In much of the United States, gays and lesbians would still be treated as criminals. Government would dictate to Americans with whom and how they can have sex. Unions would have been completely annihilated in the public as well as the private sector. Wages and hours laws would be abolished, so that employers could pay third-world wages to Americans working seven days a week, 12 hours a day, as many did before the New Deal.
Tax cuts for the rich, cutbacks in social programs for the poor, and a monster debt make sense if the goal is to starve the federal government and transfer social programs to churches through faith-based initiatives.
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Responsibility for education shifts to religious schools through vouchers. The Invisible Hand of Rousas J. House of Representatives that Republican members essentially have a biblical worldview on protecting the environment oppose and separation of church and state oppose. In , Republicans scored less than 20 percent support for the environment as rated by the League of Conservation Voters, while Democrats scored greater than 80 percent.
No Republicans scored that high, while no Democrat scored at or below 20 percent. There is no discussion of the influence of the Christian Right or even the influence of corporate America. He hoped they would get that intellectual foundation from Ayn Rand. If they absorbed all of it, it would be much better.
The people who believe in God. Those who are cursed include the: weak, feeble, humble, poor in spirit, obedient, haters of battle, unfit, etc. Rather, they are the champions of the richest and most powerful white men in the country. They are sick and we cut back on health care and faithfully oppose any comprehensive plans to make it better.
I missed the lesson telling me that I should turn a blind eye to the suffering of others, even those designated as my enemies. On economic policy, there is no difference between Ayn Rand and the Christian Right. While I cannot deny that Ayn Rand has an influence through the Ayn Rand Institute and Atlas Society, and probably through some analysts at libertarian think tanks, nevertheless, all the smart money since the s has been placed on Christian Right institutions and libertarian institutes linked to the Christian Right see Chapter 5.
By , Rushdoony had written 20 books, while his son- in-law Gary North was publishing economic articles and books as early as Other Christian Reconstructionists were writing books on Christian ethics. Rushdoony founded the Chalcedon Foundation in These operational linkages will become more apparent in Part II. In his vision the federal government was to be largely dismantled including all economic regulatory systems. Many reporters and observers believe that libertarianism to be secular, but it is not, at least for the religious right.
Euan Hague, Edward H. The plutocrats would drag us back to the Gilded Age; the theocrats to the Salem witch trials. If anything, the two groups are increasingly beginning to resemble each other. Christian Reconstructionist founders and seminal strategists Rousas J. Rushdoony and Gary North created ex post facto biblical narratives that incorporated and mixed libertarian economic theory, scriptural passages, and various economic conspiracy theories that appealed across the entire spectrum of the right-wing. The New World Order conspiracy theory propounded by Christian Reconstructionist-influenced Pat Robertson among others , in particular, spans the Christian Right and the white nationalist movement broadly understood to include the Christian Patriot militias and the neo-Nazis.
The close association between Christian Reconstructionism and the John Birch Society enabled both fringe organizations to operate as mutually-reinforcing hubs that could connect different social movements on the right. Identity, like Reconstructionism, would absorb right-wing conspiracy theories related to the Federal Reserve System and its fractional banking.
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This was the penultimate step leading to direct contacts between the Christian Reconstructionist and Christian Identity movements in Though much of this story will be told in Part II covering fourth generation warfare, this chapter lays the groundwork by demonstrating how of right-wing economic beliefs were incorporated into Christian Reconstructionism.
Even conservatives lacking in genuine faith bowed at the altar of religion. Human reason, rather than God, makes humans supreme and the state, as the expression of human supremacy, makes the state, not only a god, but tyrannical. Ingersoll pointed out that the Christian Reconstructionists consider welfare as a form of charity under the purview of the church rather than the state. It is in this context that any social welfare policy or spending, or regulation of business is viewed by the Christian Right and the Tea Party movement as both unconstitutional and unbiblical and a form of slavery and tyranny.
Rushdoony began his theological enterprise with a focus on epistemology and the public schools.
The Specter of Minarchy - The New York Times
And while Rushdoony credits Van Til for his inspiration, Edmund Opitz, the Congregationalist minister who wrote for both Spiritual Mobilization and the Foundation for Economic Education, popularized the idea that the world was divided between two opposing philosophies—God versus materialism. Limited legitimate authority was to be found in three institutions—the family, the church, and civil government, with the family being fundamental and primary, especially in the broad education of children. It is the sole responsibility of the family—not the state and not the church—to educate children, though other Christian Reconstructionists supported the development of Christian schools and provided materials to such schools.
William L. Fisher, Ralph Reed Jr. Randall J. Stephens and Karl W. Everyone else, but particularly the poor, is clearly not among the elect and is spiritually and morally defective. Every other verse tells the church and tells individuals to take care of the poor. And God says that those who care about the poor, God will care about them and God will bless them. George, conservative Catholic professor and strategist.
Conference of Catholic Bishops have completely failed to defend Catholic social teaching. Other epochal moral concerns—rising poverty and wealth inequality, the shifting of the tax burden to the middle class, the details of providing universal health care coverage, forthright advocacy of dismantling government domestic policy and social safety networks—are passed over as matters of prudential concern left to politicians. They are effectively ignored. Daniel C.
In fact, that is not the role of government. Dionne, Jr. Steven D. Government programs tend to enslave the poor in an endless cycle of poverty. The biblical model is that both, the giver and the recipient, are blessed. Joan Walsh noted the exuberance displayed by the conservative movement for a report from the National Marriage Project at the University of Virginia.
The vast majority of those new GOP scapegoats are also, by the way, white people. Hughes has analyzed why conservative Christians have been particularly noteworthy in rejecting the biblical teachings to care for the poor. Only children who are forcefully disciplined into the correct morals prosper. Helping others takes away their discipline, and hence makes them both unable to prosper on their own and function morally.
While Lakoff attributed these conservative beliefs to 83 Richard T. The free market, they believed, was a perfectly designed instrument to reward good Christian behavior and to punish and humiliate the unrepentant. At the center of this early evangelical doctrine was the idea of original sin…. The trials of economic life—the sweat of hard labor, the fear of poverty, the self-denial involved in saving—were earthly tests of sinfulness and virtue…. Moreover, they regarded poverty as part of a divine program. Evangelicals interpreted the mental anguish of poverty and debt, and the physical agony of hunger or cold, as natural spurs to prick the conscience of sinners.
It was the evangelicals who began to see the business mogul as a heroic figure, his wealth a triumph of righteous will…. The evangelicals believed that the market was a divine system, guided by spiritual laws. The unregulated market is believed by its strongest proponents to optimally determine value and efficiency, balance supply and demand, and quantity and price. The starting premise is that the free market is a perfect scientific system, one in which individuals, acting on their own self-interested 87 James K. It follows ineluctably that if something is wrong within a free-market economy…it has to be because the market is not truly free.
There must be some interference, some distortion in the system. The Chicago solution is always the same: a stricter and more complete application of the fundamentals. In the Christian Reconstructionist narrative, the market, in essence, assumes the function of God in the economic realm. Where God is seen to require decentralization and delegation…the state is viewed as greedily hoarding power to its own highly centralized sphere.
God has graciously revealed the judicial rules that produce social order, including the institution of the free market…. God therefore has created a system which gives us vast quantities of useful information, yet because it is God-given, man cannot retain this knowledge when he tries to imitate God and control things from the top as a cosmic tyrant…. To try to understand it all is to 91 H. The State is to prohibit fraud and violence.
The rest is up to individuals. The ideological affinity between free market capitalism and creationism also suggests a renewed effort by the Christian Right, post-Tea Party movement, to spread the key idea of biblical capitalism—that the free market is God—inside the Beltway and to the larger culture.
Constitution, and the free market. Not only is this common to the Christian Right, but it is virtually the same in the Patriot militia as well as the Tea Party movements. They also seek to justify all laws by proof-texting the Constitution as they proof-text the Bible, that is, they extract specific quotations based on a specific word to build a biblical worldview.
Constitution in his hand. These figures include a liberal news reporter, a politician talking on his cellphone, a smug professor carrying The Origin of Species, and, dimly visible in the background, Satan. Instead, the founders seem to occupy some kind of exalted position…. They have been somehow immune to sin. And, for market fundamentalists, the fall came with the New Deal which destroyed the free market and ushered in an era of socialism or statism or collectivism.
Thus, if God is the Free Market, and the Free Market is Political Freedom, then the Liberal State, by definition, must be a tool of the Devil for human enslavement—and that is exactly how the Christian Right and libertarians view it, though the libertarians would drop the satanic bit. But, for the Christian Right, and their neo-Confederate allies, opposition to the Liberal State is rooted in white supremacy and Jim Crow segregation. Granted that some Negroes were mistreated as slaves…. The move from Africa to America was a vast increase of freedom for the Negro. Another strong influence on Ron Paul, Ludwig von Mises, for whom Paul named a neo-Confederate think tank after, was on the board of academic advisors for the Rampart Journal, thus apparently approving of all the Holocaust-denial articles published.
Still her failure or her choice not to discuss the relationship between cities and human happiness was regrettable; and it has been left to organizations like the Congress for the New Urbanism to raise these issues again, sometimes well and sometimes badly. So conservative urbanists especially should strive for some perspective. Neither of us might be called conservatives, but Jane Jacobs and I had some beers together at her house in Toronto a few years before her death. She was very avid for beer that afternoon and I had a hard time keeping up with her.
I was there to interview her for a magazine article. It was rather dark inside and decorated with the incunabula of s Greenwich Village bohemianism — African masks, Danish modern furniture, bongo drums. Jane and her family had fled to Canada during the Vietnam era so her sons could get out of the army draft.
I was planning to write a book on some doomer-ish themes such as peak oil, climate change, and other converging catastrophes of the day, and I thought Jane might shed some light on these things. But she kept on deflecting my questions. All she wanted to talk about was growing up in Scranton, Pennsylvania. She did show me her writing room upstairs, which was a surprising bare and modest chamber about the size of a walk-in closet, with little more than a chair, desk, and typewriter. I left the session feeling rather frustrated with what I got on tape. It turned out that wily old Jane was writing a book somewhat along the same lines as the one I was planning.
It would be titled Dark Age Ahead. He blogs at www. Had she lived in a city other than New York and written thirty years earlier, her fourth chapter might have been on streetcars. New York had streetcars, but unlike other American cities it also had and has a comprehensive transport system. Elsewhere, the ripping up of streetcar lines and their replacement with buses also ripped the urban fabric.
Most people like riding streetcars, but almost no one likes riding a bus. The substitution of buses for electric streetcars drove most former streetcar riders to drive. There, they performed multiple functions: eyes on the street, office worker, restaurant diner, shopper, theater-goer and more. Once they drove into the city, their time on sidewalks dropped and with it shrank the number of roles they filled.
They drove as close to their usually single destination as they could, parked, and walked only as far as necessary. Stores, restaurants, and theaters moved to the suburbs where parking was easier. If Ohio had tumbleweeds, they would now blow down Euclid Avenue. Cities such as Portland, Oregon and Kenosha, Wisconsin that have brought streetcars back have found the sidewalks come to life again.
So have shops, theaters and restaurants. Streetcars are pedestrian facilitators, more so than subways. People walk, take the streetcar, then get off and walk some more. Cities need streetcars. They are not a cure-all; if people do not feel safe on city sidewalks, nothing will move them to walk there.
But if a city can restore order, streetcars are more likely to fill its sidewalks with people than anything else. It is hard to know where to start about the legacy of Jane Jacobs, but the easiest and most personal is that she was the catalyst for many people to get into urbanism as a career. Whether as an architect, real estate developer, urban planner, community advocate, or just a resident, many people had a veil pulled back that such a field even existed.
She taught that walkable urban places were a distinct and threatened way of living and making a living. Jane Jacobs also showed the complexity of these places; they were not formulas to be imposed from above. Walkable urban places are organic and grow from the dirt of a specific place. Just as she brought urbanism to the attention of millions of people, it went into suspended animation.
The market demand of the s through the s was for the very opposite of walkable urbanism, drivable suburban development. The explosion of car-dominated suburbs is what the returning World War II vets wanted and where the baby boom was raised. The heart of the industrial age was the providing the raw materials, building, financing, insuring, building the roads, servicing, fueling and maintaining the cars that drove, literally and figuratively, the drivable suburban development patterns of the late 20th century.
Yet when the market turned, which seems to have occurred in the mids, going back to demanding walkable urban places once again, there she was to teach the Millennial generation how to do it. She would have been very pleased to see the many downtowns that have redeveloped and the downtown adjacent places that evolved from abandoned sections of our cities. But she probably would have been surprised to see the urbanization of the suburbs. The 19th-century suburban town centers, like Princeton, Pasadena and Bethesda, and the redevelopment of strip commercial into complex walkable urban grids with mixed-use development might have been a pleasant shock.
Same lessons, different locations. Finally, she taught Americans and democratic peoples around the world about the abuse of absolute power. Goliath standoff. Her defeat of the cross-Manhattan expressway that would have destroyed SoHo, which today is some of the most expensive real estate in the world on a price per square foot basis, gave hope to urbanists everywhere.
And it showed that millions of small decisions made by thousands of people, in other words the market, is better than a top-down government in any era. The walkable urbanism Jane Jacobs was advocating can put an economic foundation under the American economy in the early 21st century, a foundation that it desperately needs to get out of the economic ditch we are in. Christopher Leinberger is a visiting fellow of the Brookings Institution, professor of real estate development at the University of Michigan, and a metropolitan land strategist and developer. He is the author of The Option of Urbanism.
Death and Life is suffused with the idea that the welfare of individual persons — not the efficiency of infrastructure or continued economic growth — should be the primary aim of good city design. Her recognition that particular persons often suffered at the hands of the abstract theory of modernist planners led to a skepticism of big universal schemes imposed on the urban landscape.
It was a moment that enabled and amplified the conditions of modernity: contested norms, pluralism, and a deracinated population settling alongside persons with whom they had seemingly little in common. Jacobs was not Aristotelian in the same sense as some who wish to restore the scale and constant face-to-face interaction of the classical polis.
But her method of investigation was broadly inspired by Aristotle. They are always made up of interactions among unique combinations of particulars, and there is no substitute for knowing the particulars. The most important particulars are people.