl May's Villa Shatterhand. ISBN , Winnetous Blutsbruder: Karl-May-Biografie. Karl-May-Verlag, ISBN Karl May Metzler, Stuttgart, , vol p Der Text. In Ueding: Karl-May-Handbuch , p - Gestalt und Idee. Karl May und die Musik. Verlag, Bamberg and Radebeul, Das neue Lexikon rund um Karl May.

Lexikon Imprint Verlag, Berlin Letter dated 24 February Der Mann, der Jerry Cotton war. Das Neue Berlin, Berlin, Vertonungen in Ueding's Karl-May-Handbuch p - Dramatisierungen in Ueding's Karl-May-Handbuch , p - Verfilmungen in Ueding's Karl-May-Handbuch p - Accessed 16 October Karl-May-Verlag, Bamberg, , pp.

Organe und Perspektiven der Karl-May-Forschung. In: Ueding: Karl-May-Handbuch , p - Categories Articles needing additional references from April All articles needing additional references Use dmy dates from May All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from August Interlanguage link template link number Commons category without a link on Wikidata births deaths People from Hohenstein-Ernstthal People from the Kingdom of Saxony German novelists German children's writers Writers from Saxony Western genre writers German pacifists German male novelists German-language poets.

Karl May Press have released an increasing number of about 50 audiobooks. Hans Heinrich and Karl May , dir. There are also novels with or about Karl May, e. Copies, parodies, and sequels. While some just wrote similar wild west stories to participate on his literary success e. A series of eight volumes with this title has been written by Jutta Laroche and Reinhard Marheinecke. Asteroid Karlmay is named in his honor. Karl May institutions. Karl May Foundation. In his will, May made his second wife Klara his sole heiress.

He instructed that after her death all of his property and any future earnings from his work should go to a foundation. This foundation should support the education of gifted poor people and help writers, journalists and editors, who through no fault of their own, had got into financial difficulties. Contributions have been made since With contracts of inheritance and wills of Klara May, the property of both went to the Karl May Foundation. Karl May Press. They ended the civil disputes e. The existing 33 volumes of the original series also were partly radically revised. Until there were 65 volumes.

The press nearly only publishes works of Karl May and secondary literature. Other targets of the young press were rehabilitation of May against literary criticism and support of the Karl May Foundation. Due to the attitudes of the authorities of the Soviet occupation zone and East Germany towards May his works should not be printed the press moved to Bamberg West Germany in After the German reunification the press has a second place of residence in Radebeul since When in the term of copyright ended the press lost its monopoly. The press started a commercialisation of May.

March While early associations often understood their role as rendering homage to the writer or defending him against critics, they focus today more on research. While the societies are responsible for the release of most Karl May-related periodicals e. The KMG was founded on 22 March After initial disruptions and changes also regarding the printing[8] the project is now conceptualized to more than 99 volumes.

See also. Zane Grey. Emilio Salgari. Karl May: Mein Leben und Streben. Within: Karl May: In fernen Zonen. Karl-May-Verlag, Bamberg and Radebeul, Heermann, Christian: Winnetous Blutsbruder. Metzler, Stuttgart, , p. Due to the overlapping of the groups of works, there is no clear cut. In Ueding: Karl-May-Handbuch, pp.

Schmid, Euchar Albrecht: Gestalt und Idee. In: Karl May. Karl-May-Verlag, Bamberg, , pp. Lexikon Imprint Verlag, Berlin Karl May audio drama database.

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Ich bin ein Cowboy - The Economist, 24 May In several issues of KMG-Nachrichten. Karl May German. Hitler's Mein Kampf attribution of his poor grades in secondary school his primary school marks, in grades first through fifth, had been quite good in general to his fascination with May is not entirely reliable. There were a number of factors which contributed: attendance at a larger school in Linz, segregation of classes by subject matter rather than by age, and more difficult subject matter are several identified by Kershaw Adolf Hitler Hubris, chapter 1.

Roxin, Claus: Letter from Hamman, Brigette Hitler's Vienna: A Dictator's Apprenticeship. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN Thor-Heyerdahl-Gymnasium - Anecdotes German. Das Neue Berlin, Berlin, EAN In: Ueding: Karl-May-Handbuch, pp. Hatzig, Hansotto: Dramatisierungen. Hatzig, Hansotto: Verfilmungen. Petzel, Michael: Comics und Bildergeschichten. Wohlgschaft: Karl May — Leben und Werk. Satzung der Karl-May-Gesellschaft e. Edition plannings. Karl Mays Werke: historisch-kritische Ausgabe.

The Catalogue of the German National Library presently shows 58 entries under the name of this project, including improved re-editions, supplementary volumes, edited documents etc. Mein Leben und Streben autobiography. Freiburg i. Reprint: Hildesheim and New York, Olms Presse, third edition , with preface, comments, epilogue, index for subjects, persons and geographical names by Hainer Plaul.

Secondary literature. Routledge, London and Boston ; revised edition I. Sammons, Jeffrey L. Second enlarged and revised edition. External links. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karl May. German Wikisource has original text related to this article:. Life and works. Karl May Gesellschaft K. Works by Karl May at Project Gutenberg. Karl May bibliography by Wolfgang Hermesmeier German. Bibliographic database of editions since German.

Karl-May-Wiki German. Karl May Foundation German. Karl May Press German. Karl May Society see above. Overview of German and international societies German. Compositions by Karl May. Authority control. VIAF: LCCN: n ISNI: GND: SUDOC: BNF: cb data. NLA: NDL: NKC: jn People from Hohenstein-Ernstthal. People from the Kingdom of Saxony. German novelists. German children's writers. Writers from Saxony. Western genre writers. German pacifists. Navigation menu. Create account. Log in. View history. Main page. Featured content. Current events. Random article. Donate to Wikipedia. Wikimedia Shop.

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Recent changes. Contact page. Bahasa Indonesia. If anything worthwhile is going to come of me then l have only you to thank for it! Of course I am still only a raw, blundering beginner, but who knows what sortof abotcher would l havebecome you if hadnot takenme onas your pupil!!! And it is not just in music that I owe everything to your teaching, your works and your example. You have weaned me from my excessive swanking and from my pompous talk and untruths - any remnants of which l hope to get rid of completely. Without it l would literally have starved.

The stay in Holland" too savedme from a physicalbreakdown, as my doctor has confirmed as well. So I have youto thank for everything perhaps evenmore thanmy poor parents! I earnestlybeg youto acceptthe dedicationofthe Piano Sonata op. His fellow pupils confirmthat hewas theonly oneamong them who daredto voice dissentopenly.

RudolfKolisch, whowas laterto become Schoenbergs brother-in-law and wasalready aviolinist of note, reports that: Of course his chief characteristic was rebelliousness. We could feel in the classes thatthis made for a special relationshipbetween Schoenberg and Eisler. He was veryfond of him. Above all he recognized andappreciated his considerabletalent. Naturally Eisler annoyedhim a great deal,particularly becauseof his independence, youknow, which he simplycouldnt bear - l mean his intellectualindependence.

Hewas alwaysrebellious, and even contradicted, which was a mortal sin, of course - quite inconceivable. Not in matters of fact, naturally. His admiration for Swedenborg witha strongelement of religion! From Schoenbergs point of view, Eislers demonstrations of dissent weresimply the rebellions of a pupil who was not materially well off, but who was a favourite of his, and he thought they would probably blow over with time.

On the other hand, Eislers relation to Schoenberg was from the very hrst complicated by dual standards. His admiration and respectfor the composer and 8 Early years in Vienna teacher to whom he owed a deep debtof gratitude were counterbalanced by an increasingly critical attitude towards his ideological positions: Eisler later spoke of him as a political. Even though there weretimes when the relative importance of these opposing judgments obviously shifted, their opposition remained presentin Eislers mind with striking constancy,neither pole ever entirely taking over from the other.

These carefully weighed scruples were a prevailing feature of Eislers relations with Schoenberg; he was, however, alone among Schoenbergs pupils in sharing three of his teachers biographicalphases: Vienna, Berlin and Los Angeles. It is he who is the real conservative: he even createdhis own revolution in order that he could then be a reactionary.

The muted anticipation of his latercriticisms andtheir point of view! Eisler isstill writing as a member of a school. Theterm musical reactionary is intended to undermine the attacksof the conservative campand refersin the first instance to the revival of classical forms in Schoenbergs most recent Songs, pianomusic andchamber music 9 l 3 Arnold Schoenberg theteacher !

Schoenberg and his pupils alike are conscious ofbeing' therepresentatives musical of evolution, even if the pupils are less histrionic about it than their teacher. Schoenbergs revolution in musicalmaterial and his newmeans of musicalexpression, which together represented a purification of musicallanguage as he hadfound it, were notlegislative acts imposed bya greatindividual merelyaccording tohis own requirements; rather,they corresponded, albeit ina somewhatindirect way, to the changing formsof awarenessof the early twentieth century,as well as in their own turn contributingto them.

We need not here examine how far this growing control over musical material paralleled increasing mastery over thenatural world. Schoenberg, whose early linkswere with Wagner andBrahms, described how he had moved through various stagesof extended and subsequentlyindeterminate and free tonality to arrive at his abandonment oftonal centresin the Second String Quartet op. IO of r9o8!. The renunciation of tonality and the hierarchical organization associated with it deprived traditional musical architecture of its meaning.

In order to avert the anarchy with which musical forms were threatened, anew kind of organization was necessary, one which would be that much more stable and with which it was possible onceagain to construct forms. After the atonal middle period - the works of which Eisler considered the most important thatSchoenberg Songs, piano music and chamber music II wrote. From the very first, its opponents saw the use of twelve-note series incomposition as an abstract,intellectual device,a cerebral manner of construction which crippled spontaneousinspiration.

There can be no doubt that the apparentlack of sensual appealin many works of Schoenbergs third period can be attributed primarily to the persistenceof old listening habits. The listenerhas to work extremely hard if he is to follow simultaneous processes in detail. And again, there is something academic and at times arbitrary aboutSchoenbergs wholesale application ofthe twelvenote method in all its rigour to music of every genre.

Eislers comparatively free handling of the new techniques of composition he had no need to shoulder the responsibility of having invented them, of course! Much has been written about the Vienna of the early years of the twentieth century, and about the unsettled talents it har- boured underthe decliningImperial monarchyand the infant Republic. The canonization of a few great names- Karl Kraus, Sigmund Freud, Adolf Loos, Peter Altenberg,Arnold Schoenberg -is apt to suggestto a later agethe existenceof a united intellectual opposition party.

But this was by no means the case. It would be truer to say thatwithin a society stillpermeated withthe relics of feudal order there existed, in a state of extreme and largely mutual! Theirindividual intellectual and artistic rebellions are to be seen as expressions of social change concealed under cover of their various specialisms. The old system denied them the possibility of integration and they broke free of it as individuals having aclaim to genius. But during the The more trivial producers churnedout the bitteresweet cheeriness of operetta whilst composers of a higher order were working the neo-romantic aestheticof gloomy emotionalism sugaredover with rhetoric and ornamentation.

To counter all this it was legitimate to press the claim that serious art possessedan epistemological function and needed to get its message across. From these a mathematical and logical concept of cognition was taken up by philosophy and extended into other disciplines. Atthe sametime, when language hadbeen brokendown into its constituentelements and logical analysishad revealedthe principlesof combination underlying verbal propositions, real progress had been madetowards cleaning up ideological thought. The task of analysis was then to examine the structure of any seriesof given semantic!

The way in which Schoenberg investigatedthe raw material of music was similarly analytical. He too dismantled the existing language ofmusic. Hesought waysof establishing a newlogical organization nowthat the old ones stronghold oftonality was Songs, piano music and chamber music I3 being exploited to foster trivialized emotions. The state of composition as he found it, with all the portentousness ofits inflated symphonic forms and the bombastic orchestralforces associated with them, was inadequate to his need for greater concentration and intensity of expression.

Within the secluded conHnes of officially sanctioned music,the increasingly murky subjectivity of late Romanticism might have continued to pour forth indefinitely. Yet Schoenbergs very need for expression cut both ways. Theconcentration of complex musical matter into an extremelytight space- a characteristic which took into account the increasing analytical capabilities of the human ear implied a total avoidance ofpadding and a stringent elimination of all that was not functionally essential to the musical idea.

However, if the value of technique when composing in a new idiom is overestimated, there can be a dangerous tendency to regard themusical language as self-sufhcient, to dissociate it from objective requirements and in this way to idealize it for its own sake. Their expression remained abstract, arbitrary, sometimes evenrandom. The selfsame problemin much new musicis countered by the assertion- itself pretty irresponsible - that the inexorable development of music has brought it about.! Yet this is not the only way in which illogicalities come into play. In Schoenberg the tendency towards systematic, theoretically basedorganization - and not only in twelve-note music-is I4 Early years in Vienna combined with what appears to be a strikingly outdated, evenif by no means entirely naive aestheticof intuition.

Schoenberg ascribedenormous importance to the role of the unconscious mind in artistic creation: he composed, asit were, under the compulsion of an inner necessity andaccording to the dictates of an unconsciousdriving force which had to be obeyed intuitively. The insistent claims he madefor the truth of his art were part and parcel of a self-image not without elements of the cultural high priest. He also felt repelled by the latent religiosity underlying the motives for Schoenbergs attitude: this went deeper than a mere compensation for the outsiders forced him.

As a theoretician he was far too self-aware for that. His tenet that a mind that has been strictly trained in musical logic will function logically under any circumstances in composition! As Alois Haba writes, Eisler had from the very start acquired a type of expression that was independent of Schoenbergs music and more energetic.

This was a concomitant of his livelier temperament and his fundamentally optimistic view of life, though Songs, pianomusic andchamber music IS also of the fact that he was aborn practical musician. Eislers more comprehensible idiom,in its way as logical and as bold as Schoenbergs, wasmotivated even if at first indistinctly so - by social considerations. The interesting thing about my parentageis. My father was a philosopher. He thought it characteristic that two classesshould thus have come together to a certain extent.

The father having been Viennese and the mother from Leipzig, it was also a union between Austria and Saxony - both of them lands of music par excellence. Though actually born in Leipzig ! The boys most enduring impressions must have been of his long years lived in material poverty; at the same timehe watched the arduous intellectual exertions that his father madein spite of everything. Theexample of energy andself-discipline setby Rudolf Eisler, who as an autodidact almost without income continued to write undeterred, must surely have left its mark.

Admittedly, it is not easy to determine to what extent the three children - Elfriede, Gerhart and Hanns - saw this ascetic mode of existence as an example Ht to be followed. The association between intellect and poverty seldom presentsitself as being a priori a worthy goalto strivetowards.


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Looking back, Eisler reported that his mother, on the other hand, paved the way for his emotional and moral identification with the cause ofthe workers; she knew what it was to be poor, and what it was to struggle too, and her influence was enormous. With this came early access to atheistic and socialist literature: Hackel and Kautsky, the easier writings of Marx, anarchistic texts and introductions to philosophy werenot simply read; theywere aboveall debated. Eislers ready wit and repartee, later to become famous,the uncommon directness ofhis manner of thinking and speaking,his enjoyment of dispute and contradiction, these mustall have been developed and honedin the Debating Club of the socialist secondary-school pupils.

There were immensely vehementdebates, andat timeswe also came into conflict with our excellent father: the sectarianism that we would preach at the ageof thirteen appeared rathertoo facile to that earnest philosopher. Both these tendencies are one-sided. His brother tells us that in their youth they both received piano lessons for a short time, beforethese werediscontinued for financial reasons. But we were a musical family to the extent that my father, who spent his days andnights sitting writing at his desk,had onerecreation.

At that time we possessed a piano,and myfather would sing andplay to us: Hugo Wolf, Schubert, folk songs of all kinds, operatic excerpts too. Sinceit was only in his childhood years thatthe family had the use of a hired piano, he had to learn elementary theory by himselfand compose by ear. By hisown account, he acquired the knowledgenecessary forreading scores at the age often or eleven bystudying the Reclam editionof Wolffs Allgemeine Musiklehre. Hewas laterto makeuse ofthe abilityhe developed at the time of rapidly masteringnew fieldsby virtueof diligent reading, as equally hewould of his facilityin composing without the use of a musical instrument.

The young student was sensitive to the social conditions inseparable from the pursuance of a musical profession. At thattime Iasked mymore prosperous school-fellows to take mehome with themto theirpiano, andrequested those who couldplay todo sofor me, orelse would I bunglearound onthe pianomyself. Theimpression ofthis somewhat condescending thoughnot ill-naturedattitude onthe partof thesebourgeoises whose homes I entered with the aid of my schoolfriends is truly unforgettable.

Thus my musical life began under a strange kind of patronage. Like the majority of the composersof his generation, Eisler started with songs. Hewas at first noticeably more influencedby those of Mahler and Hugo Wolf than by those of Schubert or Brahms. His accompaniments arewritten for piano or for small chamber ensemble. In addition to texts drawn from plays by Biichner and Hauptmann, he turned for preference to poems of Morgenstern and Klabund. Rilke and Trakl make only passing appearances.

Asa student he was already well versed in literature. Music and literature were pre-eminent among his interests; and they met in vocal music, a field in which Eisler was later to open up new dimensions. Eisler tellsus thathis first major work was ananti-war oratorio, written shortly after his call-up ! This was alsohis first attempt to make music useful. It followed a confrontation with the then all-powerful Imperial authorities. At the outbreak of the war, his brother, together with some other students at his school, had brought out a very short-lived cyclostyled anti-war magazine; this fell into the hands of the police, who promptly raided the house.

Gerhart, who had already been calledup in 5,was dismissedfrom the officers training college and ordered to the Italian front. Since Hanns too was mixed up in the affair, the two brothers were both listed as politically suspect p. There he found the monarchy overthrown and revolution in the air.

The hordes of home-coming soldiers favoured radical solutions. Spurredon by the workers and soldiers councils, the Red Guard was formed in Vienna. We had lost the war, were wounded,and hadnothing to eat, as Max Deutsch has putit. Our only refugewas theideal of a communist revolution. The machinery of administration and power had remained largely intact, and it was possible for Social Democrats and Conservatives aliketo bring it to bear on the suppression ofanything thatmight threatenthe citizens republic.

The situation was not, indeed, a foregone conclusion: the KP6 [CommunistParty of Austria], foundedin Vienna in November by a dozen intellectuals Eislers sister playing a leading part, was able to develop rapidlyfor some months early in Since popular workers leaders suchas Friedrich Adler did not enter their ranks, and organized labour largely continued to vote Social Democrat, hopesfor an Austrian Soviet disappeared with the collapse of the Bavarian and Hungarian Soviets in the summer of I9I9.

The beginnings of economic stability and a seriesof progressive socio-political moves by the SP6 [Austrian Socialist Party] - at the timeit adopted a farmore forward-looking stance than the German Social Democrats conjoined ultimately with internal disagreements within the KP! In Eislers brother and sister were setting out on careers asprofessional revolutionaries in Vienna, moving on to Berlin shortly afterwards due to the diminishing prospects offered by the situation in Austria! Because hisself-taught knowledge of harmony appeared tobe adequate, he was immediately accepted for the counterpoint class.

Verysoon hebegan to End theinstruction he received from Karl Weigl too undemanding and conventional; the traditional way in which the Conservatory wasrun, with its chronically outdated syllabus,seemed tohim to suffer from fossilized routineand time-wasting. After all, he was already twenty: for a musician, his first regular training had not exactly come early. Eisler waslooking for a strict teacher.

Hefound the strictest of all. When on leave from the front in , he had already heard Schoenbergs Chamber Symphony in Vienna - conducted by the composer - and had been very impressed byit. It had evenbeen rumoured among the young musicians of Vienna that the radi- cally modern composer wasthe best teacher ofcounterpoint. When accepted into Schoenbergs master class, Eisler still had zo Early years in Vienna gaps andweaknesses inhis education.

His knowledge of musical history, for instance, was small. Lack of means prevented him from enrolling in Guido Adlers class in musicalhistory at Vienna University. During his four years of study with Schoenberg Eisler had much else to catch up on. Moreover, great demands weremade onhim: as his fellow-studentswere toreport, he worked with tremendous industry and application. Therewas a moral consideration to egg him on: as the most talented of his generation of students in Modling, Schoenbergtaught the penniless youth for no fee.

His vocation benefited from both activities: ln doing this, writes Alois Haba, who at that time wasalso working as a proofreader for Universal, we became acquaintedwith the works of contemporary composersand with the precision of the engravers work, and from then on we endeavouredto write out our own manuscripts with still greater care.

At first Eisler lived in one of the military barracks in the Grinzing area of Vienna which had been unoccupiedsince thewar - this was oneof the few waysin which students andartists with a minimum of means wereable to live in independence. He lived with a girl friend, a young Viennese teacher,who was able to support him to someextent.

Shewas later to recall that he was so poor that l gavehim manuscriptbooks sothat hecould write. His permanenthunger wasblunted by cigarettes andalcohol. There werecertainly light-hearted sides toEislers earlybohemian period. Whole nights would be spentin discussionand drinking, and often in music-making. He would perform his songs in a high-pitched, wheezy voice, and his companion Muschi Songs, piano music and chamber music 2. While hewas still a student,Eisler beganto teach,initially at the Verein fiir Volkstiimliche Musikpflege [Society forthe Promotion of Music among thePeople], whereworkers couldbecome acquainted withmusic.

Asin Schoenbergs case, though with longer interruptions, hewas to continue with his teachingactivities alongside composition throughout hislife. Helater endeavoured to passon to his compositionpupils what he hadlearnt from Schoenberg.


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  • This was aboveall an intimate knowledgeof the great tradition. Schoenbergs teaching was centred on analysis of worksby the classical masters,and never on instruction in modern composi- tion. Basically,music began with Bach. De facto,for purposes of teaching, hereduced thehistory ofmusic toEve classical names: Bach, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubertand Brahms.

    Thus thesewere the cornerstones of his teaching,"7 according to Eisler. There were few who persisted for-morethan a year underhis severelycritical eye. Before anyone was permitted to write in the modern idiom, he had to have studied the great works right down to their finest technical detail and to be able to apply classical proceduresof composition withassurance. Bachs Art of Fugue was studied for a whole year; Brahms chamber musicand Beethovenskeyboard variations were thoroughly and precisely analysed.

    Craftsmanship was considered afirst priority: Schoenberg insistedon technical understanding;it is easy tosee whythis attitude - akin to the engineers in its conjunction of the analytical with the constructive - was so well suited to Eislers logical and mathematical propensities. Reason, imaginationand feeling were not in conflict, but the one would produce theothers. It was Eislers view that the strongest impact ever made on him was by the fact that problems of form were answerable to moral 2.

    Thus there is no question of Schoenbergs havingtaught somesort of arid craftsmanship. What he taught ranged from the simplest technical information and a contempt for the commonplace, the trivial and empty musical formulae to the performance of masterpieces. He was repelled by lack of precise articulation, excessive length, theexpansive and the vague.

    He wasbored bythe indulgent excesses of morbid post-Tristan musicand bythe ethereal eccentricities ofan art nouveau steepedin the ideology of renunciation. In place of the variegated spinning-out and breaking-up of themes, Eisler from the start had a penchant for laconic, epigrammatic abbreviation and concentration. Eislers time as Schoenbergspupil coincided exactly with the transition from atonal to twelve-note composition. After Webern and Berg,he wasthe Hrstto write in the new technique. Schoenbergs works - including the theoretical books, suchas 2.

    The last of his early Viennese works according to its opus number! A favourable andvery detailedreport of it appeared inthe journal Musikblatter des Anbruch. Eisler proves himselfmasterof a freedom which, following Mozarts example, enables him to pile novelty upon novelty and yet build a unified structure ln conclusion, the review refers to that imaginative talent of Eislers, which may be very personal to him without being so overtly in evidence as his melodic inventiveness,his harmonic eloquence and his knowledge of his instruments.

    The author of this sensitive andhighly illuminating appraisal was the pupil of Alban Berg, Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno. Meanwhile, Eisler was living, composing and teaching in Berlin. When, after , he publishedhis Hrstessays andcritical notices, in which he dealt with the social function of music, he attained -just like Schoenberg,though with an intent which was soon very different from his teachers - that threefold activity of composer, teacher and theoretician, which was later to lay the foundations for the all-embracing practical usefulness of his work.

    Eislers distaste for the posture of art for arts sake quickly began to assumea dehniteform. Whilst still a student hesaw clearlythat artistic technique ought not to remain an endin itself, but should Songs, pianomusic andchamber music 2. There was a long road to travel from his lively mistrust of esoteric asceticism to writing politically useful music.

    And though the revolutionary nature of that period demanded the latter, there was also an obligation to make use of the most advanced toolsof the composers craft. On the other hand, it was precisely by virtue of its autonomous development that new music had so thoroughly cut itself off. Those all-night discussions inGrinzing, Horensteintells us,had been takenup on the onehand with the musicof Schoenbergand Webern, and on the other hand with the consequences and prospects of the Russian revolution of I9I7.

    Eisler would become angry when speaking of the splendid isolation of those contemporary Viennese composers who were of any account, with respect to their attitude of art for arts sal and their disdain for the historical events which had literally revolutionized the world. Schoenberg possesses themost incredible abstraction of thought. He could talk of the technique of travelling in such a way that one would not want to send him a picture postcard, he noted angrily in On the subject ofthe unconditional discipleship that Schoenberg required of his followers, he writes: A.

    The submissiveness of Schoenbergsentourage - Eisler makes an exception of himself - led him to observe: Schoenberg resembles Napoleon: he too would only tolerate blockheads in his entourage.

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    If it includes anyoneof intelligence, this is only because Schoenberg thinks him bacl The earliestjottings ! Escape from self, submissionto a great personage. Dread of the future. Chimerical existence. The preoccupation with himself is brief and restrained; one is aware of a shying-away from exhibitionistic self-glorification. An idiotic mood puts thoughts of consolation into the mind. As if grief were present! However,writing onwhite paperbound inleather is dirty sentimentality. Irritation with attacks of melancholy - which he attributes to periods of sterility as a composercombines with merciless sarcasmsturned against himself: For someone who is high-spirited and conccitcd, it is often difficult not to do everything with an eye to self-advertisement.

    Me,for instance.! Me, for instance.! His dissatisfaction with the wretched purgatory of not yet being able to achieve clarity of vision was not alleviated by his comfortless material situation. Everything very gloomy. Salvation in work. Something which at that time afforded some support against subjective feelingsof isolation, against povertyand againstscorn, was the Schoenberg schools view of itself as unquestioningly identifiable with musical progress- a view still largely sharedby Eisler.

    This made halts in production even more disturbing. When I have producednothing for a few weeks andam leadinga false existence with my wit on the outside and what pain on the inside! This confession rare among his writings - concludes: To be alone is the highest, most painful enjoyment; this is a clue to Eislers very secretive inner life - a life full of tensions- and to the extreme vulnerability which he later tried objectively to come to terms with.

    Eislers first musical protest - which likewise remained an internal one - was expressed inthe conjunction of the lyrical with the grotesquein his autobiographical Palmstrom.

    Translation of "die" - English-German dictionary

    This was probably originally conceived entirely in relation to the I of the diary, between whose jottings it made its appearancein In point of fact, this op. Songs, pianomusic andchamber music 2. Thefirst ideanoted in the diary is for Grotesques. For solo voice and chamberorchestra. Cf the three Morgenstern texts that Eisler selected I. Palmstrom sometimes wishes he could dissolve, 2. Funnels wander through the night, 3. Palmstrom takespaper from his drawer! Lart pour lart, unambiguously enough occupyingthe central position in the five sections thatmake upthe cycle,is followed by Galgenbruders Friihlingslied[Spring Songof a Gallows-Bird] with its closing line: lt is almost as if I were he who l no longer am.

    If here Eislerspeaks ofthe pupil-teacher relationship which he is beginning to move away from Spring too breaks in on our quarrel; O blessed time!! This couplet, which is sublime cabaretmusic, demonstrates- as indeed does Palmstrom as a whole - that Eisler used serial tech- nique ina lessacademic way than Schoenberg; this canbe seen for instance in the fact that it allows scope for frequent recourse to tonal relationshipswithout any loss oftension.

    What is new above Ex. Here, Eislers treatment of his text further develops the speech-song of Schoenbergs Pierrot; its most signihcant gain was that it permitted the text to he woven into the musical structure without the need to renounce its grammatical and semantic structure. When he first heard it in , what initially impressed him was the nature of the chamber music. By virtue of the exaggerated emotional identification characteristic of speech-songas amode of performance, as prescribed and rhythmically precisely dehned by Schoenberg, Girauds absurd village-greendemonicism hasan embarrassingeffect anddetracts from the music.

    Hothouse esotericism seemed to him wayward, anachronistic and absurd. I-le often found such poetry still further overheated by the manner in which it was set to music. I-Ie judged that personal emotions were basically valued too highly. Mood alienated him. What he felt should be resisted first and foremost was a conception of music as a comforter by which people forced into self-denial could be reconciled with their fate. Music must above all not remain con- templative. Afew yearslater, hewas to Hnd agreement on all Songs, pianomusic andchamber music 4 On the outskirts of Vienna c.

    The aim of much of Eislers vocal music isto lend intensity to the clarity of a text, and to present it in such away that its meaning- especially when it operates ondifferent levels- is unniistailtaible, and sensual and intellectualenjoyment are united. Theinvigorating power of that music is something we shall be considering later. The Hrst requisite is clarity. This involves converting speech intonations andrhythms precisely into notes:ind neitherdisfiguring words and sentences nor stretching them to the limits of comprehensibility.

    The accompaniment should never mask the flow of the voice. In later years, Eislerwas himselfenough of a man of letters never to treat texts as having secondary importance. Ideological disagreements with Schoenberg doubtless contributed to the very timely development of his own manner of composition. He saw the act of writing music as beingin no way separable frompolitical awareness.

    A diary entry of autumn Twisted mockingly into a paradox, this aphorism fastenson the difference between an aesthetic Schoenbergs! Kants namestands forhis teachers idealistic conception ofart, whichEisler wasbeginning tocriticize asbeing undialectical and limited: Kants late the extreme attitude of art aesthetic was for arts the hrst to formu- sake. Schoenbergs position nolonger satisfied him, because it left no roomfor real protest againstthe prevailing circumstances -even thoughit never made its peace with them.

    He always found subjective idealism untrustworthy. Eisler turned his back on an enjoyment of art which had floated freeof Songs, pianomusic andchamber music 31 any social function, a pure act of contemplation, an artistic ideal of the immaculate work as far as possibleunsullied by concrete content. Schoenberg disapproved of Bergs choice of text in Wozzeck: angels,not batmen, ought to be setto music. Schoenbergs chief quarrel was directed against bourgeois fraudulence.

    Eisler sawthis very well; at that time, his own problem wasthat of uniting artistic activity with political activism. This led him to ask questions about the composers public. For Schoenberg,the listener was the listener, and he had few thoughts aboutthe class structure ofbourgeois society. Short-lived attempts to attract a new public changed little: their circle was still extremely narrow. Only after broadest circle: years of transition was Eisler to discover the the masses.

    Despite the early recognition he had received there - backed up by a very concreteten-year contractwith UE he must have sensedthat the Viennese scenemade any further development difficult and that there the path of the serious modern artist. It seemed impossible to get away from the laboratory conditions under which radically modern music continued to be produced.

    Thesize andscope ofits public remained stagnant. Eislers alienation was reinforced by the virtually private nature of its institutions, its audiences pronenessto snobbery and the lack of any genuine social communication. Furthermore, it was now important that he should earn money. And for this the prospects in Vienna, where his teacher hadnever reallyestablished himself, were inauspicious.

    A young pupil of Artur Schnabel, the pianist Else C. Kraus, was anxious to study the First Piano Sonatawith him. The impact of her concert - one of the first in Berlin to feature exclusively new works - was powerful and double-edged. Sotoo was the responseto Eisler, whom Berlin was now hearing of for the first time. Adolf Weissmann, at that time the doyenof German music criticism,wrote in praise: a man who heads straight for his goal with all the forces at his command.

    His three-movement op. When Eisler settled in Berlin in