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His theory may now seem naive, but his work influenced most significant French writers of the late 19th century and is reflected in much 20th-century fiction as well.


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His novel Nana tells the decadent tale of a young woman who resorts to prostitution to survive the Paris of the Second Empire. Arthur Rimbaud, in addition to crowding an extraordinary amount of exotic travel into his 37 years and having a tempestuous sexual relationship with Verlaine, produced two enduring pieces of work: Une Saison en Enfer A Season in Hell; and Illuminations Verlaine died at 39 rue Descartes, 5e, in Les Faux-Monnayeurs The Counterfeiters; exposes the hypocrisy to which people resort in order to fit in with others or deceive themselves.

Colette Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette enjoyed tweaking the nose of conventionally moral readers. Her view was from 9 rue de Beaujolais in the 1er, overlooking Jardin du Palais Royal. In the late s certain novelists began to look for new ways of organising narrative. But these writers never formed a close-knit group, and their experiments took them in divergent directions.

Philippe Sollers, an editor at Tel Quel, a highbrow, left-wing, Paris-based review, was very influential in the s and early '70s. His s novels were highly experimental, but with Femmes Women; he returned to a conventional narrative style. Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault are other notable s and '70s authors and philosophers.

Houellebecq's most recent work is Soumission Submission; , a contentious political satire featuring some of France's real-life politicians in a fictionalised near-future setting.

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Alard was acclaimed for the novel Moment d'un couple Moment of a Couple; , which was translated into English as Couple Mechanics in A suburban Paris housing estate where thousands of immigrants live like sardines in five-storey blocks stretching for 1. Her third novel, Les Gens du Balto , published in English as Bar Balto , is a series of colloquial first-person monologues by various characters who live on a street in a Parisian suburb.

French journalist, screenwriter and novelist Tatiana de Rosnay has a prolific output that includes the best-selling Sarah's Key , her first work written in English, and A Paris Affair The heyday of Paris as a literary setting, however, was the interwar period. Awarded annually since , it tends to reflect topical issues in France. Most believed it to be the work of a man; it was only 40 years after publication that the author revealed her identity. His first novel was filmed as 's Just Like Heaven. According to philosopher Voltaire, French painting proper began with baroque painter Nicolas Poussin — , the greatest representative of 17th-century classicism, who frequently set scenes from ancient Rome, classical mythology and the Bible in ordered landscapes bathed in golden light.

Modern still life pops up with Jean-Baptiste Chardin — , who brought the humbler domesticity of the Dutch masters to French art. In neoclassical artist Jacques-Louis David — wooed the public with his vast portraits with clear republican messages. A virtual dictator in matters of art, he advocated a precise, severe classicism. His historical pictures eg Oedipus and the Sphinx, the version of which is in the Louvre are now regarded as inferior to his portraits. While romantics revamped the subject picture, the Barbizon School effected a parallel transformation of landscape painting.

In sculpture, the work of Paris-born Auguste Rodin — overcame the conflict between neoclassicism and romanticism. The realists were all about social commentary: Millet anticipated the realist program of Gustave Courbet —77 , a prominent member of the Paris Commune whose paintings depicted the drudgery and dignity of working-class lives. He was a pivotal figure in the transition from realism to impressionism.

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By the midth century, memorial statues in public places had replaced sculpted tombs, making such statues all the rage. Sculptor Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux —75 began as a romantic, but his work in Paris — such as The Dance on the Palais Garnier and his fountain in the Jardin du Luxembourg — recalls the gaiety and flamboyance of the baroque era. Initially a term of derision, 'impressionism' was taken from the title of an experimental painting, Impression: Soleil Levant Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet — Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec — was a great admirer of Degas but chose subjects one or two notches less salubrious: people in the bistros, brothels and music halls of Montmartre eg Au Moulin Rouge.

He is best known for his posters and lithographs, in which the distortion of the figures is both satirical and decorative. The name of Paul Gauguin — immediately conjures up studies of Tahitian and Breton women. Cubism, as developed by Picasso, Georges Braque — and Juan Gris — , deconstructed the subject into a system of intersecting planes and presented various aspects simultaneously. Capturing the rebellious, iconoclastic spirit of Dadaism — a Swiss-born literary and artistic movement of revolt — is Mona Lisa, by Marcel Duchamp — , complete with moustache and goatee.

In German Dadaist Max Ernst — moved to Paris and worked on surrealism, a Dada offshoot that flourished between the wars. Drawing on the theories of Sigmund Freud, surrealism attempted to reunite the conscious and unconscious realms, to permeate everyday life with fantasies and dreams. Two other Paris-busy sculptors each have a museum devoted to their work: Ossip Zadkine — and Antoine Bourdelle — Many artists left during the occupation, and though some returned after the war, the city never regained its old magnetism.

But art endured. Conceptual artist Daniel Buren b reduced his painting to a signature series of vertical 8. Partner-in-crime Michel Parmentier — insisted on monochrome painting — blue in , grey in and red in From the turn of the 21st century, artists increasingly turned to the minutiae of daily urban life to express social and political angst, using new mediums to let rip. Paris-born conceptual artist Sophie Calle b brazenly exposes her private life in public with eye-catching installations, such as women reading and commenting on an email she received from her French lover, dumping her.

Street art took off in Paris thanks to Blek le Rat Xavier Prou; b , whose pioneering stencilled black rats across the city inspired artists such as Banksy, as well as French artist Levalet Charles Leval; b , who pastes lifelike, site-specific images in India ink on craft paper onto walls.

Art themes often relate to the quartier neighbourhood or the name of the station. Paris is one of the world's most cinematic cities. The French capital has produced a bevy of blockbuster film-makers and stars and is the filming location of countless box-office hits by both home-grown and foreign directors.

One of the most successful French-language films ever is Intouchables Untouchable; French-produced Taken 2 was directed by Olivier Megaton b , a graffiti artist from the Parisian suburbs before turning his creative hand to film-making — with great success. Fortin, Masson et C ie , Paris. It was published in livraisons, each containing a mixture of text and plates for each class. Completed sets of livraisons were subsequently bound into 20 volumes divided into sections.

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The insect section comprised two volumes, each with two parts text and atlas [ vide infra ]. The Coleoptera are on pages 81— of the first volume, issued in the following livraisons: : pp. The dates of publication are from Cowan : 55—56 unless otherwise noted. Atlas [I]. The Coleoptera are on plates 15—75 including 22 bis , 39 bis , 40 bis , 44 bis , 53 bis , 66 bis , and 74 bis.

The names of the insects depicted on the plates are considered type-species designations as indicated in the title of the work. Plate 15 shows beetle larvae and a pupa of various families. The species depicted on plates 16—75 are listed in Appendix 1. Supplement to the check list of the Coleoptera of America, north of Mexico. Cassino, Boston. Erster Band. This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 1 : pp. Zweiter Band. This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 3 : pp. Dritter Band.

This volume was published in two Lieferungen : 5 : pp. Vierter Band. Reise durch einen Theil Preussens. Gottfried Vollmer, Hamburg und Altona. Storia naturale degli animali invertebrati del Sig. Cavaliere de Lamarck compendiata ed arricchita di note. Annesio Nobili, Pesaro. Catalogue of Hispidae in the collection of the British Museum.

Part I. Printed by order of the Trustees, London. Descriptions of new genera and species of Phytophaga. Part 2. Phytophaga part. Hispidae by J. Baly, with an appendix by G. Cassididae by C. Taylor and Francis, London. This section was published in eight parts as follows see Lyal : 88 : pp. Office of Superintendent of Government printing, Calcutta. The genera insectorum of Linnaeus exemplified by various specimens of English insects drawn from nature. Sewell, London. The text is written in English and French, mostly in parallel columns.

Engelmann : , Graesse : and other bibliographers mentioned a second edition, essentially a reissue of the first edition with a change of title page Evenhuis a : 70 , published in n. Published by order of the government of India. Tribe Longicornia. Longicornia by Henry Walter Bates, F. Bruchides by David Sharp, M. This work was issued in several parts. The dates listed at the bottom of the first page of each sheet are: pp. The collation for the plates is from Lyal : Biologia Centrali-Americana.

Part 1. This work was published in several parts. The volume covers the Cicindelidae and Carabidae. The title page is dated — Pectinicornia and Lamellicornia. The volume covers the families Lucanidae pp. It also includes a supplement pp. Geodephaga and Longicornia. List of Coleoptera collected by Mr. Jameson on the Aruwimi.

By the late James S. Jameson, naturalist to the expedition. Edited by Mrs. Porter, London. Simpson, who has paid especial attention to this family. The only new species described by Bates is Tefflus jamesoni Bates, n. Peter Cameron. Eaton, F. Martin Jacoby. Sidney Olliff. David Sharp. John Murray, London. According to Sharp : 61 , the printing was done in but the work was not available for purchase until 2 March By John Whitehead.

With coloured plates and original illustrations. Gurney and Jackson, London. Zweyter Theil. Mit zwey Kupfertafeln. The entire work was issued in two volumes, —, continuously paginated. The Coleoptera are on pages — of the second volume. Mit naturgetreuen Zeichnungen im Text. Creutz, Magdeburg. Monographie des lamelli-antennes. Landriot, Clermont. Thibaud-Landriot, Clermont-Ferrand. Despite the date on the title page, this work may have been published late or early Rassegna delle specie della famiglia dei Milabridi Bruchidi degli autori viventi in Europa e regioni finitime. Virzi, Palermo.

This work was issued, with separate pagination, in Il Naturalista Siciliano 5 [10]: 1—? Catalogo dei coleotteri del Piemonte. Camilla e Bertolero, Torino. This work was also issued in Annali della R. A few new taxa are described in this work. Avec 34 planches en lithographie hors texte et 44 figures dans le texte. Ersten Bandes zweyte Abtheilung. Mit einer Kupfertafel. Siegfried Leberecht Crusius, Leipzig. Mit Kupfern. The entire work was issued in two Bande , each consisting of two Abtheilungen , — The Coleoptera are on pages — of the second Abtheilung of the first Band.

Carl Friedrich Knoch Richter, Leipzig. Erster Theil. Mit drey illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Gaedike and Smetana : and Evenhuis a : 73 listed the publication date of this part as I have found no indication to corroborate this date. Hagen : 36 , Horn and Schenkling a : 55 , Sherborn a : xxii and Nissen : 36 dated this part Mit illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Evenhuis a : 73 dated this part but the title page on the copy in BHL is dated I have seen an advertisement in the 2 March issue of Intelligenzblatt der Allgemeinen Literatur-Zeitung stating that the book will be presented at the Leipzig Easter Book Fairs, which was held in on 5 May Evenhuis a : 4.

Dritter Theil. Dritte und letzte Abtheilung. This entire work was published in three Theilen. The Coleoptera are in the first pp. Two new species, Bostrichus pinastri Bechstein p. In drey Theilen. Mit xiii fein illuminirten Quartkupfern von J. Sturm gezeichnet und gestochen. Mit vier illuminirten Kupfertafeln. Hennings, Gotha. Vierter Theil. Zweyter Band. Desberger [ q. The Coleoptera are on pages 69—93, — and — One new species of beetle, Bostrichus abietiperda p.

Sein Gutsgebiet und das Land im weiteren Umkreise. Bearbeitet von Dr. Alexander Bittner. Flora des Gebietes. Fauna des Gebietes. Unter Mitwirkung von D r. Becher, D r. Brauer, L. Ganglbauer, Fr. Kohl, C. Koelbel, D r. Latzel, D r. Loew, J. Mann, D r. Mayr, J. Mik und A. Rogenhofer zusammengestellt von D r. Mit 5 Karten, 11 Tafeln und 37 Illustrationen im Texte. The entire work consists of three volumes, — Wolff, Augsburg. This work was published anonymously. It includes the descriptions of 40 new species of beetles pp. The Coleoptera are on pages 89— A second edition was issued in in Frankfurt and Leipzig n.

Bibliographie

Hagen : 37 mentioned that a new, improved edition by S. Scholz was published in Breslau, n. Tomus I. Regnum animale. Vandenhoeck, Gottingae. There are no new species in this work Sherborn : xiii. The entire work consists of two volumes Regnum animale and Regnum vegetabile issued in Tome 1er avec planche. This volume was issued in 11 parts, —, as follows: 1 : pp.

The preface is dated November p. On page xxiii, Bedel lists the genera and species described in the volume and gives, for the first time, the type species of his new genus-group taxa as follows: Bembidion subg. Bracteon type: Bracteon littorale Ol. Tome V. This volume was issued in 16 parts, —, as follows: pp. This volume treats the Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae. Tome VI. This volume was issued in 20 parts, —, as follows: pp. This volume deals with the Curculionidae Rhynchophora.

The dates of publication are those of the issues of the Annales where the corresponding pages were included. The following volumes were published: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 6 bis. Volume 2 on Staphylinoidea was authored by J. Sainte-Claire Deville, — Volume 4 dealing with Scarabaeidae , Buprestidae, and Elateridae , —, was authored by Bedel. The dates listed at the bottom of first page of each sheet are: pp. The last part pp. Exploration scientifique de la Tunisie. Cicindelidae — Staphylinidae. Famille des lathridiens. Storck [vol. Veertiende deel.

Loosjes, Te Haarlem. The author names are not listed on the title page. The first six volumes of the series were issued under different titles. Julio A. Entrega I. Ostwald y Martinez, Buenos Aires. The report of the Commission was published in three parts entregas , — Nebst der Anweisung, sie zu sammeln, zuzubereiten und aufzubewahren. Mit colorirten Abbildungen. Hoffmann, Stuttgart. This work was issued in ten Lieferungen Engelmann : : 1 : pp. The title page is dated The work comprises a systematic list of the European Coleoptera including a list of non-european genera with number of species pp.

Erster Jahrgang. This work was issued in parts. I have seen the following notices: pp. By 21 August Jena Ztg the first Jahrgang was completed. The title page is dated and the Vorrede 5 February A few new species of beetles, such as Dytiscus bistriatus p. Outlines of the natural history of Great Britain and Ireland. Containing a systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables, and fossiles which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms. In three volumes. Comprehending the animal kingdom. Elmsly, London. The beetles are on pages 85— of the first volume.

Second and third editions were published in [ q. Synopsis of the natural history of Great-Britain and Ireland. Containing a systematic arrangement and concise description of all the animals, vegetables, and fossils, which have hitherto been discovered in these kingdoms. Corrected and considerably enlarged. Comprehending the animal and fossil kingdoms.

Cadell, London. The Coleoptera are on pages 86— of the first volume. A third edition was published in [GB] with no change in pagination to the first volume of this edition. Tome II. The entire work consists of two volumes issued simultaneously. Two well-known beetle pests are made available in the second volume, Byrrhus taranio p. A preliminary version of the natural history part without Latin names for the taxa appeared in Miguel A. Mit 72 illuminirten Abbildungen auf 6 Tafeln. Vierte verbesserte Auflage. Otto Hendel, Halle. Five subsequent editions were issued between and The second edition n.

No information was found for the original edition. Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, Weimar. Authorship of these names should be credited to Berthold Evenhuis a : Lehrbuch der Zoologie. Cenniniana, Firenze. The title page is dated and the preliminaries December De quibusdam coleopteris agri Ticinensis. Dissertatio inauguralis quam annuentibus perillustri d. Bartholomaeo Panizza anatom. Universitate Ticinensi Mense Martii publicae disquisitioni offerebat una cum thesibus defendendis Betta Virginius Tirolensis e Cles.

This thesis treats some of the Coleoptera found in the fields of Pavia. The new species described are: Clivina binotata p. None of these species were recorded by Sherborn in his Index Animalium. Filtsch, Hermannstadt. The work contains a section on the fauna of Transylvania; a list of beetle species pp. Monographia mylabridum. Percheron : 30 and Engelmann : mentioned another edition, issued in , but according to Sherborn a : xxiv the edition does not exist. Agassiz : listed the publication date of this booklet as Enumeratio insectorum in museo Gust.

Gadelianis, [Stockholm]. A number of new family-group names of Coleoptera and several new genus-group names are made available by the inclusion of one or more available specific names under them. Coleoptera exclusive of the Carabidae. Part II. Edited by Baldwin Spencer. Dulau and Co. This expedition, fitted by William Austin Horn, was set in to investigate the part of Australia between Oodnadatta and Macdonnell Ranges Musgrave : The entire report was published in four parts. The Carabidae of the expedition were treated by Sloane [ q. One new beetle fossil, Buprestites bractoides , is made available by an illustration.

Levrault, Strasbourg. The text of this volume and the associated plates were issued in 32 livraisons from to Evenhuis b : although the title page of the text volume is dated — The Coleoptera are on pages 1— and plates 1— Pages 57— were issued in the following livraisons: 56 : pp. The dates of the Coleoptera plates are as follows: Plate 1 [livr. The collation is from Sherborn and Griffin who had access to a copy with original wrappers. The list of species illustrated on the plates is given in Appendix 5.

The entire expedition report was published in seven volumes of text and two volumes of plates 17 , —, issued in 90 livraisons Dickinson et al. A facsimile edition was published by Junk, in Lochem, Graesse : 35 mentioned that a new edition was published in , Paris. Poussielgue, Paris. There is no title page on this booklet and the author is not listed. Zoologie Atlas. Folio McG. The Zoologie Atlas contains colored plates, published in 28 livraisons between 25 March and 24 February The Coleoptera are depicted on 19 plates numbered 1—19 representing species of which were considered to be new and indicated by Nob[is].

Furthermore a number of new genera were made available from the plates. The dates of publication of these 19 plates, as discussed by Emberson see also Clark and Crosnier unless otherwise noted, are: Plate 1 [livr. A list of the Coleoptera depicted on the plates is given in Appendix 2. The text was published in [ q. Most of the zoological material of this expedition was collected around the Straits of Magellan, on various southern Pacific Islands, including New Zealand, in Tasmania, along the north coast of Australia and in the Indo-Malaysian archipelago from New Guinea to Singapore Emberson : Description des collections par MM.

Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. The date of listed on the title page of volume 4 probably refers to the completion of the volume. Collation and dates of publication of each livraison are desired. Overall, the atlases contain plates and four maps. Three of these plates refer to entomology and all of them pertain to Lepidoptera only. The Coleoptera are on pages 25—28 of the crustacea and insects section and the new species described are Mylabris jacquemontii p.

These volumes were also issued the same year by the publisher F. Tomo quinto. The entire Historia fisica y politica de Chile of Claude Gay [—] consists of 28 text-volumes and two atlas-volumes, — The Zoologia section forms eight volumes published between and based on the title-page dates. The text and plates were issued in 87 parts Evenhuis c : Collation and dates of publication for the parts are desired. The Coleoptera are in volumes 4 and 5. There are 32 plates depicting beetles, with scientific names listed at the bottom.

Stuardo Ortiz provided a list of all botanical and zoological taxa illustrated on the plates. The remaining pages of volume 5 related to Coleoptera were authored by Solier, [ q. Zoologie par MM. Hombron et Jacquinot. Gide et J. Baudry, Paris. The entire expedition report was published in 22 volumes and several atlases totaling about plates. The zoology section appeared in three volumes vol. III: ; vol. IV: ; vol. V: and one atlas of colored plates Clark and Crosnier Most of the plates were published before the text see Blanchard, — and the new taxa depicted on them date from the plates.

Part 6. By David Sharp; W. Blandford; and Karl Jordan. This work was published in several parts, — Herausgegeben von W.


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Zweiter Teil. The first one was authored by Wilhelm Gottlieb Becker alone. The second one was authored by several persons. There are 25 plates overall. A few new species are also described in the list of species pp. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. This work was published in two volumes, — The Coleoptera are on pages — of the first volume.

Twelve editions of this work, some of them updated, were issued between and see Kroke : 25— Quer durch Klein-Asien in den Bulghar-Dagh. Eine naturwissenschaftliche Studien-Reise. This work includes a section entitled Coleopterologisches pp. Insecta Caffraria annis — a J. Wahlberg collecta. Carabici, Hydrocanthari, Gyrinii et Staphylinii.

Cum Tab. II aen. Wahlberg collecta, amici auxilio suffultus. This work contains Latin descriptions of the Coleoptera collected by Johan August Wahlberg [—] in the region of Kaffraria, in present-day South Africa, during the years — Monographia cassididarum. Tomus primus cum Tab. Tomus secundus cum Tab. Tomus tertius cum Tab. Tomus quartus. Catalogue of coleopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part IX. The Trustees, London.

Species novas descripsit. Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien. Andra delen. Persson presented information regarding the voyage and the insect collection. This voyage was the first Swedish circumnavigation expedition, undertaken during the years — under the command of Chistian Adolf Virgin [—]. Both writers were tried for the supposed immorality of their works. Flaubert won his case, and his novel was distributed without censorship.

Baudelaire, who moonlighted as a translator in Paris, was obliged to cut half a dozen poems from his work and fined francs. His theory may now seem naive, but his work influenced most significant French writers of the late 19th century and is reflected in much 20th-century fiction as well. His novel Nana tells the decadent tale of a young woman who resorts to prostitution to survive the Paris of the Second Empire. Arthur Rimbaud, in addition to crowding an extraordinary amount of exotic travel into his 37 years and having a tempestuous sexual relationship with Verlaine, produced two enduring pieces of work: Une Saison en Enfer A Season in Hell; and Illuminations Verlaine died at 39 rue Descartes, 5e, in Les Faux-Monnayeurs The Counterfeiters; exposes the hypocrisy to which people resort in order to fit in with others or deceive themselves.

Colette Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette enjoyed tweaking the nose of conventionally moral readers. Her view was from 9 rue de Beaujolais in the 1er, overlooking Jardin du Palais Royal. In the late s certain novelists began to look for new ways of organising narrative. But these writers never formed a close-knit group, and their experiments took them in divergent directions. Philippe Sollers, an editor at Tel Quel, a highbrow, left-wing, Paris-based review, was very influential in the s and early '70s.

His s novels were highly experimental, but with Femmes Women; he returned to a conventional narrative style. Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault are other notable s and '70s authors and philosophers. Houellebecq's most recent work is Soumission Submission; , a contentious political satire featuring some of France's real-life politicians in a fictionalised near-future setting. Alard was acclaimed for the novel Moment d'un couple Moment of a Couple; , which was translated into English as Couple Mechanics in A suburban Paris housing estate where thousands of immigrants live like sardines in five-storey blocks stretching for 1.

Her third novel, Les Gens du Balto , published in English as Bar Balto , is a series of colloquial first-person monologues by various characters who live on a street in a Parisian suburb. French journalist, screenwriter and novelist Tatiana de Rosnay has a prolific output that includes the best-selling Sarah's Key , her first work written in English, and A Paris Affair The heyday of Paris as a literary setting, however, was the interwar period.

Awarded annually since , it tends to reflect topical issues in France. Most believed it to be the work of a man; it was only 40 years after publication that the author revealed her identity. His first novel was filmed as 's Just Like Heaven. According to philosopher Voltaire, French painting proper began with baroque painter Nicolas Poussin — , the greatest representative of 17th-century classicism, who frequently set scenes from ancient Rome, classical mythology and the Bible in ordered landscapes bathed in golden light.

Modern still life pops up with Jean-Baptiste Chardin — , who brought the humbler domesticity of the Dutch masters to French art. In neoclassical artist Jacques-Louis David — wooed the public with his vast portraits with clear republican messages. A virtual dictator in matters of art, he advocated a precise, severe classicism. His historical pictures eg Oedipus and the Sphinx, the version of which is in the Louvre are now regarded as inferior to his portraits.

While romantics revamped the subject picture, the Barbizon School effected a parallel transformation of landscape painting. In sculpture, the work of Paris-born Auguste Rodin — overcame the conflict between neoclassicism and romanticism. The realists were all about social commentary: Millet anticipated the realist program of Gustave Courbet —77 , a prominent member of the Paris Commune whose paintings depicted the drudgery and dignity of working-class lives.

He was a pivotal figure in the transition from realism to impressionism. By the midth century, memorial statues in public places had replaced sculpted tombs, making such statues all the rage. Sculptor Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux —75 began as a romantic, but his work in Paris — such as The Dance on the Palais Garnier and his fountain in the Jardin du Luxembourg — recalls the gaiety and flamboyance of the baroque era.

Initially a term of derision, 'impressionism' was taken from the title of an experimental painting, Impression: Soleil Levant Impression: Sunrise by Claude Monet — Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec — was a great admirer of Degas but chose subjects one or two notches less salubrious: people in the bistros, brothels and music halls of Montmartre eg Au Moulin Rouge.

He is best known for his posters and lithographs, in which the distortion of the figures is both satirical and decorative. The name of Paul Gauguin — immediately conjures up studies of Tahitian and Breton women.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME X

Cubism, as developed by Picasso, Georges Braque — and Juan Gris — , deconstructed the subject into a system of intersecting planes and presented various aspects simultaneously. Capturing the rebellious, iconoclastic spirit of Dadaism — a Swiss-born literary and artistic movement of revolt — is Mona Lisa, by Marcel Duchamp — , complete with moustache and goatee. In German Dadaist Max Ernst — moved to Paris and worked on surrealism, a Dada offshoot that flourished between the wars. Drawing on the theories of Sigmund Freud, surrealism attempted to reunite the conscious and unconscious realms, to permeate everyday life with fantasies and dreams.

Two other Paris-busy sculptors each have a museum devoted to their work: Ossip Zadkine — and Antoine Bourdelle — Many artists left during the occupation, and though some returned after the war, the city never regained its old magnetism. But art endured.

Conceptual artist Daniel Buren b reduced his painting to a signature series of vertical 8. Partner-in-crime Michel Parmentier — insisted on monochrome painting — blue in , grey in and red in From the turn of the 21st century, artists increasingly turned to the minutiae of daily urban life to express social and political angst, using new mediums to let rip. Paris-born conceptual artist Sophie Calle b brazenly exposes her private life in public with eye-catching installations, such as women reading and commenting on an email she received from her French lover, dumping her.

Street art took off in Paris thanks to Blek le Rat Xavier Prou; b , whose pioneering stencilled black rats across the city inspired artists such as Banksy, as well as French artist Levalet Charles Leval; b , who pastes lifelike, site-specific images in India ink on craft paper onto walls. Art themes often relate to the quartier neighbourhood or the name of the station. Paris is one of the world's most cinematic cities.