Finally, trafficked slaves are those trafficked into one of these two conditions. Understanding the business model and economic functioning of each mode of forced labor can reveal more effective abolitionist tactics. We will focus here on a business and economic analysis of how the crime of sex trafficking works. The business model of sex trafficking contains three steps: acquisition, movement, and exploitation, and often results in one or more instances of re-trafficking.
Acquisition of sex slaves primarily occurs in one of five ways: deceit usually a false offer of employment, migration or marriage , sale by family whether out of economic desperation or greed , abduction, seduction or romance, and recruitment by former slaves. Step two is movement. Trafficked sex slaves are moved from countries of origin through transit countries into destination countries.
In the case of internal trafficking, the same country acts as origin, transit, and destination. This movement is achieved by means of almost any conveyance imaginable, including bribes paid to border guards, and false passports used to transport individuals almost anywhere in the world. The up-front costs of acquisition and movement are minimal compared to the immense profits that can be enjoyed in step three -- exploitation.
Exploitation of trafficked sex slaves primarily refers to the violent coercion of uncompensated sex services, though in essence, exploitation begins the moment the slave is acquired. Slaves are raped, tortured, starved, humiliated, and drugged during transportation, and the concerted effort to break their spirits continues once they are sold.
In Falkland Road in Mumbai, a former sex slave named Mallaika told me that minors were mercilessly abused when they first arrived and were given opium so they would have sex with grown men. If they misbehaved, arms were broken. If they tried to escape, throats were cut, providing a visceral lesson to other slaves of the fate that awaited them should they, too, try to free themselves.
- Working together to tackle the demand for and supply of online child sexual abuse images.
- The Encyclopedia of Applied Animal Behaviour and Welfare (Cabi).
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Sex slaves are exploited in six primary types of location. The first is brothels. Bungalow brothels in Mumbai can posses up to or prostitutes, up to one-half of whom might be minors and slaves. Brothels in Thailand typically hold between 20 and 50 slaves, sometimes awaiting selection behind a pane of glass in a room called an "aquarium. Finally, sex trafficking victims are often exploited in private apartments, in hotels and on street corners. Obviously, the fates of most sex-trafficking victims are quite grim.
Even the bare few who manage to escape face lives that offer little hope. Of those I met in survivor shelters, most were infected with HIV, suffered acute drug and alcohol addictions, had been shunned by families, and had little prospects for employment or any form of self-sufficiency upon departure from the shelters.
Many others faced detention in prison and deportation due to violations of immigration and prostitution laws. As previously mentioned, the fates of an increasing number of sex slaves involve re-trafficking -- sometimes two, three, or more times. Because most individuals who escape are forced to return to the same conditions of poverty, domestic violence, or lack of economic opportunity that precipitated their initial trafficking, many are recruited, deceived, seduced, or abducted into a second or third round of slavery.
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Understanding the business model of sex trafficking can help us devise ways to stop it. Here is the key point to keep in mind: The enormity and pervasiveness of the global sex trafficking industry is driven by the ability to generate immense profits at almost no real risk. To start with the first part of the equation, immense profit, modern-day slavery is immensely more profitable than old-world slavery, which is the key factor driving the tremendous demand to acquire new slaves through the practice of human trafficking.
Above all, trafficked sex slaves are by far the most profitable slaves in the world. In fact, it's more staggering than you might think. To illustrate the true magnitude of profits generated by the exploitation of slaves, I introduced in my book, " Sex Trafficking ," a concept called the "Exploitation Value" of a slave. The metric is not intended to minimize the human cost of these crimes, but rather to offer a concrete measure of why sex trafficking has become such a lucrative criminal enterprise.
It computes the total value of a slave to an exploiter, for the average duration of enslavement in each region. The top-line numbers for the United States provide a revealing example: Whereas the weighted average acquisition price of a trafficked sex slave in the U. Let me now turn to the second half of the sex-slave equation -- no real risk. In most countries around the world, the criminal penalties against sex trafficking are light on both prison terms and economic damages. In countries like Italy, Denmark, and Thailand, there are no economic penalties for the crime of sex trafficking.
There are always provisions for incarceration, but sentences are relatively short and can often be further reduced by small fines. Even where there are stiff financial penalties in the law, as with the U. TVPA, prosecution and conviction of sex-slave exploiters remains uncommon due in large part to confusion over the definition of trafficking, corruption in law enforcement and judicial systems, lack of international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking crimes, lack of specific and sustained law-enforcement focus on trafficking crimes, and insufficient human rights protections for trafficking survivors and their families, whose testimony is required to convict the offenders.
As a result, the real risk of exploiting sex slaves is almost nil. Perhaps more importantly, the costs of exploiting sex slaves are miniscule when weighed against the immense profits that can be generated. That's not the way things work in Washington. Enron bought access.
Money just got it in the door to make its case. The case it made probably went something like this: If the government does things Enron's way a lot of people will get very rich and they will be very, very grateful to the wise leaders who made it all possible. If you're asking whether the Bush administration did favors for Enron, sure it did -- and so, by the way, did the Clinton administration, and both parties in Congress.
Attention has focused on a number of fascinating loopholes lawmakers and regulators secretly customized for Enron. But -- and here's another Enron Lesson -- most of what Washington contributed to the glory of Enron it did in plain sight.
Sex Trafficking: A Global Overview
Politicians demonized government regulation, and methodically dismantled the safeguards set up in previous downturns to protect little investors. They promoted the cult of stock-market speculation, even calling for Social Security funds to be fed to Wall Street. They cut taxes and all but stopped auditing tax returns. Isn't that what free markets are all about -- getting government out of the way?
Yes and no. Free-marketers believe in reducing regulation. Enron believed in reducing regulation of Enron. Enron was perfectly capable of lobbying for the federal government to take over the electric power grid from the states -- hardly a free-market position, but one that would have made life easier for Enron.
Supply and Demand: A Lesson in Sexual Finance
It lobbied for tighter regulation of air pollution, because it had figured a way to make money trading emission credits. And at the end Enron sure seemed to be fishing for a bailout. More important, a central tenet of capitalism is that people who run companies are subject to the discipline of the marketplace, as meted out by the shareholders. That can't work if the shareholders are lied to about the condition of the company. Another Enron Lesson: The louder someone yells ''free markets!
But the administration didn't bail out Enron at the end, right? No, the administration declined to climb aboard that sinking ship.
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A final Enron Lesson: When business and politics meet, Kenny Boy, it's not a relationship, it's a transaction. What happens now? A witch hunt, of course. In the end, with any luck, Congress will stop some of the money sloshing around the political system, and restore a bit of law and order to the wild frontier. But first, a few burnings at the stake. My wise friend Floyd Norris says there's a basic law of the market: When you get rich, it's because you're smart.
When you get poor, it's because somebody cheated you. Just as Enron embodied the stock-market delirium on the way up, it will, now that the euphoria is over, be the scapegoat for all those smooth talkers who convinced us dummies that we could be rich. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles. Newsletter Sign Up Continue reading the main story Please verify you're not a robot by clicking the box. Invalid email address. Please re-enter. You must select a newsletter to subscribe to. Sign Up. You will receive emails containing news content , updates and promotions from The New York Times.
A DfID review by Meyer et al. Vouchers provide a package of safe motherhood including antenatal and postnatal care, normal and complicated deliveries, and post-natal FP and broader family planning FP services in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Cambodia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Cambodia. Vouchers also included diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections, child health services in Armenia and China , sexual and reproductive services for young people, safe abortion, and cervical cancer screening services.
They have also been used for additional non-medical benefits such as transport, nutrition food and cash Grainger et al. Tools for operationalising public-private partnerships for enhancing services for the urban poor include examples of terms of reference and methods for selecting private health providers, expression of interest documents, and an MoU or agreement between the government agency and private healthcare providers, along with details of the roles of personnel and managers engaged by the private service provider used in different states in India.
Some of the most successful partnerships have been with private non-profit organisations or NGOs. However where there is insufficient consultation and coordination with facility-level managers, operational issues arise. Continuity of provision is a particular concern as PPM arrangements may not evolve into a stable long-term mechanism. This is often due to challenges within the government system to effectively manage a partnership in terms of contracting-out, contracting-in or a partnership with a non-profit entity. There is evidence that social protection and cash transfer schemes can improve dietary diversity, but there is a lack of evidence of the impact on nutritional status of children under five years of age Nutrition Works, Households were assessed for need, and recipients could spend the monthly transfers as they wished.
However, social workers encouraged them to spend on food, and once these basic needs were met, they were encouraged to set up and grow businesses. Evaluation points motivated increase in quantity and variety of food bought and eaten. Transfers were also used for school fees, paying rent, and savings in merry-go-rounds. Most 86 per cent of transfers went to women, negative coping strategies reduced, and relations within households improved. A key success factor was the close working relationship with government authorities to develop an urban social protection stream MacAuslan and Schofield, Most health insurance schemes for the poor in LMICs required no premium payment from beneficiaries but charge some co-payment at point of use.
Evidence showed that health insurance schemes increased utilisation in outpatient visits and hospitalisation Acharya et al. A review of universal health coverage UHC in 24 developing countries Cotlear et al. All the 24 country UHC programmes described under two broad approaches: supply-side and demand-side acknowledged that different population sets had different needs. To expand coverage, programmes implemented measures to overcoming anonymity through use of citizen ID and targeting systems.
The UHC programmes were expanding benefits, explicitly defining benefits and developing new contracts and payment systems. Cotlear et al. Most countries use a combined approach where demand-side financing is complemented by supply-side subsidies. There is an increasing emphasis on improving the supply of services. To achieve this, i greater flexibility was adopted in public hiring and management of public clinics and hospitals; ii about half of the programmes engaged private providers; and iii programmes developed and implemented accreditation systems.
Another common lesson was the need to strengthen accountability. Programmes changed the way stakeholders interact keeping with more delegation, moving from input based financing to output-based financing, and working towards greater data collection to improve accountability to outputs. A critical dimension of making the supply side accountable was to empower citizens. Interventions to achieve greater client voice or power typically involved measures providing greater access to information and to grievance-redress mechanisms. The former include access-to-information legislation, information campaigns, report cards providing information on service performance to citizens, scorecards, and social audits.
The latter are sometimes established in government agencies or independent organisations. Three financing modalities of UHC were identified. The first aimed at protecting aggregate UHC expenditures, with caps on benefits, either budgetary amounts or quantitative restrictions. Examples include China, India, Georgia, and Vietnam, all having ceilings on total amounts reimbursed from insurance programmes; e.
The second aimed at keeping costs down by managing beneficiary utilisation. In the Kyrgyz Republic, primary care was free for everyone, with most inpatient care requiring co-payments. In some countries, co-payments were levied only for high-end care. The third is designed to prevent adverse financial impact of direct payments. Building capabilities of community groups is the most sustainable urban vulnerability alleviation approach since it invests in human capability enhancement over long periods of time.
Experience in slums in Bangladesh and India shows community networks, community groups and trained community health workers CHWs can improve maternal and new-born health behaviours and service access. This empowerment can change social norms such as the norm of males making decisions for treatment , and influence care seeking behaviour Roy et al. Experience shows that in cities with multiple health providers but inequitable access to services, improvements are realised with greater community mobilisation.
This requires a move beyond models of clinical service delivery by medical providers, to an approach that nurtures the power of social networks in slums as a means to support the poorest and the most marginalised in changing behaviour and effectively accessing appropriate maternal services Adams, Nabban and Hanifi, ; Agarwal et al. Given the limitations of health services in meeting the growing needs of urban populations, infection and illness prevention, promotion of nutrition, physical activity and health to mitigate NCDs are vital. Thai People Flat Belly public awareness campaign, a collaborative effort of the Department of Health and Thai Health Promotion Foundation, is directed at individuals, organisations, and communities.
It encourages waist measurement, promotes desired diet, reduced salt intake, physical activity and mental wellbeing. The most effective school interventions are multi-component, include a curriculum taught by trained teachers, supportive school policies, a physical activity programme, and healthy food served by the school canteen WHO, ; Hawkes, Approaches that build on local know-how and expertise of urban poor communities have shown success.
Model families are encouraged to designate a family member to receive further training and motivate other families as community volunteers. UHE professionals prepare a hand-sketched map of their respective catchment areas to track service coverage. Sustainability of the BRAC model lies in the ability of Shasthya Shebika to generate income from services that they provide to slum communities. Robust evaluations of such approaches in the urban context would help assuage fears of uncertainty about the income generating aspect Roy et al.
Mass media through print, radio, and television have wide audience reach in urban centres Barbiero, Television and radio are effective in persuading target audiences to adopt new behaviours, or to remind them of critical information. It is possible to reach about 65 per cent of the Indian audience by at least one mass media channel, i. Overall, television reaches 56 per cent in the country. A total of 92 per cent respondents were aware of public service advertisements, and 86 per cent of respondents were aware of pulse polio advertisements Naveena, A study in Malawi showed that husbands of women exposed to the Maternal Heath radio program were more likely to participate in antenatal care, be involved in childbirth and to participate in postnatal care than their counterparts Zamawe, Banda, and Dube, Urban poverty is multidimensional with urban poor living with many deprivations.
It is a dynamic condition of changing vulnerability. Many problems of the urban poverty are rooted in the lack of employability skills, low access to employment opportunities and income, capacity and resource constraints, inadequate and insecure housing and services, little or no social protection mechanisms, violent and unhealthy environments, and limited access to adequate health and education opportunities.
These are aggravated by inadequate government policies at central and local level, and a lack of planning for urban growth and management World Bank, As described in reading pack A, there are grounds for suggesting that the scale of urban poverty is systematically under-estimated in the official statistics produced and used by governments Satterthwaite, ; Vlahov et al. Like many countries, India sets its poverty line based on the average monthly per capita expenditure MPCE for obtaining a modest caloric intake. Fortunately, there is an example of a government policy providing an estimate of urban deprived population, which can be adapted as a working approach.
While at aggregate level, primary education is more readily available in urban than in rural areas, it remains beyond the reach of most children in slums in African and Asian LMICs. Girls are less likely to attend school due to many underlying factors of the slum environment. With such a situation, the urban advantage no longer extends to girls living in slums.
In the Korogocho Slum in Nairobi, Kenya, for instance, an estimated , people live in crowded conditions, hundreds of girls grow up in a circumstances of extreme poverty and absence of essential basic services Nyange, A census conducted with support from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs counted 61, street children in the Greater Accra alone. Most of these children live in Agbogboloshie, a major slum which houses a busy market Department of Social Welfare, Accra, Ghana,