The married vampire couple, Adam Tom Hiddleston and Eve Tilda Swinton live across the world from one another despite having been together for almost hundreds of years. Adam lives in an abandoned neighbourhood in Detroit creating music and avoiding almost all human contact and starts contemplating suicide. Eve flies over from her home in Tangiers to be with him and help him break out from his intentions. There is quite a number of revenge movies and they all follow the same theme. Some bad guys have done wrong to a righteous guy, and now he wants to revenge the hell out of that wrong, whatever it might have been.
Usually, the good guy turned bad revenges his or her best buddy or a family member. Revenge movies are intended to deliver action, punches and few killings without the flinch of an eye. Without further ado, here are three movies that define the genre and have become a cult classic. Even though it received mixed reviews and ratings from movie critics, it became a home-video favourite and sold a large number of copies on DVD and Blu Ray. This revenge movie was directed by Tony Scott.
It features Denzel Washington and the kidnapped daughter Dakota Fanning of a money mogul played by Marc Anthony, who paid Creasy Washington to deliver her safely from the kidnappers. Creasy has multiple run-ins with members of the Mexican cartel, as well as with corrupt civil servants. Spoiler alert — Creasy, who is an alcoholic and bereft by personal woes, trades himself in for Lupita but wreaks havoc on the bad guys, including an attack with a bazooka. This low-budget film scored big both at the Academy Awards and in the box office.
The movie features Leonard, who is only able to remember his name thanks to napkin notes and post-its that he keeps in his pocket, along with Polaroid photos and tattoos on his body. Leonard has sustained head trauma and is unable to store his memory. The only way to remember what had happened is for Leonard to consult with his notes and try to piece together a series of events that are as mysterious as is the reason for his deplorable condition. Enter Natalie, who becomes involved with Leonard for reasons that are seemingly benign, possibly out of pity and unbloomed maternal instincts, but proceed to reveal ulterior motives.
There is also Teddy, who is in on a deal gone bad that has resulted in a murder. Meanwhile, to get an understanding of what this is all about, just check out Bingo Scanner and find the slot. They often say that films nowadays are all about effects and how everything comes down to how much a studio is willing to invest in production. That is only partially true though because the plot is still important.
In fact, great effects can make things even worse if the storyline is bad. Good films with a solid plot are eternal and people gladly watch movies that have been filmed and produced decades ago only if they have a great story and they tend to forget recent releases that might have a lot better effects, but whose stories are quite lame. The film makes you wonder and ask yourself a lot of questions. Will such thing be possible in the future? Would you choose to do this, if it was an option? The main character is actually struggling with her mental health after she finds herself in competition with the black swan, the other main character played by Mila Kunis.
Many critics have seen the metaphorical meaning of this movie and it is clear that this a very deep work of art, with plenty of levels. Many film critics would go as far as to claim that it is not only the best John Ford film but perhaps one of the top five films of all time. The story starts when a senator travels with his wife from Washington to the wild west to attend a funeral of a local hero. With a flashback, the viewers are taken 25 years back when the senator was still a young attorney.
Check SecretSlots. Still, even though series are massive today and some of them attract greater audience than many films, people are still making and watching films and in we can expect some amazing film releases. Quite a few great films have already been released, mind you. Avengers was produced by Disney and it continues the story of its prequels.
Some of the greatest actors of today star in the Avengers, including Robert Downey Jr. Black Panther is another Marvel themed film that was released this year and it follows the story of the character of the same name. This film had its premier towards the end of January and it is currently the second highest grossing film this year and the ninth highest grossing film of all times.
Chadwick Boseman, Michael B. This film had its premiere in Spain and is yet to be released in the US but considering all the hype and the success of the previous Jurassic films, have no doubts that Fallen Kingdom will be not only one of the best films in the Jura series, but also one of the greatest films this year. It becomes a bit of a pattern, but it is appears that sequels to previous successful titles are the top and most awaited films this year. This is a rather surprising choice, but we opted to present you something a little bit different.
It is an exciting drama, quite refreshing and different from the films we are used to. But, it is fair to say that the past few years have been the best for series and there is a proliferation of new and exciting titles. It is pretty obvious what this story is based on, it is right there in the title. Throughout the series we follow the lives of Gianni and his sister Donatella, played by Penelope Cruz, but also his lover and murderer, a psychopath with serious mental problems.
To be precise, Patrick Melrose is more of a mini-series, but it is definitely a great success, featuring amazing Benedict Cumberbatch in the role of a middle-class English heroin addict. This Netflix show is running for a second season. Racial tensions are the central theme of the series, but this is not your standard ghetto story. Dear White People is set in an Ivy League school where black students struggle to improve their position in their environment and society. Through various interesting and explosive situations, the story develops further as we see our favourite characters from the first session getting more mature and more experienced.
Titans is not yet released, but it will be out this year. Based on DC Comics, these series will definitely be enjoyed by all who liked the animated Teen Titans. This one is for Marvel fans. Jessica Jones, the superheroine crime fighter played by the Krysten Ritter. The first season was very successful, but the second is expected to be even more enticing.
The star of the show announced that the story will get a lot more personal in the second season. This show was also continued for a second season after a long break. The action takes place in Atlanta and the main characters are two cousins who are trying to become successful rappers. The first season won many awards and after a two and a half year break the series returns.
The world knows quite few television series that have only lasted for few seasons, but have made a lasting impression on their audiences. Whatever the case may be, these shows have not been extended and their fans have been left looking for answers and hoping that someday there will be more. The show only lasted two seasons and won praise from the audience — at least from those who were watching it. The show was so decent that its lead actress Laura Dern won the Golden Globe Award for best actress in a television series.
Despite that, in the financially cruel world of American television series low ratings are low ratings and any show will get cancelled. Following a host of subsequent disappointments in life, Amy Jellicoe goes to a spiritual retreat and comes back refreshed and with a new perspective on life. While her old habits and self-destructive temper have not been thoroughly expunged, Jellicoe tries her best to help her ex husband get back on track in his own life.
This is one of the best television series that catered to the teen and adolescent audiences. The plot is set in a Detroit suburb and follows a cast of characters, who owing to their style and preferences in music, attire, mood, etc. The show makes it apparent how thin the line between the various clicks is, as some of the characters cross show both freaks and geeks tendencies. The show is a remake of the film with the same title and pretty much a similar premise. The remake features a theme park that is inhabited by androids that are fitted with an impeccable cognitive reasoning that enables them to interact as real human beings between each other and with flesh-and-blood human beings.
We believe that it will stop at the second season, because, what will there be once the robots have woken up, a robot takeover and an ensuing apocalypse? Last week we went through some American remakes of UK series , including successful and unsuccessful stories, but, there are quite a few instances of the opposite — that is, US TV series that were remade and adapted for the UK market.
Some of these were actual remakes, where pretty much most of the story matched, with the exception of the place names and some cultural references, whereas other are UK series that have simply been inspired by US shows. Married with Children is considered to be a pretty iconic TV show, with viewers all over the world.
Al Bundy and his wife Peggy became common place in modern pop culture. By the time the show ended in it was already broadcast on a number of networks outside the US. Remakes were released for several markets, and one of the first countries where a remake was released was the UK. The UK version of Married with Children was titled Married for Life and the first episode went live in , only a year before the original show ended.
In the UK version we witness the story of a widow Caroline who is bringing up her son in the countryside. Her mother than hires Charlie, a former footballer who has suffered an injury as a housekeeper, and throughout the series we see how Charlie and Caroline fall in love with each other. Days Like These is frequently called the worst UK sitcom. That is a bit strange considering that it is a quite literal adaptation of That s Show, one of the top American sitcoms of all times.
Many of the characters in Days Like These even had the same names as their American counterparts. The foreign exchange student was called Torbjorn Rasmussen. The first six episodes were aired, and the show was cancelled afterwards. As you can see, audiences can respond differently to different shows, and sometimes the remakes can be a true hit, whereas other times the original series have much greater success.
It is still quite obvious that the cultural differences between the US and the UK sometimes make it impossible for certain references to be translated or adapted. For instance, as we have mentioned, the approach to slots, casino gaming and betting in both countries is very different. TV series are have become a focal point of modern entertainment, and these days you will see some of the best actors playing in TV series, whereas only a decade ago that was unimaginable, and series were only seen as a stepping stone for actors who want to make a name for themselves.
Unlike films where there is only a short period for characters to develop and for the plot to reach its peak, in series, directors and screenwriters have room to experiment, build their story and develop their characters. You may or may not agree with that, but one thing is certain, the viewers in the US and the UK have different tastes and different expectations. Here we have a look at a number of UK series that were remade in the states. Some were as successful as the originals, whereas others were utter failure.
Either way, these shows are a vivid reminder and testament of how people, on each side of the Atlantic, have different tastes in cinema, even if they speak the same language. Office is one of the successful stories, and even though the US and the UK version of this amazing show differ significantly, we have to say that both are actually quite good, and their popularity ratings can prove it.
Many would argue that the American version was more successful and more popular, since it went on for nine seasons, compared to the UK series which was only aired for two years. These TV series were absolutely butchered by the Americans. It is hard to even draw a comparison between the realistic, vibrant, lively UK version of Skins and the American watered down, outright censored version of the show. Many in the UK called it an abomination and they were quite right. The UK version of Skins pained a much more realistic picture of teenage life, whereas the makers of the American show wanted to make it a bit more glamourous but ended up failing miserably.
Some say it was due to bad casting, others claim that America already had Friends at the time when the US version of Coupling was about to be launched. Either way, it was no good and it got cancelled after just few shows. This example is opposed of the previous two. The American version of House of Cards proved to be a right hit with the audience, so much so, that when somebody mentions House of Cards it is more likely that they are referring to the US remake, rather than the UK original.
In these series you can notice how different the UK urban life is from its American counterpart. Speaking of slot machines, check out www. The Wild West has been a source of inspiration for countless movies, as well as parodies of the Western movie genre. Naturally, these type of westerns are few far in between, but they exist and some of them are really good. We shall take a look at some of Epic Wild West Comedy Movies that have left an impression on moviegoers, and in the case of one particular movie, home-tv watchers.
The film written by Adam Sandler features a slew a known actors and a bunch of other famous people who have their cameos. The film was made for the exclusive release on Netflix. It is interesting mentioning that Ridiculous 6 was dropped by three big studios before being picked up by the online streaming service Netflix. Even movie critics have given the film thumbs down, at the time it was featured, it is said Ridiculous 6 has gained more views than any other Netflix title in the period of 30 days.
Regardless the controversy, the movie is a timeless wild west comedy that deserves to be seen. The Wild Wild West is a steampunk-esque western movie, owing the to the use of astoundingly out of place hydraulic machines. The movie is about revenging the murder and curbing the free-wheeling general, who has hydraulic warmaking contraptions of his own. A good part of the movie takes place on a train and has some gun fights, some falling in love, some mishaps and so on.
In fact, the trailer made an attempt to impose the movie as an action comedy, but it delivered few, week doses of the latter. Is this an epic wild west comedy movie, or is it an epic fail? The Wild Wild West can be your cup of movie night with friends. This here is one of the best Wild West online slots on the internet. It features a lone bounty hounter who is out to make some money catching bandits. The slot features free spins, bonus plays, wild symbols and a jackpot. You can find out at www. The best movies out there are those where the cast behaves as if it they are not in a movie, but a real thing.
There are some movies that feel natural — like the plot is taking place right in front of your eyes — and when you start watching a movie like that, you just know it. This is thanks to the gel that bundles the different tissues that are formed by the actors, the script and the production crew. When these elements form a synergy the actors basically play one of their nuanced alter egos, making it seem as if the role had been scripted for the events taking place on the screen right then and there.
Al Pacino is known for many of his roles, both on screen and on stage, however, one of the most memorable is his portrayal of Tony Montana in Scarface. Yes, Scarface. Whenever Montana lost it, Al Pacino erupted with his own pent-up impressions of whatever thing makes him lose it. Screaming, shouting, shaking violently and shooting from pistols and automatic weapons while under the influence of the narcotics he is selling to powerful people.
Tony Montana has anger, angst and passion which detonate under the pressure of the moments of danger and betrayal. Al Pacino really loses himself in this role, making Tony Montana a movie character who inspires young people to be and act tough, and perhaps more than that. In Scent of a Woman Pacino plays Frank Slade, a blind army lieutenant who happens to enjoy responding impulsively to the sudden whims of resolve which occur as reactions to his own entanglements and relations with other people.
Becoming immersed in the moral deliberations of certain events, Pacino, that is, Frank, goes off on a tangent a number of times and makes everybody around himself feel uncomfortable with the situation. This happens on numerous occasions, but the most memorable scene is when Frank unleashes an ardent speech in trying to defend Charlie in front of the faculty disciplinary committee.
All 23 Marvel Cinematic Universe Movies Ranked, from Worst to Best
Frank raises eyebrows with Pacino being fully immersed in the role. Pacino won the Best Actor Academy Award and the film was nominated for a number awards. In recent years, there is a tendency to accompany almost every successful movie with its own game. That is why we have decided to compile a Top 5 Movie Slots to make it easier for you to find this excellent slot game releases. Our selection of five movie slots is as follows:. It features numerous high-quality video clips from the Oscar-winning film by Ridley Scott that take players directly to the centre of the Colosseum.
The most outstanding bonus feature in the game is the Colosseum bonus round which makes use of an interactive style found in a number of popular games.
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In this round, you can unlock different items, including free spins, multipliers, and additional wild and scatter symbols. If you want to see this in action, you can find the game at www. The release of every Marvel movie or TV series is an event for the fans of the company because they regularly set records.
Each sequel to the film has got its own slot game following the story of the respective film. As with the previous two slots, The Avengers also uses characters and motifs from the popular Marvel film. Just as the film was full of Marvel superheroes, the slot comes packed with multiple progressive jackpots, including the one which is found in almost all Marvel online slots.
The game comes with three progressive jackpots that can easily amount to tens of thousands. Following the success of the film, the online slot came about utilizing the film as a source material. Probably the most impressive element of the game is its background, which usually shifts throughout Gotham City with each spin of the reel set. The last selection on our list is another slot game adaptation of a popular film franchise.
Being an official slot game of the film and book franchise, it is designed to reproduce the universe of the film faithfully.
The most prominent elements of the game are the reel symbols that represent various characters and elements from the movie. Let us start with dynamism. Nobody wants to watch a slow and dull film, and similarly, nobody wants to play a slow slot game that lacks dynamicity. Moreover, slots and movies both rely and depend on graphics and sound effects, in both cases it is the visual and the sound effects that catch your attention and keep you tied to your seat.
However, slots and movies may follow the same plot, and may be based on the same theme. There have been numerous slots which are based on successful and popular film titles and in many cases, film producers have given slot developers the green light to create slot games based on their movies. There are few exceptions, of course, but in most cases, slots that are based on successful and popular films become successful and popular themselves.
Often, slots are based on films that are based on comic books and it seems that both films fans and slots fans are also fans of comics. The Planet of the Apes slot by NetEnt is one very innovative game based not on one, but on two films of the Planet of the Apes franchise. In this game you will notice that one half of the screen features symbols from the Rise of the Planet of the Apes, whereas the second half of the reels shows symbols and characters from the Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. Each half features five reels and three rows, so id we take both halves together, there are ten reels.
The game has 20 paylines and can be played with a minimum of 20p. King Kong is one of the most iconic cinematographic stories, and the movie was remade in and we must admit that the remake was equally popular. In fact, it was so popular that a video slot was based on it. This game offers ways to win and an RTP of So, if you like to explore various slots, both ones based on popular films, as well as games that feature a different theme, have a look at www.
The bad and the worst, the sillies and the wackiest of them all can be collected in one place. We are talking about Superheroes, and how they are all present in the everyday box and everyday life of the media inspired by movies, songs, comic books, but there is still a gender they need to make a drastic change — Gaming. There are games where superheroes are the main heroes and villains in them, but they come really rarely, probably one good a year that is worth playing. You can try some of the superheroes slots game by ginning Free Spins at Dunder, or you can see the other options that we have for you.
With dominating the Box Office, the Superheroes deserve more credit in the video gaming community and there should definitely be more games where superheroes are included in them. Check them out! Old but Gold PC game that dates back from Patriot City is attacked from villains and monsters and for a game that is from it holds pretty good.
The graphics are top-notch and a special accent is put to the voice of the game. The players that already tried this game are all impressed with the voices and if you decide to go with this game, you will have a lovely time playing. Everyone has been waiting for this game to come for a long time. Inspired by the comic books, with more than characters available to explore the world with, this MMORPG is one of the best ones on the market so far. It brought back the Superheroes in video games talk, as it is released The gameplay is the same as the Marvel Heroes , but the objectives and goals are different.
There is no one right way to finish the game and there is more than one goal. This is pretty fun to play and you will definitely have an amazing time while doing so. Hollywood is known for the glam lifestyle, blockbuster movies and the actors who make them, who by the way earn millions of dollars per year. The funny thing about Hollywood is that nothing is cast in stone. Deals are made and broken and the list of millionaire celebrities changes as fast as they go in and out of rehab.
Adam Sandler is known for his comedies. Some of these are total flops and some are awkwardly good. Whatever the case, Sandler always succeeds cashing-in on his movies because somehow people still go to see them even when they are just plain bad, or mediocre, like Little Nicky and Jack and Jill. Vin Diesel is the man behind a bunch of high octane Hollywood blockbusters, some of which have become money-making franchises, such as the Fast and Furious series. Vin Diesel is not just an action movie hero. The Chronicles of Riddick and Riddick, the sequel, also significantly contributed to his net worth.
The always smiling guy and tough-guy badass is always found in excellent roles. He started his career as a wrestler and rose to popularity in the ring before becoming one of the best paid actors in the world. The Rock does voice overs for animated movies, comedies, as well as action movies. He is the co-star in the Fast and Furious franchise and has appeared in more than 15 high-grossing action movies. Joe, Snitch, Skyscraper and more. Dwayne Johnson is respected in Hollywood, which is rare for that city where people gossip about one another and there are lots of personal animosities between celebrities.
He plays his roles, makes his earnings and supports many charities and good causes. Some people make it lucky in Hollywood and some can win the Jackpot on a slot machine, say at one of the online casinos on www. There are actions movies and horror movies and romantic romances and there are cute animal movies. There is an abundance of movies centered on a single animal or a bunch of different ones, so we want to select few that are really captivating thanks to their story-line and the main more-or-less cuddly protagonist.
Features Marley the yellow Labrador retriever who is picked from a litter of his equally adorable brothers and sisters. Marley is adopted by John and Jenny, a lovely couple played by Owen Wilson and Jennifer Aniston, who move to Florida and get jobs at two competing newspapers. However, when John gets the new assignment of writing about whatever gets his attention, he decides to start with Marley whose mishaps get the most adorable out of him.
In the end, Marley dies of old age and until the end he remains as adorable as when he was first introduced as a puppy. Hachi is based on a true story about a dog of the Japanese Akita Inu race. The story about Hachi starts when an American professor finds a lost puppy that has been sent to the US from Japan, towards an intended owner who could not be found. The adorable Akita Inu walks with professor Parker to the train station where he was found day in and day out and waits for him in the same spot until he returns. One day the professor does not return to the train station but Hachi does not want to imagine the faith of his best friend.
And even though the dog is given a new home, he escapes and returns to the station. This movie is based on an American bestseller about an underdog racehorse during the Great Depression, which comes from behind and becomes a legend. Even though a thoroughbred colt, his smaller than usual size put him at a disadvantage, but Seabiscuit was also purposely mishandled by his previous trainers so that he loses races and leans the odds towards select few.
However, before a major race, Red is injured and Seabiscuit is given a new jockey who learns a secret how to hand him and win the race. Movies with adorable animals and stories centered on their fortunes are somewhat like slots machines with animal themes. There are many slots about cats, dogs, penguins and horses that are available on www. Here are three of the greatest gambling movie scenes ever.
The Gambler featuring Jim Bennett, played by Mark Wahlberg, is about a literature professor who has an uncanny appetite for gambling. Jim gets into a money pickle because of his habit and reaches out to some dangerous people for more money. He also has good friends who become his frienemies because he has a tendency of siphoning out money from loan sharks. The twist comes when Jim coaxes a basketball player, Lamar, to underperform so that a wager can be won to the benefit of the loan shark.
Even though The Gambler is more about an inflated real-life mix up of someone with a gambling addiction, the movie does have a thrilling gambling showdown that is one for the books. Casino Royale is a James Bond movie with a memorable gambling scene which involves high-stakes play that ends with in the near-fatal poisoning of Agent That gambling scene sets off the action that will wrap up into one of the most memorable James Bond editions in the last two decades. Zinos-Amaro said that there is quantum information theory, and that in "Quantum Aspects of Life", Schroedinger said that genetic information is discrete bits hence the importance of quantum mechanics.
Hemry said that genetics is a lot more complicated than people thought; chemicals affect whether genes turn on or off, etc. Gillett said that it is "very glamorous to invoke quantum mechanics or entropy", but is it necessary when chemistry is enough? Benford clarified, "You mean classical chemistry, not quantum chemistry, don't you? Ctein said that many of these theories do not suspend his disbelief because they are too facile.
For example, he said, "'Quantum mechanics could explain free will' isn't even wrong. Zinos-Amaro asked, if one thinks of the molecules of life as information processors, do they transmit classical or quantum bits? Benford said that he doubts q-bits--it looks very classical. Nature does not have to be parsimonious because everything is being selected all the time. If win the first round, you win all the succeeding rounds. But he would bet on classical bits.
Zinos-Amaro asked what range of fundamental constants for stellar fusion, carbon formation, etc. He added that anthropomorphic arguments about string theory are similar to arguments about constants. Ctein said that just because we do not know something does not mean there are selection rules in place. There are big gaping gaps in our knowledge, and most matter formed in the Big Bang is dark matter, not any form of matter that we are familiar with. Benford thought that whatever dark matter is, it is fairly boring because it does not interact with gravity, "so the hell with it.
Benford said, "That classes you as an optimist. Zinos-Amro asked, "What about non-biological intellectual development? Hemry asked, "Can it be artifcial life if it develops? Ctein agreed with him, and mentioned Fred Hoyle's fictional sentient clouds. Benford said he had written a novel about magnetically-based life in plasma loops on sun Sunborn.
Someone asked about universes where math is different. This sounded like Greg Egan's "Luminous". Someone else asked whether it was possible that constants are different elsewhere. This sounds a lot like the basic question they started with. The answer was, "Probably not. There was a question about universes with a different number of spatial dimensions. Benford said that orbits were stable in 3 or 5 dimensions, but not in 1, 2, or 4. There was some long, complicated question about what law controlled the half-life of Beryllium Benford said it was the strong nuclear force.
After the panel, the questioner said to someone, "My question was asked out of pure sadism," which struck me as an inconsiderate waste of the panel's and the audience's limited time. Hemry closed by observing, "A crackpot theory is one that hasn't been proven or disproven yet. Description: "Which common panel topics should be retired and why? Marley thought the issue was often not the topic but the panelists.
Olson talked about the perennial line in panelists' self-introduction: "I don't know why I am on this panel. I did have one instance where I was scheduled for a panel on scratch art. But I contacted the programming people when I got my schedule and told them this was probably a mistake--and it was. I noted that when I told Mark about this panel, he said, "I can't believe they're doing another panel on topics done too often. Silver said "Filk " was another one, and more focused topics would help. Olson disagreed somewhat, saying that there are always first-timers who have not seen these panels.
Olson added "How to Behave" aimed at pros. I said in part it depends on how many new versus how many repeat members your convention gets. Marley said that some panels are just not good panels. For example, "Religion in Science Fiction" never gets anywhere except arguments.
Olson said that some program planners want controversy. Silver said he thought that a discussion was better than controversy. Olson said that another oft-repeated panel is "The Year in Film" or whatever , but this is actually a new panel each year. Marley thought "The History of Science Fiction" is too large. Also, she said, she is tired of looking backward, and would prefer more forward-looking panels.
Olson said that some panels are better as one-person lectures. Others would be better in a shorter time slot, but that is hard to do. Olson talked about meta-programming a convention, by starting the weekend with panels on first novels, and ending with the death of science fiction.
There was also mention of interactive items, and role-playing items, such as "The Worst Panel Ever" done as theater, where the panelists took roles in arriving late, building a wall of their books, etc. Some liked this; I attended it once at Boskone and found it annoying and tedious, and left early. Silver suggested combining all the overdone panels into one, with five minutes for each one. Conversely, one could split up the overdone panels into more narrowly focused ones.
Olson said that although many people think that panels on electronic publication, podcasting, rights, etc. Leeper observed that most conventions ask panelists on the sign-up questionnaire what panels they do not want to be on, but Silver responded that certain people are expected to be on certain panels e.
Marley talked about the idea of the non-participatory moderator, but I do not think Turtledove as a non-participatory moderator is what people expect. And Olson said that there are not many non-participatory moderators because there are not enough good moderators to start with. Olson said that the programming staff are like editors, and must pick and choose. As for topics rather than specific panels done to death, Silver thought that steampunk has been done to death. Olson wondered if zombies have been done to death.
The answer was, yes, until Mira Grant's Feed came out and revitalized the genre. Audience members seemed to think that zombies, werewolves. Leeper mentioned the whole "mash-up" sub-genre e. Leeper said that she thought an excellent panelist could make an overdone topic interesting and named Robert Silverberg, Barry N. Malzberg, and Howard Waldrop as three examples. Marley said it was important to see new panelists as well, rather than always the same people, and also stressed the need to look forward, with not as much looking backward.
Olson said it is easier to program a Worldcon than a smaller convention, because there is more room to try things, and you can do more single-person items such as John Scalzi's talk on the Creation Museum. Leeper thought "drunk panels" usually late at night and its cousin, the "Midnight Horror Panel", were overdone.
Description: "From Forbidden Planet to Godzilla , from King Kong to The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad , the years from the '30s to the mid-'60s had a number of good and fun but not-so-good films that we all remember from watching the late show. Eggleton described himself as "an expert all things Godzilla. Leeper said that in he realized that he had missed six years of s science fiction film and has been making it up ever since. Penney's main influence was Starlog. Penney began by asking for the panelists' favorite films. Chwedyk said the first film he could remember was King Dinosaur , and regarding restorations, he said there was no way to restore a film that bad.
The first film he saw in a theater was The 7th Voyage of Sinbad , and he realized that this was no magnified lizard; Ray Harryhausen's creatures had tics and gestures and a life of their own. His family used to go to the drive-in, to save on baby-sitters, and that is where he saw Psycho and Angry Red Planet.
Chwedyk went on a bit longer than everyone else. Leeper said the first science fiction film he saw was War of the Worlds. He hated it at age 3, and for weeks afterwards was terrified to take a shower because of the showerhead image of the Martian heat ray device. But by age 6 he was desperate to see the film again.
Another early film he saw was Godzilla, King of the Monsters. Eggleton mentioned the films produced by Joseph E. Harryhausen disliked Godzilla, King of the Monsters and felt it had stolen The Beast from 20, Fathoms , but Eggleton said that Godzilla had a name, whereas Harryhausen's monsters did not. Eggleton also likes Monster Zero. Eggleton said it is not as easy as it looks. I found it ironic that in one of the Toho films, a couple of schoolgirls are in front of the Sendai train station, explaining that they are safe because they are away from Tokyo. And while in an American film science solves the problem, Eggleton pointed out, in a Japanese film, science causes the problem.
Eggleton liked the oxygen destroyer in Godzilla. Leeper said that the Japanese wanted to show they would do it right by committing suicide in order to prevent future use of such a dangerous weapon. Leeper said that historically, there were four waves of science fiction: German Expressionism in the s, Universal Studios in the s and s, s SF films, and Hammer Films in the s and s.
Chwedyk claimed that The Day the Earth Stood Still does not qualify I think because the aliens are somewhat friendly and the Russians are not , but that Invasion of the Body Snatchers did. Eggleton mentioned the The Thing from Another World. Chwedyk said these were all part of the s paranoia, which also included Invaders from Mars , in which William Cameron Menzies designed sets to intensify the paranoia.
Leeper said that in the Universal horror films the monsters have too much emotion. In Invasion of the Body Snatchers , the monsters have no emotion. Chwedyk said that Don Siegel claimed that most of the people he worked with in Hollywood were pods, and he hated the new ending that the studio insisted on adding to the film. Eggleton mentioned the classic film magazines such as Monster World and Castle of Frankenstein. These were before the before Internet and YouTube, he pointed out, and kids would see these teasing photos.
Ackerman Famous Monsters of Filmland , but produced a better magazine. Castle of Frankenstein covered comics and books as well as movies. Leeper said, " Famous Monsters of Filmland was the big one when I was growing up but it was a mixed blessing. It covered silent films, but it never said anything negative about films. Ackerman was positive even on Creeping Terror. Cinefantastique was the peak, and had excellent writing. Eggleton and Chwedyk agreed on this, but Chwedyk said that it hit a rut. Leeper agreed, saying they shifted to heavy coverage of one big film in a "double issue" rather than shorter coverage of more but smaller films.
Someone in the audience asked about zombies. Leeper said that what everyone calls zombies are really vampires. In face, George Romero calls them the un dead rather than zombies. They acquired the name when Dawn of the Dead became Zombie in Italy. Leeper talked about flaws and bad films. Eggleton noted that Ed Wood was trying to make good films, and said one should distinguish between a lack of talent versus cynicism and greed. Chwedyk said that Ed Wood's films have a weird surrealism, and that there is a beauty to some of these pictures.
Eggleton mentioned Robot Monster as one of these? Chwedyk said that in those days you needed a lot of equipment to make a film, so it was a lot harder to be lousy in then. Someone suggested that the budgets were below what they are today, but the acting was above. Eggleton said that then they had character actors who did their jobs, but now we have celebrities. Chwedyk said that Roger Corman was a great training ground for actors, and that the lack of money forced more creativity than now. Leeper said that in spite of the "wave" of s science fiction, in the s science fiction films were a rarity, but now there are multiple science fiction films each week.
And Eggleton said that in the s you did not see special effects until much later in the film. And contrary to popular belief, They also sometimes had serious subplots. For example Giant Gila Monster had a subplot about a returning veteran and class tensions in a small town. It also saw huge changes in SF, with the coming of the New Wave and the reactions for and against it. Looking back, how do we view s SF.
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Zinos-Amaro pointed out that he was not even alive in the s. Frenkel was alive, Kaufman was alive then in his teens and went to his first convention in And Silverberg said, "I'm Robert Silverberg, and if you don't know why I'm on this panel, you're probably in the wrong room. Frenkel said it was a parody of J. Zinos-Amaro said it was Ballard, and Silverberg said that that was the same thing.
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I think the claim was that this marked the beginning of the New Wave, at least in Britain--Silverberg said that in the United States it ran from to Silverberg said that he offered to--twenty-five years ago. We had the Beach Boys and the "British Rock Invasion" simultaneously, and "people like Barry Malzberg doing extremely weird shit and being bitter about it. Kaufman said that United States authors did not think they were part of a movement as much as British authors did.
Silverberg concurred: "You're absolutely right, Jerry. In Britain, authors collaborated and interacted.
She claimed no one read England Swings SF. Other changes were in the air: Astounding became Analog and Galaxy transitioned from H. There were authors with literary rather than pulp credentials: Roger Zelazny, Samuel R. Delany, Philip K. Silverberg said that he and Ellison had been pulp authors, as had been John Brunner. New Wave was "a movement that went on flourishing without a readership until when publishers looked at the sales figures and said, 'What is this?
Get rid of it. Frenkel said that it was a time of sex, drugs, and rock and roll. Before it in , there was one hall at Stoneybrook where people smoked pot. So it was not surprising that Philip K. Dick was writing about fracturing reality. Zinos-Amara saw science fiction as "a literature trying to give a sense of the future, but this is strongly fixed in the [then] present. Silverberg disagreed, saying the real feeling was there, but not the technical tools to express it.
Other things were either not in demand by readers, or were prohibited by publishers. The shift from magazines to paperbacks freed things up. Magazines depend on subscriptions, loyalty, and a consistent image. Paperbacks were a bit more liberal, but varied. Ace under Donald Wollheim founded in was fairly conservative, but Ballantine under Ian and Betty Ballantine founded in was less so.
The problem was that more advanced books were not selling. Kaufman talked about "branding by cover artist," with Richard Powers being appealing as a New Wave cover artist. Silverberg said that Powers's style was based on Yves Tanguay's, and that Ace used artists such as Emsh. Kaufman mentioned Roy Krenkel and Frank Frazetta.
He said Wollheim hated it. Frenkel said, "Science fiction is always about the present. It's set in the future, but it's about the present. Silverberg said he has been asked, "Why did you write such depressing books? Someone asked which experiments of the s succeeded and which failed? Frenkel said that different narrative techniques were tried which have remained with us, and Zinos-Amara said that there was an overall raising of the literary bar. Silverberg said that writers began looking at technology through their characters.
Someone asked how writers like Aldous Huxley and Kurt Vonnegut fit into the s science fiction scene. Silverberg said that Vonnegut once said, "Don't give me one of your awards; I can't afford to make the sort of money you do. Bunch, who Silverberg said was sui generis , as was R. Description: "Some Hugo categories are in an almost constant state of clarification and discussion. What are the current issues with the Fanzine and Semi-Prozine categories? These dominated the Fanzine category, so in and the Semi-Prozine category was created.
It became a sort of catch-all category, and by too many nominees were marginal--and Locus always won. Garcia said that the guidelines were based on The Alien Critic. Hartwell said, "Fans have long memories--and fix their memories in their youth. Neither is true. Lynch said he wants to see a return to the notion of discrete issues which are read, rather than blogs, podcasts, etc. Garcia said that the shift away from Locus winning every year started when the conventions started distributing Hugo packets and people could see what all the nominees looked like.
Clarke said that helps the nominees, but not everyone else. The problems of paid versus free subscriptions, and how to define circulation on-line were raised. Hartwell said that Locus is definitely under 10,, though it had come close in the past. Clarke said that the old definition did not rule out professional magazines, but the field has changed and the first step is to define "professional". He felt that for starters, on a fanzine no one should be paid. Also, the self-selection aspect of the Semi-Prozine category annoyed him.
Garcia disagreed, but did not explain why. Clarke suggested that "professional" be defined as providing a quarter of the income of anyone person.
Mark points out that anyone with no income who is producing a fanzine is getting a quarter of their zero income from it and hence is a professional. Saul Jaffe and others have pointed out that people may not feel like revealing their financial information to the Hugo committee. Lillian thought that paying anyone anything meant you were not a fanzine. Clarke said that people were trying to use SFWA qualifications, but they do not apply. He said that "semi-professional" is " non -professional", but that it can pay, or be available for pay.
Hartwell said that in his opinion, fanzines can ask for money, but not require it. Segal said that the effect of the "quarter-income rule" would be to eliminate Locus , Interzone , Weird Tales , Lady Churchill's Wristlet , and Lightspeed from the Semi-Prozine category. Segal closed by saying that the magazine was not the editor, to which Hartwell responded, "You're thoroughly and completely wrong.
There seemed to be multiple proposals being discussed here, which tended to confuse the discussion, as some comments were addressing whether an income test was reasonable, and others concentrating on circulation questions. Description: "Novellas often called simply short novels outside the genre have been described as long enough to contain the world but short enough to be read in an afternoon.
Some of the great works of fiction both in SF and elsewhere are in this form. What makes novellas such a good form and what are some of the best examples. Dozois said that he and Silverberg both consider the novella to be the perfect length for science fiction. Reed noted that he won his Hugo for short fiction for a novella. It is true that he won for both "Nightwings" and "Gilgamesh in the Outback", but he also won for a novelette, "Enter a Soldier.
Later: Enter Another". Dozois lamented that he too had written some novellas, but never won a Hugo for any of them. Strahan said he had read some novellas. Silverberg, Dozois, and Strahan have all edited anthologies of novellas. Reed said that he likes the limited number of markets for novellas because it focuses and challenges him. He says that he writes two or three a year.
Silverberg said that when an editor asks for a re-write you can argue back. Reed said that Dozois once wanted changes to one of his novellas, but he refused. Silverberg said that once the editor changed the narrator in a first-person story he had written, but would have accepted the originally if Silverberg had insisted.
Dozois said that some writers do not want changes, and that A. Bertram Chandler once lamented, "But I still wanted to write the story I wanted to write in the first place. Silverberg said that editors like novellas because they like stories that fill space. Dozois said that he gets bored reading novels; Silverberg said that he gets bored writing them.
Eighty pages gives you room to create a world without requiring hundreds of pages of writing. Strahan said that a novella can be read in a single setting, unlike a ,word novel. Dozois said that a 40,word novella meant he still needed many short stories for the rest of the magazine. He also said he hates breaking a novella into two parts. Why would he even consider doing that? Strahan said there are two ways to expand a novella, either by putting in three words for every one, or by continuing the story.
Reed said that a novella has more characters and more setting than a short story. The result is that one has to work harder on a novella, not just longer. Silverberg said that when he starts a story he knows what length it will be. He does not know he knows it, though sort of like the centipede who does not know how he manages all his legs.
Dozois said that according to some authors, they were writing a short story but it turned into a novel. When this happens, he said, "You're doing it wrong. Dozois said this was the reverse of Them Bones , and said that we used to have 50, to 60,word novels, but now these are considered too short.
Silverberg said that even longer novels are not enough any more, and talked about how someone said, "Yes, it sold very well for a stand-alone novel. Dozois said that he had shrunk the novel-length version of The Hemingway Hoax to a novella by cutting out the sex scenes. It was not clear whether this statement would encourage people to seek out the longer version or the shorter.
Reed pointed out that if a novel is going to be made into a movie, it has to be boiled down to a novella anyway. Silverberg felt that Kim Stanley Robinson was best at novella length, because he is more calm and controlled at that length. Someone asked what Silverberg would do if he had an idea that would be a 60,word novel. Silverberg said he would do it, because he could pad it out if necessary as he did for The Long Way Home.
Someone asked why he did not leave it at 60, words, and Dozois said that people want a big thick book for their money. Silverberg said that e-book publication is changing this, and that the 60,word size had been driven by the three-part serialization that was traditional in magazines. Dozois said that on the other end, overly long books were limited by cost, the size of dump bins, etc. Subterranean Press is the foremost publisher of science fiction novellas, though there are others e. Silverberg said that the word limitations were based on magazines, and that in the mainstream, novellas are not as problematic.
Dozois said that the novella category for the Hugos is always stronger than all the other fiction categories and Jo Walton observed the same thing, in her Hugo retrospective columns. Strahan thought this was because an author needed greater skills to write a novella than any of the other lengths, but Silverberg disagreed, but said that he was surprised at fantasy authors who wrote only novels. And in response to what many authors claim, Dozois said that "if one of your characters takes over your book, you're writing the wrong book.
Description: "Couples who have worked together on fanzines talk about fan editing and fan writing. Because I was on the panel, it was hard to take good notes. In any case, every couple's process was different, especially as other people used art in their fanzines. So I will use this space to describe our process which I did recount on the panel. For each week, Mark writes an "editorial," though it is not necessarily an opinion piece--it could be an article about some scientific discovery, or some other type of reportage.
He also has short humorous "quips", and "features"--short items pointing out web sites or giving snippets of information. He also writes film reviews, though not every week. I write a column about books, and also do occasional articles on other topics. Then we also get reviews and letters of comment from other people. In this we apparently are unusual for electronic fanzines.
While apparently most electronic fanzines get very few letter of comment, and paper fanzines get letters from ten percent of their subscribers, over the previous year, we had received letters and submissions from a quarter of our two hundred subscribers. On Monday I take all these submissions and format them. On Wednesday I add in anything else that has arrived, and send Mark a draft of the week's issue. He proofreads it, and adds responses to letters of comment if he wants to.
What we mail out is straight text. On Friday morning, I mail the issue to the mailing list. And the process starts again. As of Renovation, we had published issues. No, that is not a typo. Currently, each one runs six to ten pages, so on a quarterly basis, we would be producing a hundred-page fanzine every quarter. However, I think the weekly format is one reason we get so much response from subscribers--there is something much closer to a dialogue than if there were three-month delays between comments.
Description: "Thinking about trying out one of the casinos? This panel will talk about some of the basics of casino gambling. Cantor had been a professional blackjack dealer at Foxwoods. Slonczewski wrote a book involving a casino. Willis described herself as "an expert at nickel video poker. Cantor said that the first thing to understand that "what the casinos are selling is entertainment. Garcia said that the last time he went to a casino, he was lucky but stupid, because he was betting too much. Slonczewski said that she did not gamble, but wanted to replace the entire tax system with gambling.
She claimed, "All living organisms gamble. Various films were mentioned and recommended, including Ocean's 11 and Rounders. Slonczewski said that the math says that the odds are against you, so why is there so much excitement about gambling. Cantor explained the rules of Keno, one of the most popular games.
Then the casino draws twenty numbers at random. Slonczewski thought that imagining winning is better than actually winning, and the "Skinner box mode" is the problem. An audience member said that random reinforcement encourages more play, and that Keno and its cousin, the lottery have the worst odds of all the games. Casper said she tended to stick to craps, blackjack, and video poker machines.
Willis played nickel video poker. She said that it gave you the illusion of control: "You can draw to an inside straight. Garcia said that it when it came to illusions, the chip was the greatest illusion. It makes it not money. I noted that none of the machines seem to take coins anymore; they all require magnetic-strip cards. Someone else said that even the machines labeled as "penny slots" often have a minimum of forty cents or more. Slonczewski said that people never remember their losses. Garcia said that was not true in poker--you always remembered the hands you lost.
Willis compared that to spelling bee losses. But she said you get a rush from the wins, and when she played, she always felt like she was winning, but somehow all the nickels were gone. Slonczewski said that you needed to slow down the speed of your playing, because the faster it is, the more addictive it is. Regarding misinterpreting odds, Willis said that many people fall for the argument regarding ESP that it "takes a while to ramp up, then you see runs, then it cools off," so they count only the runs. Regarding casino etiquette, Cantor said that the dealers are pretty tolerant of minor gaffes," but other players may not be.
For example, in a craps game, you should ask if you may join. Casinos have player's guides of rules. Willis said they also often have tutorials. Another approach is to watch for a while from a short distance away. Cantor said that before you start playing at a blackjack table, you should have an amount equal to thirty times the basic bet. At craps, it should be fifty times the basic bet.
According to the panel, the worst games are Wheel of Fortune, the roulette, the state lottery, and the stock market. As George Bernanos wrote, "A civilization disappears with the kind of man, the type of humanity, that has issued from it. I took a lot of notes, but I have absolutely no context for them.
They were from a set of PowerPoint slides and the presentation either did not elaborate on them enough or did not make what was said in conjunction with them interesting enough to stick with me. I will give you what I have; maybe you can glean something form it. Flynn first talked about the "Autumn of Late Antiquity", which he placed at A. He claimed there was a big shift every years. Caesar crossed the Rubicon about years ago, years ago was the last of the Romans and the first of the Medievals and Boethius , and years ago was the Renaissance. I missed the shift years ago.
Chesterton said that medieval people never worried about being medieval, but modern people worry about being modern. This is the Age of Europe. It has a geographical range Europe minus the Balkans. What about America, I wondered. It cannot be when the words were first used--the OED shows "modern" as dating to around in English. I also have a note linking "primitive" with One of the Indian nationalists said in the late s, "We're glad the British left, but we're also glad they came.
This is the Age of the Bougoisie. We have the triumph of the will over the intellect that Friedrich Nietzsche talked about. The Modern Age is the Age of the State. The last bastions were education and marriage. Until the late s, no state license was needed to get married. Flynn talked about "besserwissers", which seemed to mean things he felt were intrusions of the state into private affairs: the size of toilet tanks allowed, the energy efficiency of light bulbs, how well-cooked meat should be, etc.
Other notes include mentions of the impotence of technology, that warfare has become democratic, the deterioration of sovereignty, the internalization of human personality, subcontracting, government-sponsored entities and supra-government entities. Description: "George R. Stewart's Earth Abides was one of the first novels to explore what happens to the environment once humans no longer dominate. How has it held up after 60 years? Anderson said that she had also read Stewart's Fire and Storm , both of which were idea stories where the characters did not matter much.
Earth Abides , she said, was very California. Regarding characters, Whitemore said that the real protagonist in Earth Abides is the land. Anderson disagreed, saying that no, it was humanity--not individuals, but the human race. Ish abandons many of the trappings that individuate us: religious marriage, racism, education. Hendrix said that Ish wants to transmit culture and technology, but fails when the Chosen Child, the Beloved Son dies. But we do care about Ish as a character. Whitmore noted that Ish did succeed in building a community. Anderson points out that Ish also decides that Charlie has to die.
Majerus said that the scene with the black family in the rural South grates today. Hendrix said that the various book covers never show Em as black, and readers often miss it. Well, Ish missed it too for a long time. Majerus said that Stewart tries to be forward-thinking in his social attitudes, but fails by today's standards. Anderson noted that John W. Campbell would have made Ish successful in rebuilding a technological civilization. Majerus said that she sees the book as a tragedy because knowledge is lost, and Hendrix agreed. Majerus said that Jared Diamond feels that the agricultural revolution was humanity's biggest mistake.
Hendrix said that there are cycles of boom-and-bust, not just for humans, but also for rats, flies, ants, He also wrote Names on the Globe. Someone in the audience wondered why they hanged Charlie instead of shooting. The response seemed to be that culturally, that is what is done. Hendrix notes that it is not a tragedy for society, but it is for Ish. I observed that Ish failed to recognize resources as resources: he thought the only way to make metal arrowheads was from metal ore, rather than taking coins or other already-processed metal.
Someone else said that the book was about the failure of technology. Whitemore said spiritually it was a Galaxy story, not an Astounding one. Hendrix said that stylistically, the book is a combination of first person and omniscient third person. Whitmore summarized by saying, "It's held up. It still makes people think," and Anderson added, "Stewart abides.
Description: "The Sidewise judges present the awards, then debate whether a book or story is alternate history or something else.
Book giveaway for The Weight Of Night (The Progeny #1) by C.L. Stegall Sep Sep 20,
What makes something alternate history instead of secret history? Is steampunk a subset of alternate history or does each story have to be examined on its own merits? What happens when magic gets involved? The winner was Eric Swedin. Swedin said of his book that he tried several academic presses, nut they turned it down. That is interesting, because a previous Sidewise winner, The Severed Wing by Martin Gidron, was published by the University of Mississippi Press, and Greenwood has published several alternate history books.
He said yhat with Potomac, it would be sold in the history section to reach historians. Description: "How can two cats have identical DNA and yet look and act differently? What's going on? Speculation on what we might not know and why cloning might be a whole lot more complicated than we think. Wells described himself as "the designated idiot," although Kress said that she was challenging him for that position. Slonczewski said that there is a mutation that means you need a lot less sleep, as in Kress's Beggars in Spain and its sequels. One theory is that people like Thomas Edison had that mutation.
She also said that Shakespeare seemed to think that fraternal twins would look alike in Twelfth Night. This is actually somewhat odd, since Shakespeare himself had fraternal twins, but maybe by chance they did look alike; I have known brothers not even of the same age who looked a lot alike.
Scheiner said that even the same genotype did not mean that twins would look alike; the environment both in the womb before birth and outside after birth would affect it. This is certainly true to some extent, since I have known apparently identical twins that I could tell apart. Scheiner said that sibling rivalry starts in the womb, and environmental effects cascade down. Wheeler said that twinning itself is a mutation. Slonczewski disagreed, saying that the process of twinning is not in itself a mutation, because a mutation involves a change in the genes.
Epigenetic changes are a third way of affecting the genes. Kress said that if you want to get really extreme with sibling rivalry, sometimes one twin absorbs the other. She reminded the audience that "fiction is about stuff that gets screwed up. Writers [are] looking for the place where stuff went wrong. Wells said there is also such a thing as "reflective twins" or possibly "reflected twins". The claim is that this is common ut that only one survives.
Scheiner says that all this is "way more complicated than we thought forty years ago. Armadillos have only twins. As you age, your chromosomes get shorter. Slonczewski said that the exception seemed to be egg cells, which regenerate their telomeres. Sperm are created all through life, but a woman is born with all the egg cells she will ever have. Wheeler said that we had thought DNA was inviolate but now we know that metholation turns chromosomes on and off. Slonczewski said this was by having a methyl group attached to the DNA.
Slonczewski thought it would not. Scheiner said that was "because Dawkins is a complete idiot," but Sloncewski said that was not true. Wheeler noted that all calico cats are female, but the axion activation is random, so the coloration varies. Slonczewski said that in humans the failure to make sweat glands is on the X chromosome; having it results in random patches without sweat glands. Kress used this opportunity to ask writers not to write "mindless clone" stories, or for that matter, "evil clone" stories.
Kress said, "He is way out of his depth; he is out of my depth, which is pretty shallow. Because Ishiguro can write, it is an interesting and moving book," but it is socially unbelievable. Slonczewski said that in terms of raising clones for body parts, you need match only immune system genes. Wells said you could put a checkpoint backup into a similar body; it did not have to be identical.
Someone in the audience said they had heard of fused fraternal twins; Slonczewski said there are such things as chimeras, where the gonads are a different genotype from the rest of the body. Someone else asked about genetics to deal with weightlessness. Wheeler mentioned Lois McMaster Bujold's Cyteen , which involves cloning in order to provide body parts, but Scheiner said we would grow the parts, not whole bodies, and Kress pointed out we were already doing some of that. Slonczewski later said that pancreas cloning requires a vector to repair it which is not entirely there.
Slonczewski said we needed to recognize that "natural reproduction is the most imperfect form. Regarding gene therapy, Wheeler noted that turning off genes for recessive problems does not help, but it does work for dominant problems. Kress said, "A writer has to walk a very careful line" between accuracy and the need to extend possibilities. And whatever a writer does, next year something invalidates it anyway. Someone asked if all this new information about epigenetic changes and such meant that we owed Lysenko an apology.
Scheiner and others chorused, "No. Slonczewski claimed that we do see this in bacteria, but Scheiner disagreed. Someone said that "neural inervation is a stochastic process" and therefore cloned brain will have a different pattern of connections. Wheeler said that the maternal and paternal genomes have different goals, particularly in size.
The paternal genome selects for a larger fetus with greater chance of survival , but the maternal genome selects for a smaller one with a greater chance of her survival. Someone asked if sexual orientation was epigenetic. Wheeler said it was not a single-gene effect, and also that environmental exposures in the womb affect sexual identity. Description: "In early SF, the planets of the solar system were simply exotic locales for adventure. The next generation of SF writers--Heinlein, Clarke, and others--tried for more realism, but their solar systems were very different from the one we know today.
What are good examples, and how do the new limitations on what writers can do and still be realistic make for good SF. Steele said that lately he has been more involved in interstellar investigation than in studying the solar system. York worked on PC games, and said there there is a lot less astronomical fiction these days. Spencer said that he was involved in the space side rather than the fiction side. Bear said he was interested Mars and other solar system objects.
Landis works more on spaceships and as a writer. Spencer said that planets were more than just exotic locales for adventures. For example, Barsoom was a dying world. Steele said that even into the s, people were writing stories set on the surface of Jupiter. And Venus was written as having jungles and oceans into the s.
But exploratory spacecraft changed everything. Mariner and Viking changed the way authors wrote about Mars, and Mariner and Magellan changed our perceptions of Venus. He also said that Pluto used to be the ninth planet, but is not any more. Of course, that does not change anything about what the actual conditions on Pluto are. York said that we know there are extra-solar planets, we know what their gross physical characteristics are with a great degree of inaccuracy. Bear said that our ideas of Mars and other planets were shaped by the Chesley Bonestell paintings in Conquest of Space : craters, and no canals.
Spencer said that Mariner 4's impressions of Mars were a bit inaccurate, because it surveyed the oldest part of Mars, not a typical part. Landis said that better equipment and eyesight made the canals go away. The film Labyrinth of Night showed a dry Mars, but the "Emperor of Mars" has sub-surface water. With Landis, he is advocating for the "Ethical Treatment of Mars. Bear felt that in spite of changing perceptions, his novel Moving Mars is still accurate. Landis said that Mars is salty, so any water would be brine. And the rocks are incompatible with acid amino acids?
However, under the rocks are phylosilicates. Spencer said another example of more knowledge outdating stories was Larry Niven's "The Coldest Place", which he said was the dark side of Mercury. But now we know that Mercury has no dark side. York observed that the solar system used to be static, but now it is dynamic.
Planets and moons have weather, and so on. Spencer said this was because "when we get a close look at something we thought we understood, it is more complicated and interesting" than we thought. York gave Titan as an example, and Spencer mentioned Europa, which was discovered in to have a subsurface ocean. The big question now is whether the ice is thin enough for radiation to penetrate to generate or support life, though Landis thought that hydrothermal vents could substitute for radiation.
Bear said that what you needed was an energy gradient. Landis was dubious about life in a low-energy environment. This led to a discussion of anaerobic bacteria and vent life forms. York said they are trying to find "an island of scientific stability. Steele said that in his novel, Lunar Descent he had lunar ice, and then in they actually discovered some. Landis said there is also ice on Mercury, discovered by Messenger, and said that Mercury is "the neglected planet. Spencer said you need to dig into the details, not just read the Sunday supplements.
Someone suggested that stories about the solar system should have a date in the title, but Mark's idea was a "best if read by" date. Steele said that some fiction needed an expiration date, like milk, but York said that ultimately it is the story that is important. Someone in the audience said that "lunar polar volatiles include many other compounds besides water. Kandis said, "Economics is the science most poorly treated in science fiction.
Without these motivators, exploration probably will not happen. Someone thought that asteroid belt colonies are becoming less likely because the asteroids have all turned out to be weird in different ways, so no consistent mining operation would be possible. Landis noted that the asteroids are also far apart, and the "asteroid belt" is not a place the way we thinks of places. And why have humans do the mining anyway, instead of robots?
Steele said this question could be asked of a lot of science fiction. None of this stops authors, however-- Leviathan Wakes by James S. Corey which ended up on the Hugo list for us about asteroid mining. It was suggested that science fiction will substitute for reality, but Steele said that the situation is not permanent. People are more interested Mars than in low-Earth orbit, the moon, etc. Bear observed that for years we asked NASA to get out of the way of commercial space travel. Spencer said that one result is that we are harder up for shirt-sleeve habitats than we used to be. There seemed to be a consensus that the moons of the solar system were where the action is and will be.
What do science advisors do? How much say do they have? Can they prevent mistakes or are they generally ignored?